• Appetitive augmental functions and common physical properties in a pain-tolerance metaphor: An extended replication

      Pendrous, Rosina; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hochard, Kevin; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.
      Relational frame theory claims that the tacit understanding of metaphorical language rests upon our ability to derive relations based on relevant contextual cues; with metaphor aptness being a function of learning history and the number and nature of contextual cues presented. Recent experimental research has explored whether metaphor aptness plays a role in changing behaviour. Sierra, Ruiz, Flórez, Riaño Hernández, and Luciano (2016) demonstrated that the presence of common physical properties (herein common properties; “cold”) within a perseverance metaphor increased pain tolerance to the cold pressor task. When the metaphor also specified appetitive augmental functions (herein augmentals; “something important to you”), pain tolerance also increased. We tested the replicability of these findings under more stringent conditions, using a stratified (by sex) double-blind randomised-controlled experimental design. Eighty-nine participants completed baseline measures of psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, generalised pliance, and analogical reasoning ability. Participants were then allocated to a pre-recorded audio-delivered metaphor exercise containing either: (i) common properties; (ii) augmentals; (iii) both; or (iv) neither (control condition). Participants completed the cold pressor task before and after intervention. We found no change in pain tolerance following intervention in any condition. Given potential implications for apt metaphor use for changing behaviour, further work is required to establish why the original study's findings were not replicated, to identify boundary conditions for the putative effect, and test metaphor use in ecologically valid settings.
    • April 2010 UK Airspace closure: Experience and impact on the UK’s air-travelling

      Miller, Servel; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2011-04-13)
      Ash emitted from the Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic volcano and which drifted into UK airspace resulted in the airspace being closed between the 14th and 20th of April 2010. The airport closure resulted in over a million travellers being affected and highlighted the shortcomings of airlines, travel agencies and governments to respond adequately to such crisis. In the current (2010) economic climate, where airline and travel companies are declaring themselves bankrupt with increased frequency, it is imperative that passengers do not lose confidence in the industry, which may impact directly on the industry’s continuing economic viability. Understanding passengers’ experiences is crucial to remedying negative experiences and harnessing ‘good practice’ for the advancement of the industry. To gain a better understanding of the crisis and its impact, a questionnaire was administered to members of the UK air-travelling public immediately after the airspace was re-opened. This research highlights the problems faced by passengers throughout the crisis and the way it impacted on their lives and livelihoods. Analysis of the survey results indicates two general themes regarding passengers’ support during the crisis. First, the needs for accommodation support during the crisis, and second, the need for effective, efficient, timely and reliable communication during the crisis, particularly to those stranded overseas. The latter is the dominant theme and the one that caused passengers the most stress, anxiety and inconvenience. Just over 90% of all those surveyed highlighted the failure of airline, travel agencies and/or government to provide timely and appropriate information as the major issue during the airspace closure. The airspace closure also caused adverse health impacts, with seventy-percent of respondents highlighting this as a concern. Although passengers were greatly inconvenienced and found their insurance cover insufficient during the crisis, fifty-six percent indicated that they would not take out additional ash cloud cover, with most citing the risk as too low to warrant it and/or the additional expense too much. Seventy-nine percent of respondents indicated that the crisis had little or no impact on their decision to fly in the future
    • Are children in care offered effective therapeutic support?

      Reeves, Andrew; Smith, Andrew M. (University of Chester, 2020-07)
      Aim - This thesis aims to answer the question as to whether or not the therapeutic support offered to children in care in the U.K. is effective. There are two parts to the question: ascertaining what the actual offer of therapy consists of; the quality of that offer in terms of therapeutic effectiveness. Background - children in care are significantly more likely than their peers to be involved in offending behaviour, substance misuse, and to be unemployed DfE (2019). There is evidence to suggest that unresolved developmental trauma can contribute to these outcomes (National Audit Office, 2015). It is unclear how focused the government is on supporting effective therapeutic recovery from developmental trauma. Method - Questionnaires were distributed to every local authority in the country, with approval from the Directors’ of Children’s Services. Interviews were attempted. A Foucaultian Discourse Analysis of key pieces of legislation in the field was then completed, and a Thematic Analysis of 28 studies into therapeutic recovery from complex developmental trauma was achieved. Key Findings- The study found that children in care are not systematically offered effective therapeutic support. In fact, there are multiple issues according to the quality of therapies on offer: there is a legal/political/organisational system that is dysfunctional: the offer of therapy is impossible to ascertain across the country; the way in which therapists research their own provision is laden with methodological, political, and ethical issues. However, the evidence supports the idea that we are aware of some key factors that help therapeutic recovery. Implications for Practice - The evidence provided a range of factors to support future development of therapeutic support to children in care, and supported a mapping out of the way in which therapies could usefully be developed in the future. The evidence led to the development of a model of best practice. Conclusion - The thesis ends with some recommendations as to how the profession of psychotherapy and counselling could begin to develop both their knowledge base and way of working with children care to support more effective therapeutic recovery.
    • Are men funnier than women, or do we just think they are?

