• Teachers' self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness beliefs, and reported use of cognitive-behavioral approaches to bullying among pupils: Effects of in-service training with the I DECIDE program.

      Boulton, Michael J.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2013-12-14)
      Despite the promise of being effective in tacking bullying and conduct disorder, cognitive-behavioral (C-B) interventions are underused by teachers. Little detailed information exists as to why this is the case. The current study with junior school teachers in the U.K. (N = 249) confirmed this low reported usage and showed that while teachers tended to believe that C-B approaches would be effective, most held rather low self-efficacy beliefs. Attending a workshop on a specific C-B approach, the I DECIDE program had positive effects on perceived effectiveness and self-efficacy beliefs, and longer durations of training (3 days) were more beneficial than shorter durations (half/1 day). In line with outcome-expectancy theory and the theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy and duration of training predicted an increase in reported usage of I DECIDE across an 8-month period, and self-efficacy fully mediated the association between duration of training and increase in reported usage. The implications of these findings for overcoming impediments to the more widespread use of C-B approaches by teachers to tackling bullying were discussed, particularly the notion that attending training of sufficient duration coupled with a more explicit attention on fostering self-efficacy will pay dividends.
    • Technical Notation as a Tool for Basic Research in Relational Frame Theory

      Tyndall, Ian; Mulhern, Teresa; Ashcroft, Sam; McLoughlin, Shane; University of Chester; University of Chichester (Springer Verlag, 2019-04-08)
      A core overarching aim of Relational Frame Theory (RFT) research on language and cognition is the prediction and influence of human behavior with precision, scope, and depth. However, the conceptualization and delineation of empirical investigations of higher-order language and cognition from a relational framing theoretical standpoint is a challenging task that requires a high degree of abstract reasoning and creativity. To that end, we propose using symbolic notation as seen in early RFT experimental literature as a possible functional-analytical tool to aid in the articulation of hypotheses and design of such experiments. In this article, we provide examples of aspects of cognition previously identified in RFT literature and how they can be articulated rather more concisely using technical notation than in-text illustration. We then provide a brief demonstration of the utility of notation by offering examples of several novel experiments and hypotheses in notation format. In two tables, we provide a “key” for understanding the technical notation written herein, which other basic-science researchers may decide to draw on in future. To conclude, this article is intended to be a useful resource to those who wish to carry out basic RFT research on complex language and cognition with greater technical clarity, precision, and broad scope.
    • Testing the addictive appetite model of binge eating: The importance of craving, coping, and reward enhancement

      Leslie, Monica; Turton, Robert; Burgess, Emilee; Nazar, Bruno; Treasure, Janet; King's College London; University of Alabama at Birmingham; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      In the current study, we examine components of the “addictive appetite” model of recurrent binge eating. Specifically, we tested the influence of addictive processes and the influence of emotional regulation processes on recurrent binge eating behaviour. We recruited 79 women in total for the current study; 22 with bulimia nervosa, 26 weight-matched lean comparison women, 15 women with binge eating disorder, and 16 weight-matched overweight/obese comparison women. Participants completed questionnaire assessments of food craving and motivations for eating. Compared to weight-matched comparison women, women with binge-type eating disorders endorse significantly greater levels of food craving, eating for purposes of coping, and eating for purposes of reward enhancement. A cluster analysis revealed that these three traits distinguish women with binge-type eating disorders from weight-matched comparison women. These findings provide support for the addictive appetite model of binge eating behaviour, and highlight addictive and emotional regulation processes as potential targets for treatment.
    • Theorising infrastructure: a politics of spaces and edges

