• Validation of the Urdu version of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents

      Shagufta, Sonia; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Kola-Palmer, Derrol; University of Huddersfield; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-06-03)
      Purpose: The aim was to examine the dimensionality, composite reliability, and incremental validity of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI) in a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents (N = 315) following translation of the measure into Urdu. Design/methodology/approach: Four alternative factor models, with uncorrelated measurement error terms, were specified and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor modelling techniques. Findings: Results indicated that a three factor model provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models tested. The reliability of the scale was established using composite reliability. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed that the three MCSI factors were differentially related with external variables, indicating that the MCSI measures substantially different domains. Implications: Implications for theory and future research are discussed. Originality/Value: The results add valuable evidence as to the cross-cultural applicability of the MCSI.
    • The Value of Discourse Analysis: A Clinical Psychologist’s View.

      Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-09-02)
      As a discipline, Clinical Psychology has historically favoured a positivist approach to understanding human behaviour, and clinical psychological practice has been largely informed by research based on quantitative methods. Psychologists have tended to exploit the methodologies of the natural sciences by measuring phenomena (Peters, 2010). This bias towards quantitative research may at least in part be a function of how the discipline of psychology has from its genesis, been careful to define itself as a science. It seems that the development of a broader engagement with alternative methods has largely grown from challenges to psychology’s conception of what constitutes science, and debates regarding its merits developed in relation to our thinking about science (Biggerstaff, 2012). The growth of qualitative methods in psychology is therefore relatively new despite the rich history of the approach (Howitt, 2010). However, now that psychology is more securely established, this has begun to lead to a refreshing openness to embrace qualitative process methodology as well as outcome research.
    • The value of self-respect for moral and social behaviour: Development of a trait self-respect measure

      Clucas, Claudine; Wilkinson, Heather; University of Chester (2017-05-05)
      Objective: Research into self-respect is scarce, possibly because self-respect and self-esteem are often treated as interchangeable in popular culture. However, there is evidence that self-respect is a component of global self-esteem that is attached to moral, principled and honourable behaviour, highlighting its unique role in predicting moral behaviour and well-being. The paper reports on the development of the trait self-respect scale (SRS) to stimulate research into this concept. Design: Following pilot work to develop the items, cross-sectional survey and lab-based data were collected to validate the SRS. Methods: Seven convenience adult samples (total N=841) completed the SRS online or in person alongside other validated scales. One sample (N=115) also underwent lab-based tasks measuring moral self-concept and cheating. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a one-factor structure. The SRS showed good internal consistency (α>.8 in all samples), convergent and discriminant validity. It correlated significantly with self-esteem (r=.40-.61), and with agreeableness, Machiavellianism, positive norm, moral identity internalisation and symbolisation (N=121), moral-based self-esteem, self-control, number of moral trait adjectives recalled in self-related processing (N=115) and religious status (N=230), adjusting for self-esteem. It did not correlate with amount of social comparison, or with competence and social self-esteem, adjusting for self-regard. Moreover, self-respect significantly predicted forms of pro-relationship behaviour, pro-social behaviour (N=114), cheating (self-reported and observed) and well-being (N=81) over and above self-esteem. Conclusion: Findings support the need to consider trait self-respect in investigations of well-being and moral and social functioning, and contribute to debates on the value of self-esteem.
    • The Value of Using Discourse and Conversation Analysis as Evidence to Inform Practice in Counselling and Therapeutic Interactions.

      Kiyimba, Nikki; O'Reilly, Michelle; University of Chester and University of Leicester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-04-08)
      This is a commissioned chapter for an edited collection in The Palgrave Handbook of Adult Mental Health. It focusses on the benefits of using the analytic methodologies of discourse analysis and conversation analysis in studying therapeutic and counselling interactions. In particular it examines the value of qualitative research of this kind as evidence within the evidence-based hierarchy for therapeutic practice.
    • Variations in soil dispersivity across a gully head displaying shallow subsurface pipes, and the role of shallow pipes in rill initiation

      Faulkner, Hazel; Alexander, Roy; Teeuw, Richard; Zukowskyj, Paul (John Wiley & Sons, 2004-08-20)
      This article discusses how three-dimensional patterns of geochemistry and sediment size can be related to hydraulic gradients in the local marl bedrock of Almería in southern Spain.
    • Velo-Diverstet: Cykler til Alle

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Bicycle Innovation Lab, Copenhagen, 2012-06-08)
    • Victim and peer group responses to different forms of aggression among primary school children