      Hooper, Jade; Sharpe, Donald; Roberts, Sam G. B.; University of Chester (2016-03)
      Despite the widely held view that men are funnier than women, research supporting this view is inconsistent. Instead, the view that men are funnier than women may be a stereotype rather than a reflection of real differences in humor. Considering a previously found source memory bias in the attribution of funnier captions to men and less funny captions to women, this stereotype may be working to further perpetuate this mistaken belief. The current study aims to investigate this possible stereotype and further investigate an attribution bias arising from this stereotype. Two-hundred and twenty-eight participants from three countries (Britain, Canada, and Australia) rated the funniness of male and female-authored cartoon captions while blind to the gender of the caption authors. Participants were then asked to guess the gender of the caption authors and were also asked which gender they believe to be the funniest. Participants both male and female believed men are the funniest gender. However, this belief was not reflected in their ratings of the funniness of the cartoon captions. Support was found for a bias in attributing male authorship to the funniest cartoon captions, and female authorship to the least funny cartoon captions. This bias cannot not be attributed to source memory. It was suggested this stereotype may be self-fulfilling in nature and additional mechanisms maintaining this stereotype are proposed.
    • Are Prisoners More Psychopathic than Non-forensic Populations? Profiling Psychopathic Traits among Prisoners, Community Adults, University Students, and Adolescents

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; Sherretts, Nicole; Willmott, Dominic; Kielkiewicz, Krzysztof; Popiolek, Katarzyna; Hyland, Philip (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-12)
    • Are sustainability strategies the losers of austerity times?

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Oviedo, 2015-06)
      During the last decade Europe seemed to be focused on reaching a sustainable development path and what it involved: low carbon economies, investment on renewable energies, environmental policy integration on the rest of policies, corporate social responsibility as the way forward for business behavior… The fight against climate change and the European Union international leadership on this area appeared as priority in all main forums and regulations. However the deep financial and economic crisis affecting most European economies seemed to have put on hold those priorities and made them become only wishful thinking. National budgets have been severely reduced and in some countries this has been translated on a reduction to the minimum on environmental protection expenditure, the cancellation of projects, the elimination of favourable fiscal regimes for renewable energies and even the disappearance of the institutions responsible for the implementation of sustainability measures. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the different European economies have reacted to the crisis in the environmental and sustainability areas and to which extent austerity measures can put at risk the targets that the EU have set for the medium and long term in order to achieve a sustainable, smart and inclusive growth path. Especial focus will be given to those countries whose bail out conditions have made their national budgets subject to international scrutiny, in comparison to those whose green economy approaches have provided room for growth without compromising sustainability. The methodology will include the analysis of quantitative and qualitative sets of data, in order to assess, among other factors, the influence of internal and external actors for macroeconomic policy determination, such as political parties preferences, citizens interests and exogenous shocks. Whenever possible, the differences in policies at national and regional level will be separated, as well as the possibilities of non-consistencies in the interactions between both levels of policy implementation. It is expected that findings will confirm that those countries more severely affected by the crisis will present a lack of green economy approach prior to the crisis, which will difficult a change of course in policy making and as such, the reinforce their possibility of lagging behind the most advanced countries in the reach of sustainable growth paths.
    • Are Trans diagnostic models of eating disorders fit for purpose? A consideration of the evidence for food addiction

      Treasure, Janet; Leslie, Monica; Chami, Rayane; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; King's College London; University Hospital of Bellvitge and CIBERobn (ISCIII)
      Explanatory models for eating disorders have changed over time to account for changing clinical presentations. The transdiagnostic model evolved from the maintenance model, which provided the framework for cognitive behavioural therapy for bulimia nervosa. However, for many individuals (especially those at the extreme ends of the weight spectrum), this account does not fully fit. New evidence generated from research framed within the food addiction hypothesis is synthesised here into a model that can explain recurrent binge eating behaviour. New interventions that target core maintenance elements identified within the model may be useful additions to a complex model of treatment for eating disorders.
    • ‘Are we losing our way?’ Navigational aids, socio-sensory way-finding and the spatial awareness of young adults

