• Components of therapy as mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for people at risk of psychosis: An analysis of the EDIE-2 trial

      Flach, Clare; French, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David; Gumley, Andrew I.; Birchwood, Max; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Morrison, Anthony P.; University of Manchester ; Greater Manchester West NHS Foundation Trust/Liverpool University ; University of Manchester ; University of Sussex ; University of Glasgow ; University of Warwick ; University of Chester ; Greater Manchester West NHS Foundation Trust/University of Manchester (2015-05-21)
      Background: Research suggests that the way in which cognitive therapy is delivered is an important factor in determining outcomes. We test the hypotheses that the development of a shared problem list, use of case formulation, homework tasks and active intervention strategies will act as process variables. Methods: Presence of these components during therapy is taken from therapist notes. The direct and indirect effect of the intervention is estimated by an instrumental variable analysis. Results: A significant decrease in symptom score for case formulation (coefficient=-23, 95%CI -44 to -1.7, p=0.036) and homework (coefficient=-0.26, 95%CI -0.51 to -0.001, p=0.049) is found. Improvement with the inclusion of active change strategies is of borderline significance (coefficient= -0.23, 95%CI -0.47 to 0.005, p=0.056). Conclusions: There is a greater treatment effect if formulation and homework are involved in therapy. However, high correlation between components means that these may be indicators of overall treatment fidelity.
    • Conceptions of ‘research’ and their gendered impact on research activity: A UK case study

      Healey, Ruth L.; Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-08-31)
      The last twenty years have seen an increased emphasis around the world on the quality and quantity of research in response to national research assessments, international league tables, and changes in government funding. The prevailing attitude in higher education embeds research as the ‘gold standard’ in the context of academic activity. However, a key feature of this trend is significant gender differences in research activity. We argue that research productivity is related to identification as a researcher, and that identifying as ‘research-active’ or not would appear to depend upon how an individual academic subjectively defines ‘research’. This article brings together two hitherto separate bodies of work 1) the impact of gender on academic research careers, and 2) academic conceptions of research. Through a combination of interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, we investigate the extent to which interpretations of ‘research’ and ‘research activity’ differ by gender within an institution in the UK and the potential impact of these interpretations. Although the research found that there are many similarities in the interpretations of ‘research activity’ between genders, we found one important difference between male and female participants’ conceptions of research and its relationship to teaching. Significantly, our findings suggest that there is a need to expand our existing conceptualisations of ‘research’ to include ‘research as scholarship’ in order to address the obstacles that current understanding of ‘research’ have placed on some academics. Self-definition as a researcher underlies research activity. A narrow conception of ‘research’ may prevent individuals from identifying as ‘research-active’ and therefore engaging with research.
    • Concreteness of semantic interpretations of abstract and representational artworks

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; University of Chester
      The authors tested two contrasting theoretical predictions to establish whether semantic interpretations of abstract artworks had different lexical concreteness from those of representational artworks. In Experiment 1, 49 non-expert participants provided brief verbal interpretations of 20 abstract and 20 representational artworks. Frequentist and Bayesian Linear Mixed Models showed that the words’ concreteness levels were robustly higher for interpretations of abstract artworks than representational artworks. This difference was present regardless of the inclusion or exclusion of function words. Potential diluting or inflating impacts on the effect due to the multi-word responses were examined in Experiment 2, in which 72 new participants provided single-word interpretations for the same artworks. The effect replicated with a larger effect size. The findings suggest that non-expert viewers prioritise establishing what is depicted over seeking deeper meanings if the depicted is not readily established perceptually. The findings are incompatible with the theoretical stance that abstract art has abstract meaning. Instead, the findings are consistent with complex models of aesthetic processing in which meaning may emerge in stages. The effect of art type on the concreteness of meaning is an important, hitherto undiscovered basic finding in empirical aesthetics. Our novel methods enable further research in this field.
    • Concurrent and short-term longitudinal associations between peer victimization and school and recess liking during middle childhood