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2020-01-29)
      As a growing number of authors demonstrate, ‘infrastructure is never neutral and always inherently political’ (Nolte 2016: 441, compare McFarlane and Rutherford 2008; Young and Keil 2009). Infrastructures of all types, whether hard (as in material structures) or soft (as in skills and knowledge) are those systems that support action. Infrastructures both provide the potential for social actions and processes and are produced by social actions and processes. In creating potential, however, infrastructures inevitably also order and govern the actions they make possible (Koglin 2017). Infrastructures organise and shape potentials, providing for some courses of action and not for others. The mechanism of ordering and governing is one of facilitation – infrastructural provision being the provision of material facilities or the facilitation of actions through social development. While certain actions are facilitated by both kinds of infrastructure, actions and practices that fall outside of its desired outcomes are rendered unruly, ungoverned, perhaps even ungovernable and deviant. Consequently, material infrastructures are not only comprised of their material dimension but also operate on discursive levels. Infrastructure’s multiple dimensions and impacts can be traced, according to Picon (2018: 263), as ‘the result of the interactions between a material basis, professional organizations and stabilized sociotechnical practices, and social imagination’. These interactions, and the constitution of those actants, are ably traced in individual chapters elsewhere in this volume. This chapter seeks to engage with a selected range of current theorisations of the politics of infrastructure, and to apply them to specific cases of cycle-specific infrastructures. It subsequently relates the ideas of social and spatial justice arising from these perspectives to bell hooks consideration of marginalisation, to consider how the patterns of marginalisation and mainstreaming revealed in the contributions to this volume might be understood through a lens of a critical and radical politics.
    • Theorizing community care: From disciplinary power to governmentality to personal care

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (NOVA Publishers, 2014-03-01)
      This book examines discourses on community care construct older people's experiences and their identities and the dystopian implications for older people. The book introduces governmentality and the possibilities through social policy for older people and examines the emergence of personal care and the implications for personalization and tailored care services for older people.
    • Theorizing Gerontology: The Case of Old Age, Professional Power, and Social Policy in the United Kingdom

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2001-09-20)
      This article examines the interrelationship between old age, professional power, and social policy. In particular, dominant theoretical models in social gerontology are reviewed and an alternative framework for understanding social gerontological issues—Foucauldian gerontology—is advanced. Foucauldian narratives are employed to delineate the historical relationship between professional social work and recent social policy for older people in the United Kingdom. In addition, a Foucauldian framework employed to examine identity formation, professional practices, and policy narratives enriches and widens the disciplinary subject matter of theorizing aging studies. The structure of this article is in three parts: review of theories of aging with an introduction of Foucault's potential contribution to gerontological analysis, the historical overview of the instigation of professional intervention in modernity and the changing roles and responsibilities in relation to older people utilizing Foucault's (1977) genealogical method, and the exploration and application of Foucault's key notion of governmentality (1977; Rose & Miller, 1992) in the analysis of social policy for older people.
    • Theorizing in Social Gerontology: The Raison D'etre

      Powell, Jason; Hendricks, Joe; University of Chester; Oregon State University (Emerald, 2009-07-08)
      The purpose of this paper is to contextualise the need for a social theory of ageing. For a long time, social gerontology has been accused of being “data rich but theory poor”. The paper reviews this and maps out the importance of research themes of social theory and sets the scene for the articles that have used social theory in an innovative way to shed light on international experiences of ageing.
    • Theorizing Trauma: A New and Critical Understanding

      Powell, Jason; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-01-24)
      This chapter examines a multitude of theoretical positions that can be applied to a critical understanding trauma
    • There is no Other Monkey in the Mirror for Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

      Murray, Lindsay; Schaffner, Colleen; Aureli, Filippo; Amici, Federica; University of Chester, Adams State University, Universidad Veracruzana, Liverpool John Moores University, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (American Psychological Association, 2020-06-18)
      Mirror self-recognition (MSR), usually considered a marker of self-awareness, occurs in several species and may reflect a capacity that has evolved in small incremental steps. In line with research on human development and building on previous research adopting a gradualist framework, we categorized the initial mirror responses of naïve spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) according to four levels. We compared social, exploratory, contingent and self-exploratory responses to a mirror and faux mirror during three short trials. If spider monkeys respond as most monkey species, we predicted they would perform at level 0, mainly showing social behavior toward their mirror-image. However, because spider monkeys show enhancement of certain cognitive skills comparable to those of great ape species, we predicted that they would perform at level 1a (showing exploratory behavior) or 1b (showing contingent behavior). GLMMs revealed that monkeys looked behind and visually inspected the mirror significantly more in the mirror than the faux mirror condition. Although the monkeys engaged in contingent body movements at the mirror, this trend was not significant. Strikingly, they showed no social behaviors toward their mirror-image. We also measured self-scratching as an indicator of anxiety and found no differences in frequencies of self-scratching between conditions. Therefore, in contrast to most findings on other species, spider monkeys did not treat their image as another monkey during their initial exposure to the mirror. In fact, they reached at least level 1a within minutes of mirror exposure. These responses recommend spider monkeys as good candidates for further explorations into monkey self-recognition.
    • The Third Sector in the Global Economic Recession

