• Counselling the 'other'.

      Egeli, Cemil; University of Chester
      This chapter explores the problems of race, ethnicity and culture within counselling. It challenges the counselling world's neoliberal march towards manualised and standardised biomedical paradigms, which are not helpful for working culturally. They reinforce attitudes which are oppressive. Using an autoethnographic approach the author draws on their own experience of coming from two different cultures calling for the counselling world to challenge the binary , hegemonic and colonial thinking which underpins the biomedical approach taken. The author also brings awareness to the new growing demographic of mixed people who do not neatly fit into cultural boxes ascribed to them.
    • Counter-trafficking governance in South Africa: an analysis of the role of the KwaZulu-Natal human trafficking, prostitution, pornography and brothels task team.

      Francis, Suzanne; Emser, Monique; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (Taylor & Francis, 2017-04-04)
      Determining the efficacy of available counter-trafficking strategies is just as important as understanding the phenomenon of human trafficking itself. This is so if anti-trafficking practitioners wish to make in-roads in preventing and combating human trafficking in South Africa. At the heart of the matter are the ways in which counter-trafficking governance is structured in the South African context. In this article we use the KwaZulu-Natal intersectoral task team, an un-resourced agency of provincial government mandated to prevent and combat human trafficking, as a case study to analyse the ‘4P model’ of counter-trafficking favoured in South Africa. We find that while such an integrated model has great potential, issues of institutional cooperation and coordination, pervasive public official corruption and budgetary constraints hamper its current impact and efficacy. We conclude that these issues must be addressed by South African policy-makers once legislation has been promulgated.
    • Coup

      Powell, Jason; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2017-02-15)
      .
    • COVID-19 and the UN Security Council: should we expect an intervention?

      Murphy, Ash; University of Chester
      COVID-19 is a threat to international peace and security under Article 39 of the UN Charter, posing the question where is the UN Security Council? This article explores whether or not we should expect to see the UN Security Council engage the pandemic, and what obstacles may be in the way of such a move.
    • Crafting Knowledge Exchange in the Social Science Agenda

      Halsall, Jamie; Powell, Jason; University of Huddersfield and University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-13)
      To any social science researcher the term 'Knowledge Exchange' is a key buzzword in the academic community and wider society. In an article by Contandriopoulos et al. (2010, p. 456) it was pointed out that knowledge exchange 'rests on an implicit commonsense notion that this 'knowledge' must be evidence based’. This evidence, based within a social science context, relies upon two strands: theoretical data and empirical data. When examining the notion of Knowledge Exchange it becomes apparent that the concept has deep and meaningful connotations. These connotations have been driven by the involvements of the public and private sectors. Moreover, work carried out by Benneworth and Cunha (2015, p. 509) concludes that higher education institutions’ involvement in knowledge exchange 'remains dynamic and influenced by universities’ own strategic choices and relationships’. Traditionally, universities have had two key missions: to teach undergraduate/postgraduate students and to undertake research. Thierry and Rayna (2015, p. 488) have recently observed that universities now have a third mission, 'knowledge exchange', and that knowledge exchange plays a vital 'integral part of the mix, without which the other two missions cannot run successfully.' Knowledge exchange is also a fundamental feature of 'sustainable communities' (Powell, 2013) through the partnerships between HEIs and communities by which they serve.
    • The Criminalisation of Irregular Migrants

      Mitsilegas, Valsamis; Holiday, Yewa; Queen Mary University of London; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-07-03)
      The criminalisation of irregular migrants – in relation to irregular entry, residence, and work – is considered against the 1975 and 1990 ILO Migrant Workers Conventions (MWC); the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 (ICCPR); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 (ICESCR); the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG); and the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 2000, including its Protocols to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (‘the Trafficking Protocol’) and against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air (‘the Smuggling Protocol’). The creation of laws, which are generally applied only to foreigners – concerning irregular entry, residence, and work – increases costs and exposure to adverse labour conditions and social vulnerabilities, and also impedes access to justice. The possibilities of criminal conviction, resulting in fines, imprisonment and expulsion contribute to a precarious class of low-skilled migrant. The chapter argues that the criminalisation of migration exacerbates the migrant premium because it decreases income while increasing dependency on employers, smugglers and traffickers and complicates access to human rights protection. The chapter suggests that one of the policy propositions for the Global Compact should be an understanding of how the emphasis internationally, regionally and nationally on smuggling and trafficking and border control has resulted in the criminalisation of irregular migrants – both potential and actual - for the ways in which they enter, leave, reside and work in a country; and that migrants need to be able to manage their working needs in a flexible manner.
    • The crisis of democratic culture?