      Boulton, Michael J.; Chau, Cam; Whitehand, Caroline; Amataya, Kishori; Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester ; Middlesex University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2009)
      This article discusses a study of 429 pupils (aged 9 - 11 years) in the UK which examined concurrent and short-term longitudinal associations between peer victimization (physical, malicious teasing, deliberate social exclusion, and malicious gossiping) and two measures of school adjustment (school liking and recess liking), and test if these associations were moderated by year and sex.
    • Conflicting energy policy priorities in EU energy governance

      Fernandez, Rosa M. (Springer US, 2018-06-06)
      AbstractIn the last decade, energy policies across EU member states have shifted, with fears emerging over the feasibility of the decarbonisation targets set up at European level. In many cases, the changes have been triggered by weakened economic conditions linked to the last international economic crisis (2008), but in some others, they respond to national political preferences that have been given priority over long-term goals related to sustainability. The second half of 2016 was particularly full of events that on one hand, introduced uncertainty over markets, and on the other hand, may condition the progress (both weakening it and leaning it towards the wrong path) towards the Energy Union, the latest attempt to achieve energy market integration by the EU institutions. This paper will focus on three events to analyse their influence over EU’s energy governance patterns: The first is the Brexit vote and the implications over budget availability for emissions reduction projects. The second is the election of Donald Trump as president of the USA, with his declared disbelief in climate change. Finally yet importantly is the latest decision by OPEC to cut production in order to increase oil prices. With the exception of Brexit, these events are external to the EU, but all of them will have an impact over EU energy policy decisions. Bearing in mind that goals set up for 2030 are already ‘softer’ than expected compared to the 2020 ones, the question is whether those events could push policymakers more towards European targets concerned with security of supply, conflicting with emissions reduction goals.
    • Consumer sexualities: women and sex shopping

      Wood, Rachel; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-08-15)
      Introduction: Consumer Sexualities The introduction to Consumer Sexualities: Women and Sex Shopping sets out the main objective of the book: to provide an insight into the experiential, everyday dimensions of sexual consumption. It gives an overview of the theoretical frameworks used, including Foucault’s technologies of the self and de Certeau’s notion of ‘making do’ with the materials of commodity culture. It outlines how the qualitative research, including interviews and accompanied shopping trips, was undertaken and considers some of the challenges of researching sexual cultures. Finally, an overview of the following chapters is provided. Chapter One - Sexual Consumption and Liberation in Feminism This chapter deals with a series of ‘moments’, from the late 1960s to the 1980s, in which feminist connections between sexual liberation and the consumption of sexual commodities (such as the vibrator and dildo) were forged. Drawing on the Spare Rib magazine archive alongside a range of other primary and secondary sources, the chapter explores how sexual consumption as an enabler of sexual, and even socio-political emancipation, emerged as a key area of debate, although not of agreement, over this period. These moments point to a foundation, both discursive and material, for the 1990s postfeminist ‘makeover’ of sexual consumer culture. Chapter Two - Consumer Sex: Technologies of the Self This chapter explores the role of sexual consumption in an age of postfeminist neoliberalism. Examining popular forms of sex advice for women, the chapter argues that women are enjoined to participate in technologies of the sexual self that enable them to work upon their sexual consumer knowledge and identities. Such technologies were taken up in the doing of the research itself, both by researcher and participants. Finally, there is a discussion of the question of women’s agency and lived experience – arguing for the importance of attending to women’s ambivalent everyday negotiation of postfeminist culture. Chapter Three - Sexual Spaces: Going Sex Shopping This chapter explores the sex shop as a space of ‘encounter’, where sexualities are both represented and experienced. Through the distinctions made between sex shops – as accessible, feminine, tasteful, classy, tacky, seedy, and even dangerous – gendered and classed sexual identities are constructed and performed whilst non-respectable sexual identities are othered. Performing sex shopping in a confident, respectable, tasteful, knowledgeable and feminine manner can be understood as a key regulatory technology of the sexual self through which female subjects are incited to articulate and work upon their sexual identities and lives in neoliberalism. Chapter Four - The Sexy Body: Wearing Lingerie This chapter argues that lingerie is used as a technology of the self through which postfeminist forms of sexiness and femininity are constructed. However, embodied narratives of pleasure and discomfort in lingerie can be understood as negotiations with the postfeminist and neoliberal construction of the ‘sexy body’ as a visual project to be worked upon. Finally, the chapter highlights the ways in which lingerie can be deployed in non-(gender) normative ways through the process of pleasurable laughter, performance and play. Chapter Five - Sexual Objects: Using ‘Sex Toys’ This chapter examines the various ways in which sex toys are mobilised as part of sexual practice. The body and sex toy are understood as an ‘assemblage’ that can enable and disable particular sexual pleasures, identities and practices. Women’s accounts point to the pressure to perform feminised emotional labour by working on the orgasmic sexual self and relationships. However, participants’ experiences also demonstrate that, as sex toys are made ordinary through their repeated everyday use and their assemblage with bodies, their meanings may shift in ways that often exceed or contradict their significance as commodities in postfeminist sexual culture. Conclusion: (Sexual) Politics of the Ordinary The conclusion to Consumer Sexualities explores the wider implications of placing the everyday at the centre of an analysis of contemporary sexual cultures. This approach demonstrates that commodities like lingerie and sex toys are adapted, negotiated and transformed as they become embedded in the mundane, ordinary contexts of everyday sexual use. I suggest that focusing the critical gaze on the ‘ordinariness’ of sexual materials, far from being placatory or complacent, is key to forming a critical response to restrictive or moralising popular debates around sexual cultures.
    • Contemporary debates on institutions: governance, governmentality and power