      McCullough, David; Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-07-26)
      Recent advances in the accessibility and reliability of mobile technologies, roaming services and associated data have led to an increased usage of modern navigational devices using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This paper reports on a study which explored concerns about over-reliance upon these navigational technologies, specifically amongst young people in the Global North. Based on an experiment in which participants were asked to navigate a series of different (unfamiliar) routes on foot, using different navigational technologies each time, we argue that routes navigated are more memorable, and the process of way-finding is more enjoyable, when navigational tools/methods enable sensory and social interactions. GNSS aids, though claimed by participants as their preferred navigational aid, were the least enabling in this regard. We conclude that, whilst concerns about young people’s way-finding abilities may be overstated, the importance of sensory and social interactions with(in) environments might usefully be borne in mind in the development of future GNSS aids and locative media.
    • Aspiring academics: a resource book for graduate students and early career faculty

      Healey, Ruth L.; Healey, Mick; University of Sheffield; University of Gloucestershire (Taylor and Francis, 2008-09-01)
      Book Review
    • Assessing the perceived limitations of Reflexive Groups for supporting Clergy in the Church of England

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-18)
      For this research, eight Church of England Bishops’ Advisors for Pastoral Care and Counselling were interviewed to ascertain the limitations of Reflexive Groups (RGs). The data were analysed using a thematic analysis. One superordinate theme emerged: Hindrances, along with 10 subordinate themes. An online survey was then sent to RG participants (n=64), to see if their experiences matched those limitations identified by the Bishops’ Advisors. The data reveal that RGs are perceived as limited by the inability of clergy to commit to the time; it was scary for participants to be vulnerable with others; sometimes the needs of some participants were too big and could sabotage the group; dual relationships could cause complexity and hinder sharing; prayer; being sent by a Bishop or Archdeacon; the open agenda and style of facilitation does not suit some people; and sometimes there are struggles with expectations.
    • Assessing the perceived value of Reflexive Groups for supporting Clergy in the Church of England

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2016-07-18)
      Little research has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of reflexive groups in supporting clergy. For this research, eight Church of England Bishops’ Advisors for Pastoral Care and Counselling were interviewed to ascertain the value of reflexive groups. These data were analysed using a thematic analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: Contextual issues and Benefits, along with 20 subordinate themes. An online survey, consisting of questions that came from the Bishops’ Advisors data, was then sent to reflexive group participants (n=64), to see if their experiences matched those benefits identified by the Bishops’ Advisors. The data from 37 participants was statistically analysed. The data from both sets of participants reveal that reflexive groups are psychologically beneficial to clergy. The research concludes that the implementation of reflexive groups as a way of developing self-awareness and enculturating attitudes towards resilience and self-care is important to foster psychologically and spiritually healthy practice.
    • Assessment of metacognitive beliefs in an at risk mental state for psychosis: A validation study of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30

      Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tully, Sarah; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Wells, Adrian; University of Manchester; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-06-07)
      Aim: The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) has been used to assess metacognitive beliefs in a range of mental health problems. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of the MCQ-30 in people at risk for psychosis. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five participants meeting criteria for an at risk mental state (ARMS) completed the MCQ-30 as part of their involvement in a randomised controlled trial. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to assess factor structure and construct validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the original 5-factor structure of the MCQ-30. Examination of principal component analysis and parallel analysis outputs also suggested a 5-factor structure. Correlation analyses including measures of depression, social anxiety and beliefs about paranoia showed evidence of convergent validity. Discriminant validity was supported using the normalising subscale of the beliefs about paranoia tool. Conclusions: The MCQ-30 demonstrated good fit using the original 5-factor model, acceptable to very good internal consistency of items was evident and clinical usefulness in those at risk for psychosis was demonstrated.
    • Associations between adults' recalled childhood bullying victimization, current social anxiety, coping, and self-blame: Evidence for moderation and indirect effects