      Bendall, Mark J.; Robertson, Chris; University of Chester (Intellect, 2018-09-01)
      This piece assesses the risk of disinformation primarily, but not exclusively, in the Anglo-American context. It unpicks assumptions behind post-truth and fake news; considers precedents for disinformation and queries the extent of its novelty. Are these manageable challenges to democratic cultures or a crisis? It concludes that whatever the terminological tangles, industrialized disinformation signal threats to the public sphere, threats underscored by historical events highlighting the vulnerability of democracy. Yet threats to democratic systems have not deleted their scrutinizing capabilities from below (voters) and from above (the legislature). Therefore challenges, for all their potency and potential, have not yet reached crisis.
    • Critical evaluation of psychopathy measurement (PCL-R and SRP-III/SF) and recommendations for future research

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, Poland; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-12-28)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to review, summarize, and critically engage with the most recent findings into the dimensionality of the PCL-R, SRP-III, and SRP-SF. Another objective was to provide a set of directions for future research. Methods: A search in PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar was performed. Twenty-one studies examining the dimensionality of the PCL-R and 11 studies assessing the factor structure of the SRP- III and SRP-SF were identified. Results: A critical review of the studies revealed inconsistent findings as to the underlying structure of the PCL-R and SRP-III/SF. Research has been limited by methodological and conceptual weaknesses, which calls into question the applicability of its findings. As such, it is suggested that prior results should be interpreted with caution. Conclusion: Future research should test competing models derived on the basis of previous research and theory, report the results of a differential predictive validity or alternative test, provide all relevant fit indices, utilize new data sets of appropriate size, avoid parceling procedures with short scales, and report the results of composite reliability.
    • A critical exploration of why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices.

      Corteen, Karen M.; Morley, Sharon; Boran, Anne; Garratt, Dean; Hesketh, Robert F. (University of Chester, 2018-08-30)
      This thesis will primarily address the issue of street gang involvement and non-involvement in gang prevalent areas of Merseyside. Specifically, it will address why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices. Reporting for the Early Intervention Foundation (EIF) Cordis Bright Consulting (2015) have observed that when assessing young people bout whom there is concern because of violence and street gang involvement, practitioners should consider both risk and protective factors in five key domains: individual, peers, community, school and family. In determining the vulnerability and resilience of young people to gang membership on Merseyside, the study attempted to identify prominent variables within each of these domains and the research was undertaken with participants from a variety of marginalised locations of Merseyside. The study applied a hybrid approach consisting of Biographical Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM, Wengraf, 2001) as the means of data collection with Grounded Theory (GT) as the form of analysis (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). Two samples of participants were drawn from marginalised areas of Merseyside consisting of a total of 44 males age range 18-25 (one consisting of 26 gang involved participants (termed Deviant Street Group Members (DSGs)), and the second containing 11 non-gang participants (termed ‘Non-group Participants’ (NGPs) and 7 individuals identified as ex-gang participants (termed ‘ExDeviant Street Group participants’ (EDSGMs)). The findings draw attention to the considerable amount of social commentary and government policy that has intensified, pathologised and problemised the issue of gangs, gang membership and gang non-membership in the United Kingdom (UK). Moreover, they identify the effects of marginalisation and limited opportunity as the over-riding protagonists and highlight how young disenfranchised people, some more resilient than others cope with growing up in marginalised areas of Merseyside. In particular, contrary to the EIF’s observations that “family and peer group risk factors are not found to be strongly associated with gang membership as individual risk factors” (2015, p. 7), the study finds evidence that quality of parenting by fathers/father figures (family domain) and friendship networks (peer domain) together with the development of social capital can be key variables in the decision to become involved in or abstain from gang membership on Merseyside. Other factors identified, include the application of demonising government policies, the existence of edgework risk taking including criminal eroticism (individual domain) in young men and the impact of social migration (neighbourhood domain) on the decision to become involved, disengage or completely abstain from gangs was also noted to be significant.
    • Critical feminist hope: the encounter of neoliberalism and popular feminism in WWE 24: Women’s Evolution