      Powell, Jason; Halsall, Jamie; University of Huddersfield; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2016-01)
      Institutions, at state and local level, have been perceived as a mechanism of supporting the vulnerable within society. The processes of globalisation within an economic, political and social context have played a fundamental role in institutions. The ‘State’ that administers institutions has experienced involvement and adjustment by central government’s policy of privatisation and deregulation. The aim of this paper is to critically explore the current debates on institutions within British society. We frame the debates within Foucault’s notion of ‘governmentality’, which highlights how government provides governance of ‘action at a distance’ in order to detract blame from government and its policies and place this blame onto individuals and communities themselves (1978, p. 33).
    • Contemporary Social Issues in Modern Society

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2013-11-23)
      This book explores the major contemporary social issues in modern society with a clear focus on major facets of social life. The book examines the relevance of crime, employment, social care and family life - and suggests that in different ways each major theme is essential for understanding the past, present and future.
    • Content, perceptions and impact of alcoholic drink promotions in nightlife venues that are targeted towards students

      Ross-Houle, Kim; Quigg, Zara; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University
      Binge drinking is generally considered socially acceptable for students across Western culture. Social norms within the student population have meant that excessive drinking plays a key role in socialising and reinforcing peer group identity. Research has highlighted the United Kingdom (UK) as having elevated levels of alcohol consumption especially within the student population, and the role that drink promotions have in influencing consumption practices. This paper considers promotions of alcoholic drinks in UK nightlife venues and student perceptions of these promotions. Bourdieu's concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the findings. Method Content analysis of social media posts by nightlife venues (n = 12), observations of nightlife venues (n = 20) and semi-structured focus groups and paired interviews with 32 undergraduate students, from one city in the North West of England. Results Nightlife venues target promotions of alcoholic drinks at students through social media, advertisements throughout nightlife venues, and by promoters outside of venues. These promotions will often influence the course of a night out in terms of venues visited and the drinks consumed. Alcohol holds importance within mainstream student culture; it plays a key role in achieving cultural capital and is a means for students to obtain social capital through the creation of shared experiences, which are key for those who are new to university. Conclusions Nightlife venues will target alcoholic drink promotions at students and will use the notion of creating a shared experience as part of this targeted promotion. This contributes to the overall social and cultural capital that alcohol holds within the student population. This is an important consideration for alcohol policy – it demonstrates how prevention activities need to take into consideration the importance of shared experiences for the students; alternatives to excessive alcohol consumption need to offer a similar opportunity.
    • Contested spaces, new opportunities: displacement, return and the rural economy in Casamance, Senegal