      Boulton, Michael J.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012-02-01)
      This article discusses a study of 582 students aged 23+ years at two universities in the UK which tested for associations between adults' recall of four common subtypes of childhood bullying victimization and their current social anxiety. It also provided the first test of whether coping moderated those associations, if they were indirect effects through self-blame, and if sex differences existed.
    • Associations between being bullied, perceptions of safety in classroom and playground, and relationship with teacher among primary school pupils

      Boulton, Michael J.; Duke, Elizabeth; Holman, Gemma; Laxton, Eleanor; Nicholas, Beth; Spells, Ruth; Williams, Emma; Woodmansey, Helen; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This study examined three main issues among 364 primary school children: (1) self‐reported levels of perceived safety in classroom and playground, and relationship with teacher, (2) associations between perceived safety in the two contexts and peer reported levels of being bullied, and (3) if relationship with teacher moderated the associations between peer reported levels of being bullied and perceived safety in classroom and playground.
    • Associations between peer victimization, fear of future victimization and disrupted concentration on class work among junior school pupils

      Boulton, Michael J.; Trueman, Mark; Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester ; Keele University ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2008)
      This article discusses a study of 485 pupils aged 10-11 (from 11 junior schools in the UK) and levels of, and associations between, physical, verbal, and social exclusion victimization, fear of future victimization, and disrupted classroom concentration.
    • Asylum

      Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2017-02-15)
      Interest in the study of state power, civil liberties, human rights, and state sponsored crime is growing and there is a need for a book which brings these topics together. This book, part of the Companions series, provides succinct yet robust definitions and explanations of core concepts and themes in relation to state power, liberties and human rights. The entries are bound by their inter-relatedness and relevance to the study of crime and harm and the volume draws upon established and emerging commentaries from other social and political disciplines. Laid out in a user-friendly A-Z format, it includes entries from expert contributors with clear direction to related entries and further reading. The contributors critically engage with the topics in an accessible yet challenging way, ensuring that the definitions go beyond a simple explanation of the word or theme. It will be suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students on a variety of courses such as Criminology, Criminal Justice, International Relations, Politics, Social Policy, Policing Studies, and Law as well as other researchers in these areas.
    • Asylum-seekers and refugees: A structuration theory analysis of their experiences in the UK

      Healey, Ruth L.; University of Sheffield (Wiley, 2006-07-06)
      Much of the literature on asylum seekers and refugees tends to be atheoretical. This article uses ideas from Giddens’ structuration theory as a conceptual framework to analyse the voices of a group of asylum seekers and refugees. The empirical database consists of semi-structured interviews with 18 asylum seekers and refugees living in the UK from a wide range of countries, including Ethiopia, Kenya, Poland, Somalia, and the Yemen. The study shows that the experiences of asylum seekers and refugees are impacted by both structural and individual agency factors. The former, it is argued, consist of public and political reaction towards the increase in the number of asylum applications, while the latter include asylum seeker and refugee experiences of specific places and people which can create social networks. Structural factors had the greatest impact upon the integration of the participants into the host society. The nature of the experiences of asylum seekers and refugees can influence the way they feel about their position in the host society. For example, negative experiences of the UK can reduce their sense of security in the society whereas positive experiences can increase their feelings of comfort. Structuration theory conceptualises how asylum seekers and refugees utilise coping strategies to raise their comfort level in the host country.
    • Attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviors: A survey of gender and culture differences in China and United Kingdom

      Higgins, Louise; Zheng, Mo; Liu, Yali; Sun, Chun Hui; Chester College of Higher Education ; University of California ; Beijing Normal University ; Beijing Normal University (Springer, 2002-02)
      This article discusses a study which examined gender and cultural differences in China and the UK in terms of attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviours.
    • Australian MPs and the Internet: Avoiding the digital age?

      Ward, Stephen; Lusoli, Wainer; Gibson, Rachel; University of Oxford ; University of Chester ; University of Leicester (Blackwell, 2007-06)
      Based on content analysis of representatives' websites and face-to-face interviews, this article discusses the way in which Australian MPs (Federal House of Representatives) have adopted the internet to get and keep in touch with their constituents, in the case of large electorates. The results indicate that while websites amongst legislators are growing, they are used primarily as supplementary, administrative tools.
    • Authentic learning through place-based education

      France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Whalley, Brian; Doolan, Martina; Bilham, Tim; University of Chester, University of Reading, University of Sheffield, University of Hertfordshire (UCL IOE Press, 2019-07-15)
      This chapter continues our exploration of the importance of space and place in facilitating the creation of authentic learning opportunities.