      Wood, Rachel; Litherland, Benjamin; University of Chester; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-03)
      Scholarship has pointed to contemporary feminism’s popularity and cultural “luminosity.” While this research has highlighted the limitations of feminist politics in a context of neoliberal individualism, this paper seeks to ask what possibilities for critiques and transformation of gender inequalities might be enabled by feminism’s visibility in neoliberalism. Using a framework of critical feminist hope, we highlight that capitalism’s embrace of feminism inarguably limits its political scope, but it may also open up opportunities for new forms of representation. To illustrate this, the paper analyses WWE 24: Women’s Evolution, a “brandcasting” documentary made to mark the rebrand of the sport entertainment promotion’s women’s division in 2016. While never naming it directly, the documentary draws heavily upon the signifiers of popular feminism. Although this mobilisation is often highly limited, a critically hopeful feminist reading allows us to move beyond dismissing this text as an example of feminism’s “cooptation” by neoliberalism. We highlight the documentary’s scathing critique of past failings in the representation and treatment of women performers, and, more importantly, the way feminism is used to make the case for corporate re-structure and change.
    • Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

      Eccles, Suzanne A.; Aboagye, Eric O.; Ali, Simak; Anderson, Annie S.; Armes, Jo; Berditchevski, Fedor; Blaydes, Jeremy P.; Brennan, Keith; Brown, Nicola J.; Bryant, Helen E.; et al. (BioMed Central, 2013-10-01)
      Introduction: Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease; (9) developing interventions and support to improve the survivorship experience; (10) a continuing need for clinical material for translational research derived from normal breast, blood, primary, relapsed, metastatic and drug-resistant cancers with expert bioinformatics support to maximise its utility. The proposed infrastructural enablers include enhanced resources to support clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo tumour models; improved access to appropriate, fully annotated clinical samples; extended biomarker discovery, validation and standardisation; and facilitated cross-discipline working. Conclusions With resources to conduct further high-quality targeted research focusing on the gaps identified, increased knowledge translating into improved clinical care should be achievable within five years.
    • A Critical Review of Rural Proofing in England

      Williams, Fiona; France, Derek; Degg, Martin; Rewhorn, Sonja (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-07-01)
      This thesis critically reviews the effectiveness of rural proofing through a practitioner lens. It explores empirically the experiences and expectations of rural proofing in England by rural policy practitioners. The theoretical foundation for the research is provided by the rural-urban dichotomy and associated discourses, to include the notion of the rural idyll. An interpretivist methodological approach was adopted which included in-depth semi-structured interviews with 24 participants. The participants discussed their understandings of rural within the context of rural proofing and in turn how this influenced their expectations and experiences of rural proofing. Practitioner experiences and expectations considered the influence of rural proofing voices, leadership and accountability in rural proofing and where rural proofing does or should occur. From this, the analytical approach enabled the strengths and weaknesses of rural proofing to be examined to inform the future rural proofing agenda. It was found that rural proofing is a welcomed concept, but there are barriers and challenges impacting on the effectiveness of rural proofing. Overall, it was articulated that rural proofing, although a national policy process to consider the rural context in policy making, is in fact, interpreted as the delivery of rural services. Where the principle was providing equality of provision in comparison to levels of service in urban contexts. There was an appreciation rural proofing is process focussed but a strong sense that it should be more outcome driven, with a local focus. Currently, rural proofing is compulsory for English domestic policy, however, the championing of rural proofing and the leadership of rural proofing across government could be more apparent and the process more effective. It was suggested a greater local focus to rural proofing would assist with mitigating the challenges in the current national English policy framework which has to use a rural-urban settlement classification that does not embrace the diversity of rural England. An alternative approach to describing rural within policy making, could, alleviate some of the challenges in addressing the contested priorities of rural proofing resulting from many rural voices. Through the rural policy practitioner lens it is articulated rural proofing should not be abandoned, however, moving forward, rural proofing requires revision if the principles of rural proofing are to be realised in practice.
    • Cross sectional relations among trust beliefs, psychological maladjustment and social relations during childhood: Are very high as well as very low trusting children at risk?