      Evans, Martin; University of Chester (Zed Books, 2014-05-08)
      Casamance is the southwesternmost part of Senegal, largely separated from the rest of the country by The Gambia to the north and bordering Guinea-Bissau to the south. As the scene of West Africa’s longest-running civil conflict, now some 30 years old, Casamance provides a case of displacement economies on a relatively small scale but of long duration. The focus here is on human displacement, understood as the enforced physical dislocation of people, the dynamics of their return and resettlement, and the economic, political and social effects related to these processes. Much of the long-term human displacement in the conflict has occurred in the relatively narrow band of territory between the south bank of the Casamance River and northern border districts of Guinea-Bissau. Following flight and protracted exile from this border area in the 1990s, however, the 2000s and beyond have mostly seen people return, driven by economic and social desperation coupled with generally improved (though still at times volatile) security conditions, and supported by international aid for reconstruction. Building on field research conducted over twelve years, the chapter considers the emergent economic and political landscape of the border area. It shows how this landscape is the result of layers of displacement over two decades, situated within a deeper historical context of migration. From a theoretical perspective, it seeks to understand these dynamics through the concept of ‘relational space’, formulated in human geography and beginning to be used, if not always explicitly, in studies of displacement.
    • Contextual behavioural coaching: An evidence-based model for supporting behaviour change

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hochard, Kevin D.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Archer, Rob; Nicholls, Wendy; Wilson, Kelly G.; University of Chester (British Psychological Society, 2016-09-10)
      As coaching psychology finds its feet, demands for evidence-based approaches are increasing both from inside and outside of the industry. There is an opportunity in the many evidence-based interventions in other areas of applied psychology that are of direct relevance to coaching psychology. However, there may too be risks associated with unprincipled eclecticism. Existing approaches that are gaining popularity in the coaching field such as Dialectic Behavioural Therapy and Mindfulness enjoy close affiliation with Contextual Behavioral Science (CBS). In this article, we provide a brief overview of CBS as a coherent philosophical, scientific, and practice framework for empirically supported coaching work. We review its evidence base, and its direct applicability to coaching by describing CBS’s most explicitly linked intervention – Acceptance and Commitment Therapy/Training (ACT). We highlight key strengths of ACT including: its great flexibility in regard of the kinds of client change it can support; the variety of materials and exercises available; and, the varied modes of delivery through which it has been shown to work. The article lays out guiding principles and provides a brief illustrative case study of Contextual Behavioural Coaching.
    • Contrasting vertical and horizontal representations of affect in emotional visual search

      Damjanovic, Ljubica; Santiago, Julio (2015-06-24)
      Independent lines of evidence suggest that the representation of emotional evaluation recruits both vertical and horizontal spatial mappings. These two spatial mappings differ in their experiential origins and their productivity, and available data suggest that they differ in their saliency. Yet, no study has so far compared their relative strength in an attentional orienting reaction time task that affords the simultaneous manifestation of both of them. Here we investigated this question using a visual search task with emotional faces. We presented angry and happy face targets and neutral distracter faces in top, bottom, left, and right locations on the computer screen. Conceptual congruency effects were observed along the vertical dimension supporting the ‘up=good’ metaphor, but not along the horizontal dimension. This asymmetrical processing pattern was observed when faces were presented in a cropped (Experiment 1) and whole (Experiment 2) format. These findings suggest that the ‘up=good’ metaphor is more salient and readily activated than the ‘right=good’ metaphor, and that the former outcompetes the latter when the task context affords the simultaneous activation of both mappings.
    • Convention compatible construction: Section 3 of the Human Rights Act 1998

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Thomson Reuters, 2015-11)
      Section 3 Human Rights Act 1998 and convention compliant interpretation
    • Convergent human and climate forcing of late-Holocene flooding in northwest England