      Tapper, Katy; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; University College Chester (Wiley, 2005-01-18)
      This article discusses a study which used a wireless microphone and hidden camera to record victim and peer responses to primary school children's physical, verbal, indirect, and relational forms of aggression. The results showed that the most frequent consequences of aggression were victim retaliation or withdrawal, and peer support.
    • Victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics in filicide and filicide-suicide

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2015-01-07)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of most recent studies of parental and stepparental filicide. A detailed review of the literature revealed the importance of certain demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors in the commission of child homicide. Our findings indicate that filicides perpetrated by genetic parents and stepparents differ considerably in terms of underlying motivational factors. Data in the literature suggest that biological parents are more likely to choose methods of killing which produce quick and painless death, whereas stepparents frequently kill their wards by beating. Research results demonstrate the victims of maternal filicides to be significantly younger than the victims of paternal filicides. Additionally, filicide-suicide is most often associated with parental psychopathology. Genetic fathers are at the greatest risk of death by suicide after the commission of familicide. These findings are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks explaining the occurrence of child murder. Further, limitations of reviewed studies and directions for future research are presented.
    • Video-mediated behavior in gorillas (G. g. gorilla): A stage in the development of self-recognition in a juvenile male?

      Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-12)
      The anomalous position of gorillas (G. g. gorilla) in the capacity for self-recognition remains puzzling. The standard measure of self-recognition is Gallup’s (1970) mark test that assesses an individual’s ability to recognize its altered image in a mirror following the application of paint marks to visually inaccessible areas. Here, the results of a small-scale pilot study are presented, utilizing video playback through a television monitor, to examine behavioural differences indicative of developing self-recognition. The behaviors of four Western lowland gorillas at Bristol Zoo, UK were observed while watching a TV screen during five conditions: blank screen, white noise interference, footage of unfamiliar gorillas, self previously recorded, and self-live. Differences were predicted in the frequency of the gorillas’ observed behaviors when viewing each of the conditions: specifically, that there would be more visual inspection, contingent body and facial movements, and self-exploration in the self-recorded and self-live conditions compared to the other conditions. These predictions were partially supported. No agonistic or fear responses were observed and self-exploration was only seen in the self-live condition. During live playback, contingency-checking movements and self-exploration of the mouth were observed, particularly in the youngest gorilla, providing important video evidence of a close parallel to the mouth exploratory behavior witnessed in self-recognizing chimpanzees. On the basis of these preliminary findings of differentiated spontaneous behaviors, a tentative framework is proposed for categorizing gorillas according to levels of developing self-recognition along a continuum.
    • Voices of deficit: Mental health, criminal victimisation and epistemic injustice

      Carver, Liddy; Morley, Sharon; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-11-03)
      People who endure mental and emotional distress experience a plethora of negative experiences beyond the effects of the symptoms themselves. For centuries, the designation of labels of difference; that is, those which transgress approved social norms, have affected the lived experiences of those individuals, and more widely in structuring responses, engagements with, and attitudes between society and the individual. Understanding the creation of tainted identities, particularly of those with experience of mental and emotional distress have been well rehearsed in the sociological literature of the second half of the twentieth century. Central to much of this analysis has been to understand the nature of the manufacture of deviant identities, how they are sustained and the impact of these identities on those who experience them. This paper explores the experience of those with mental and emotional distress as a victim of crime. The interconnectedness of matters of identity created though the application of a diagnosis of illness/disorder is addressed as is the crisis of criminal victimisation. This is achieved via an exploration of contemporary concerns surrounding victims of crime with experience of mental and emotional distress, including the (further) loss of voice and agency when interfacing with agencies of the State.
    • Volunteering, Aging and Business