      Rotenberg, Ken J.; Boulton, Michael J.; Fox, Claire L.; Keele University ; University College Chester ; Keele University (Springer, 2005)
    • Cross-border movement of people: Barriers, hazards and health

      Boran, Anne; University of Chester (Chester Academic Press, 2007-07-18)
      This book chapter discusses the cross-border movement of people - an aspect of globalisation which has recieved insufficient attention.
    • Crossing the rubicon: an exploration of the use of positive action provisions in Higher Education Institutions in the UK

      Davies, Chantal; Robison, Muriel; University of Chester (2016-01)
      Crossing the rubicon: an exploration of the use of positive action provisions in Higher Education Institutions in the UK
    • Cultural differences in self-recognition: the early development of autonomous and related selves?

      Ross, Josephine; Yilmaz, Mandy; Dale, Rachel; Cassidy, Rose; Yildirim, Iraz; Zeedyk, M. Suzanne; University of Dundee; University of Chester; University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Wiley, 2016-01-29)
      Fifteen- to 18-month-old infants from three nationalities were observed interacting with their mothers and during two self-recognition tasks. Scottish interactions were characterized by distal contact, Zambian interactions by proximal contact, and Turkish interactions by a mixture of contact strategies. These culturally distinct experiences may scaffold different perspectives on self. In support, Scottish infants performed best in a task requiring recognition of the self in an individualistic context (mirror self-recognition), whereas Zambian infants performed best in a task requiring recognition of the self in a less individualistic context (body-as-obstacle task). Turkish infants performed similarly to Zambian infants on the body-as-obstacle task, but outperformed Zambians on the mirror self-recognition task. Verbal contact (a distal strategy) was positively related to mirror self-recognition and negatively related to passing the body-as-obstacle task. Directive action and speech (proximal strategies) were negatively related to mirror self-recognition. Self-awareness performance was best predicted by cultural context; autonomous settings predicted success in mirror self-recognition, and related settings predicted success in the body-as-obstacle task. These novel data substantiate the idea that cultural factors may play a role in the early expression of self-awareness. More broadly, the results highlight the importance of moving beyond the mark test, and designing culturally sensitive tests of self-awareness.
    • Culture, Spirituality, Reflexivity, and Funeral Rituals

      Swinton, Valda; University of Chester (BACP Publication, 2017-07-31)
      Culture is like the air we breathe, we are not aware of it until it is missing” (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 1998, p. 122) Moustakas’ (1990) idea that something ‘calls to us’ when we begin a research journey proved prophetic in my own experience of doing my doctorate research. I discovered there was something to intuit about my own personal experience that needed to become known and opened up areas of my experience that I had taken for granted or not really engaged with in any significant way. There was a great deal of self-discovery, making connections to childhood experiences and aspects of cultural influences that had hitherto been out of my conscious awareness.
    • (Custodial) spaces to grow? Adolescent development during custodial transitions

      Price, Jayne; orcid:; Turner, Jennifer; University of Chester; University of Oldenburg, Germany
      Drawing on empirical data from two individual research projects, this paper extends the literature on child and youth incarceration and offers a previously unexplored analysis of experiences and transitions through institutional environments for young people. Different penal environments have different operational practices and treatment according to arbitrary age-determined constructions of childhood, youth and young adulthood, evidenced by decreasing safeguards. This article demonstrates the reduction of operative and supportive investment in those held, and the shifting perception from children that require ‘training’ to young people and young adults who are managed and whose particular needs are neglected. The arbitrary nature of transitions presents a paradox between developmental maturity as an individualistic ongoing process and arbitrary age-determined transitions. As such, it is argued that there should be a more developmental approach to caring for young people across penal environments which accounts for their ongoing maturity and complex needs.
    • Cycling at a standstill

      Emanuel, Martin; Veraart, Frank; Cox, Peter; University of Eindhoven, University of Eindhoven, University of Chester (Foundation for the History of Technology, 2016-05)
      Overview of Cycling Policy and Practice in Manchester
    • Cycling cultures

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2015-05-23)
      Cycling studies is a rapidly growing area of investigation across the social sciences, reflecting and engaged with rapid transformations of urban mobility and concerns for sustainability. This volume brings together a range of studies of cycling and cyclists, examining some of the diversity of practices and their representation. Its international contributors focus on cases studies in the UK and the Netherlands, and on cycling subcultures that cross national boundaries. By considering cycling through the lens of culture it addresses issues of diversity and complexity, both past and present. The authors cross the boundaries of academia and professional engagement, linking theory and practice, to shed light on the very real processes of change that are reshaping our mobility.