      Schillereff, Daniel; MacDonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine E.; Piliposian, G.; Croudace, Ian; Chiverrell, Richard; Kings College London; University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester, University of Liverpool, University of Southampton (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
      Concern is growing that climate change may amplify global flood risk but short hydrological data series hamper hazard assessment. Lake sediment reconstructions are capturing a fuller picture of rare, high-magnitude events but the UK has produced few lake palaeoflood records. We report the longest lake-derived flood reconstruction for the UK to date, a 1500-year record from Brotherswater, northwest England. Its catchment is well-suited physiographically to palaeoflood research, but its homogeneous, dark brown sediment matrix precludes visual identification of flood layers. Instead, an outlier detection routine applied to high-resolution particle size measurements showed a >90% match, in stratigraphic sequence, to measured high river flows. Our late-Holocene palaeoflood reconstruction reveals nine multi-decadal periods of more frequent flooding (CE 510-630, 890-960, 990-1080, 1470-1560, 1590-1620, 1650-1710, 1740-1770, 1830-1890 and 1920-2012), and these show a significant association with negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO) phasing and some synchrony with solar minima. These flood-rich episodes also overlap with local and regional land-use intensification, which we propose has amplified the flood signal by creating a more efficient catchment sediment conveyor and more rapid hillslope-channel hydrological connectivity. Disentangling anthropogenic and climatic drivers is a challenge but anthropogenic landscape transformation should evidently not be underestimated in palaeoflood reconstructions. Our paper also demonstrates that flood histories can be extracted from the numerous lakes worldwide containing organic-rich, visually homogeneous sediments. This transformative evidence base should lead to more reliable assessments of flood frequency and risks to ecosystems and infrastructure.
    • Core Schemas across the Continuum of Psychosis: A Comparison of Clinical and Non-Clinical Groups

      Taylor, Hannah E.; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Dunn, Graham; Parker, Sophie; Fowler, David; Morrison, Anthony P.; University of Manchester; Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation; University of East Anglia (Cambridge University Press, 2013-08-07)
      Background: Research suggests that core schemas are important in both the development and maintenance of psychosis. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare core schemas in four groups along the continuum of psychosis and examine the relationships between schemas and positive psychotic symptomatology. Method: A measure of core schemas was distributed to 20 individuals experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEP), 113 individuals with “at risk mental states” (ARMS), 28 participants forming a help-seeking clinical group (HSC), and 30 non-help-seeking individuals who endorse some psychotic-like experiences (NH). Results: The clinical groups scored significantly higher than the NH group for negative beliefs about self and about others. No significant effects of group on positive beliefs about others were found. For positive beliefs about the self, the NH group scored significantly higher than the clinical groups. Furthermore, negative beliefs about self and others were related to positive psychotic symptomatology and to distress related to those experiences. Conclusions: Negative evaluations of the self and others appear to be characteristic of the appraisals of people seeking help for psychosis and psychosis-like experiences. The results support the literature that suggests that self-esteem should be a target for intervention. Future research would benefit from including comparison groups of people experiencing chronic psychosis and people who do not have any psychotic-like experiences.
    • The Coroner’s inquest and visceral reactions: Considering the impact of self-inflicted deaths on the health and social care professional

      Corteen, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.; Morley, Sharon; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2014-09-30)
      This book chapter presents a discussion of the potential impact of participation in the Coroner’s Inquest for health and social care professionals.
    • Corporate Social Responsibility and Chinese Oil Multinationals in the Oil and Gas Industry of Nigeria: An appraisal

      Ekhator, Eghosa O. (2014-12)
      This article focuses on the extant corporate social responsibility ǻCSR) practices in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. The oil and gas sector of Nigeria has been beset by a lot of problems not limited to violence, kidnappings, eco-terrorism, and maladministration amongst others. One way of curing the inherent problems is the use of CSR by many oil multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in Nigeria. This article focuses on the Chinese oil irms operating in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria and investigates if they operate on the same basis as the Western irms. It seeks to determine whether the variants of CSR practised by non-Western irms in Nigeria have had negative or positive impacts in the oil and gas industry especially with China’s contribution to Nigerian economy.
    • Correctness and speed of dyslexics and non-dyslexics on the four mathematical operations