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Publishers, 2013-09-18)
      This book analyses the key issues inherent for the voluntary sector as it relates to the experiences of older people. The book reviews the major issues for older people's needs and rights. The book attempts to develop and foster interdisciplinary arguments for linking business principles to capacity building of the voluntary sector.
    • Wave-emplaced boulders: implications for development of "prime real estate" seafront, North Coast Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Rowe, Deborah-Ann; Brown, Lyndon; Mandal, Arpita; University of Chester; University of the West Indies (Springer, 2013-11-17)
      Jamaica has a long history of damage to the built environment in coastal areas due to storm surge and tsunami. However, there is limited scientific data to aid the establishment of minimal setback distances and to inform mitigation strategies. Developers of coastal area require cost-effective methods to guide their decisions and to develop mitigation strategies to reduce the potential risk posed to development. This paper explores the use of wave-emplaced boulders to determine the wave heights from historical storm surge/tsunami on the North Coast of Jamaica. As most of the study area was undeveloped priory to 1960, there are limited historical written records of storm surges and/or tsunami impact for this specific site. This research undertook geomorphic mapping of the proposed study area to determine the presence, location, spatial distribution, size, density and volume of wave emplaced boulders along a 2-km stretch of coastline earmarked for development. Based on the wave-emplaced boulders mapped, it was possible to determine the approximate wave heights associated with storms and/or tsunami required to deposit them. The implications for development are discussed. The study of wave-emplaced boulders has provided a rapid and cost-effective method to determine minimal setback distance and the approximate height of waves associated with storms and/or tsunami. The technique developed may be transferable to other areas of coastline earmarked for development along the Jamaican coastline
    • 'We are alone in the house': A case study addressing researcher safety and risk

      Kiyimba, Nikki; O'Reilly, Michelle; University of Chester; University of Leicester (Taylor & Francis, 2013-01-08)
      Historically, the safety of research participants has taken precedence in health research. More recently, however, in response to anecdotal reports, there is growing concern for researcher safety, which has resulted in policy development. Also, there is a small body of empirical discussion emerging. In this article, we present a case study example of a particular incident that happened to one of the authors during the course of data collection. We present this as a case study using two sources of data to support the narrative. We utilise extracts from the original interview in which the threat to safety occurred, and this is supplemented by an interview with the transcriptionist who transcribed the threatening interview. Using thematic analysis, we found three key themes from the data: physical threat, emotional responses, and managing risk. Our findings suggest that despite reflectively considering and adhering to valuable protocols relating to risk assessment, unprecedented events may still occur. We recommend, therefore, that research teams develop strategies to manage the implications and impact of research involvement to maintain a healthy research team.
    • ‘We do it for the team’ - Student athletes’ initiation practices and their impact on group cohesion.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; Wakefield, Caroline; Brown, Hollie; University of Chester, Liverpool Hope University, Napier University (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-05)
      Hazing, or inappropriate initiation activities, are a well-documented occurrence within university sport team societies. This study examined the occurrence of initiation activities in relation to team cohesion. 154 participants completed the Group Environment Questionnaire and the Team Cohesion Questionnaire in relation to initiation activities at their institution. Results revealed that athletes were more aware of appropriate than inappropriate initiation activities, with males being aware of a higher occurrence of inappropriate activities than females. Results were also analysed by sport type, revealing that interactive team sport players recorded higher hazing scores than co-acting players. With regard to cohesion, no significant relationship was found between hazing and cohesion suggesting the notion that initiations enhance cohesion in sport is untrue.
    • Weaving the internet together: Imagined communities in newspaper comment threads

      Coles, Bryn A.; West, Melanie; Newman University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-07-01)
      Online newspapers (and other spaces) are increasingly seeking to utilise user-generated content alongside professionally developed material. However, this might leave websites increasingly vulnerable to trolls, who work to disrupt online communications in online spaces. Such behaviour can have serious consequences both in peoples online and offline lives, and for the development of coherent online communities. One means of controlling is through the manipulation of the online space to create social norms of polite behaviour through the founding of ‘imagined communities’ online. Approaching the issue from a discursive psychological perspective, this paper draws upon comments published in two online British newspaper comment sections responding to the publication of an academic article on trolling. Imagined communities are shown to arise irrespective of the presence of the virtual infrastructure to support the development of these imagined communities. Key features of imagined communities identified here are: individuation (as opposed to deindividuation); mutual influence between posters; shared history for both the users and the online space; the use of humour to cement social bonds. Analysis also revealed tensions in posters understanding of online and offline behaviours. This research holds implications for understanding online spaces, and the interactions between users within these spaces.
    • Weight management in the digital age

      Ashwell, Margaret; Hulshof, Toine; Johns, Daniel; Bornet, Francis; Lasikiewicz, Nicola (Wiley, 2014-11-19)
      Paper presented at the European Congress on Obesity, 29 May 2014, Sofia, Bulgaria
    • The Welfare State in Post-industrial Society