      Miles, T. R.; Wheeler, Timothy J.; Turner Ellis, Sonia A. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2002-10)
      This research describes an investigation of the correctness and speed of response that dyslexic children and matched controls perform on mathematical calculations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The participants were 120 boys divided into three age bands ranging from 9:5 - 11:4, 11:5 - 13:4 and 13:5 - 15:4 years of age of whom 60 were dyslexic and 60 non-dyslexic. Two sets of 144 multiplication sums, two sets of 75 addition and 75 subtraction sums and one set of 144 division sums were presented. In the case of multiplication and division, the numbers ranged from 1 to 12; in the case of addition and subtraction two separate effects were examined, viz. sums involving high and low addends / subtrahends in combination with sums that did and did not cross the ten barrier. Results showed that dyslexics in all age bands took longer and made fewer correct responses than non-dyslexics on all four mathematical operations. The performance of the younger dyslexics was differentially disadvantaged when compared to non-dyslexics and older dyslexics on speed and correctness. The dyslexics performed less well when no obvious algorithm was available to them and when answering questions that involved crossing the ten barrier. The dyslexics were less able, in all age bands, than non-dyslexics to respond instantaneously. The overall trend with both groups was an increase in scores with age; however on some occasions the dyslexics in the old age band did not perform as well as those in the middle-age band suggesting practice and automaticity effects. The order of difficulty (from greatest to least) of the four mathematical operations for dyslexics, as judged by number of correct responses was: division, subtraction, multiplication and addition. For the non-dyslexics this was: subtraction, division, multiplication and addition. For speed the order for both the dyslexics and non-dyslexics was: subtraction, addition, division and multiplication.
    • Correspondence of continuous interstitial glucose measurement against arterialised and capillary glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy volunteers

      Dye, Louise; Mansfield, Michael; Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Mahawish, Lena; Schnell, Rainer; Talbot, Duncan; Chauhan, Hitesh; Croden, Fiona; Lawton, Clare (2009-08-13)
      The aim of the present study was to validate the Glucodayw continuous interstitial ambulatory glucose-monitoring device (AGD) against plasma glucose measured from arterialised venous (AV) and glucose from capillary whole blood (finger prick, FP) in non-diabetic subjects in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Fifteen healthy overweight men (age 30–49 years, BMI 26–31 kg/m2 ) participated. Glucose levels were measured before, during and after consumption of an oral 75 g glucose load using twelve FP samples and forty-four 1 ml AV blood samples during 180 min. Interstitial glucose was measured via the AGD. Three venous samples for fasting insulin were taken to estimate insulin resistance. Profiles of AGD, AV and FP glucose were generated for each participant. Glucose values for each minute of the measurement period were interpolated using a locally weighted scatterplot smoother. Data were compared using Bland–Altman plots that showed good correspondence between all pairs of measurements. Concordance between the three methods was 0·8771 (Kendall’s W, n 15, P,0·001). Concordance was greater between AV and FP (W ¼ 0·9696) than AGD and AV (W ¼ 0·8770) or AGD and FP (W ¼ 0·8764). Analysis of time to peak glucose indicated that AGD measures lagged approximately 15 min behind FP and AV measures. Percent body fat was significantly correlated with time to peak glucose levels for each measure, while BMI and estimated insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment, HOMA) were not. In conclusion, AGD shows good correspondence with FP and AV glucose measures in response to a glucose load with a 15 min time lag. Taking this into account, AGD has potential application in nutrition and behaviour studies.
    • Counselling and psychotherapy; Hierarchies, epistemicide and bad medicine

      Egeli, Cemil (British Psychological Association, 2019-06)
      This article is a critique of the Scope of Practice and Education for the counselling and psychotherapy professions (SCoPEd) project which seeks to differentiate counselling and psychotherapy within a competence framework. It argues that SCoPEd is representative of a wider hegemonic, neoliberal and dehumanising agenda which is putting counselling at risk.