      Powell, Jason; Hendricks, Joe; University of Chester; Oregon State University (Springer Verlag, 2009-09-15)
      In recent years, major social forces such as: aging populations, social trends, migration patterns, and the globalization of economies, have reshaped social welfare policies and practices across the globe. Multinational corporations, NGOs, and other international organizations have begun to influence social policy at a national and local level. Among the many ramifications of these changes is that globalizing influences may hinder the ability of individual nation-states to effect policies that are beneficial to them on a local level. With contributions from different countries worldwide, this collected work represents the first major comparative analysis on the effect of globalization on the international welfare state. The Welfare State in Post-Industrial Society is divided into two major sections: the first draws from a number of leading social welfare researchers from diverse countries who point to the nation-state as case studies; highlighting how it goes about establishing and revising social welfare provisions. The second portion of the volume then moves to a more global perspective in its analysis and questioning of the impact of globalisation on citizenship and marketization. A unique aspect of the volume is that all authors participated in an iterative process to identify a series of consensus themes that each author was then asked to integrate into their chapters as they were relevant.
    • Welsh Primary Schoolchildren’s Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes: A Mixed Methods Study

      Porcellato, Lorna; Ross-Houle, Kim; Quigg, Zara; Harris, Jane; Bigland, Charlotte; Bates, Rebecca; Timpson, Hannah; Gee, Ivan; Bishop, Julie; Gould, Ashley; et al.
      There are concerns that the growing popularity of e-cigarettes promotes experimentation among children. Given the influence of the early years on attitude and habit formation, better understanding of how younger children perceive vaping before experimentation begins is needed, to prevent uptake and inform tobacco control strategies. We explored Welsh primary schoolchildren’s (aged 7–11) awareness of e-cigarettes relative to tobacco smoking, their understanding of the perceived risks and benefits and their intentions and beliefs about vaping. Data was collected using a mix of methods in June and July 2017 from 8 purposively selected primary schools across Wales. Four hundred and ninety-five children (52% female) aged 7 years (n = 165), 9 years (n = 185) and 11 years (n = 145) completed a class-administered booklet encompassing a draw and write exercise and survey. Ninety-six children participated in 24 peer discussion groups comprised of 2 boys and 2 girls from each year group. Data were analysed independently and findings triangulated. Survey analyses used frequencies, descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests. Content analysis was undertaken on the draw and write data and peer discussion groups were analysed thematically. Study findings highlight that primary schoolchildren have general awareness of e-cigarettes. Vaping was perceived to be healthier than smoking and there was some recognition that e-cigarettes were used for smoking cessation. Understanding of any health harms was limited. Few children intended to smoke or vape in the future but almost half thought it was okay for grownups. Children’s perceptions were influenced by exposure through family and friends. Findings suggest a need for e-cigarette education in primary schools, to highlight the associated risks of e-cigarette experimentation including the potential for tobacco initiation.
    • Westminster’s Narration of the Neoliberal Crisis: Rationalising the Irrational?

      White, Holly; Edge Hill University (EG Press, 2017-07-23)
      This chapter introduces my doctoral research, which contributes an analysis of Westminster definers’ narration of the 2007 onwards-neoliberal capitalist crisis to the British public concerned with their strategies for maintaining hegemony. Firstly, it explains that neoliberals seized the opportunity presented by the neoliberal crisis to extend the project’s reach and deepen its roots and operated to ensure it did not become a crisis of neoliberalism. Second it argues that Westminster definers constructed a narrative that attempted to rationalise a response that truth, empirical evidence followed by sound reasoning, deems irrational but which serves the interests of private capital. Thirdly, the chapter presents an overview of the research design.
    • Wetlands in southern Africa

      Ellery, William N.; Grenfell, Suzanne E.; Grenfell, Michael C.; Powell, Rebecca; Kotze, Donovan C.; Marren, Philip M.; Knight, Jasper; Rhodes University (Ellery, Powell); University of the Western Cape (Grenfell, S; Grenfell, M); University of Natal (Kotze); University of Melbourne (Marren); University of the Witwatersrand (Knight) (Cambridge University Press, 2016-06-23)
      In southern Africa, wetlands of different types are an integral part of the drainage network, yet evolve and are sensitive to different combinations of geologic, climatic, geomorphic, edaphic and hydrologic controls. Understanding of these controls can help in the interpretation of environmental and climatic records from different wetland types, given that wetland sensitivity to environmental and climatic changes may vary throughout their ‘life cycle’. The chapter discusses inland wetland records from dated sites in South Africa in order to consider their significance for reconstructing late glacial and Holocene climates; and the relationship of wetlands to preservation of the Pleistocene archaeological record. Wetlands are sensitive to degradation under contemporary environmental and climatic changes, which may impact on their hydrological and ecological function as well as the integrity of associated archaeological sites.