      Powell, Jason; Chen, Sheying; University of Chester; Pace University (Emerald, 2016-07-11)
      This special issue puts the social policy spotlight on the third sector and the global economic recession. The array of seven papers explores this inter-relationship and levels of impact on different nation states across the world. Since 2008 to the present and given the complex nature of the world in which we live the economic crises has had a lasting legacy. The articles presented give intimation to the complexity of the crises and impact at differential levels within the nation state, the nation state itself, the European Union and global arena.
    • “This is a question we have to ask everyone”: asking young people about self-harm and suicide

      O’Reilly, Michelle; Kiyimba, Nikki; Karim, Khalid; University of Chester; Leicester University (Wiley, 2016-08-08)
      Introduction: Questions about self-harm and suicide are essential in risk assessments with children and young people, yet little is known about how mental health practitioners do this. Aim: The core aim was to examine how questions about self-harm and suicidal ideation are asked in real-world practice. Method: A qualitative design was employed to analyse 28 video-recorded naturally occurring mental health assessments in a child and adolescent mental health service. Data were analysed using conversation analysis (CA). Results: In 13 cases young people were asked about self-harm and suicide, but 15 were not. Analysis revealed how practitioners asked these questions. Two main styles were revealed. First was an incremental approach, beginning with inquiries about emotions and behaviours, building to asking about self-harm and suicidal intent. Second was to externalize the question as being required by outside agencies. Discussion: The study concluded that the design of risk questions to young people had implications for how open they were to engaging with the practitioner. Implications for practice: The study has implications for training and practice for psychiatric nurses and other mental health practitioners in feeling more confident in communicating with young people about self-harm and suicidal ideation.
    • ‘This is not the People’s Government or the Democratic Will of the People’

      Murphy, Ash; Nehushtan, Yossi
      Despite the rhetoric from the Prime Minister’s office following the 2019 UK General Election, the appointed Government has no democratic legitimacy generally, especially regarding the decisions to leave the EU without having a second referendum and to make far-reaching changes to the UK constitution. This poses questions as to the validity of western democracy, particularly in the UK and USA.
    • Toward A Structured, Tri-Domain Model Of Companioning In Christian Formation By Pastoral Agents In A Congregational Setting: A Preliminary Report On An International Research Project.

      Pembroke, Neil; Coyle, Suzanne; Gear, Janet; Gubi, Peter M.; Kelly, Ewan; Louw, Daniel; McMillan, Lex; Niven, Alan; Thierfelder, Constanze; Schmidt, William; et al. (2018-06)
      A preliminary report is presented by an international project team working on developing a model for a structured and holistic approach to companioning parishioners in the journey of formation in the Christian life. A holistic model involves working in three domains: positive psychology, spirituality, and personal and social ethics. Structure is provided by utilizing four self-assessment instruments to inform the work the pastor and the parishioner do together.
    • Towards a better understanding of bicycles as transport

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Routledge, 2015-03-04)
      The bicycle is the most numerous vehicle on the planet, but it is not, and has not always been used as practical transport. Indeed, in its early years, it was almost exclusively a sporting and leisure item for the bourgeoisie. Historical studies have hitherto tended to concentrate on particular uses or national contexts and chronicled, rather than analyzed, transitions from one pattern of use to another. Taking a comparative approach, this chapter addresses the change of bicycle use from elite plaything to mass transport in the first half of the twentieth century, by. It takes a number of different national narratives and, by exploring the mechanisms of social, economic and political forces affecting cycle use, questions assumptions that the changing historical fortunes of the bicycle are technologically determined or in any way inevitable. The use of the bicycle as mass transport (or not) is demonstrated as contingent upon a broad range of other factors, including the presence of other transport modes, road use, social class relations, and political will. In light of current bicycle promotion policies, such factors may be once again prove to be important.
    • Towards a globalization of aging

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (University of Alberta, 2014-06)
      This article locates an understanding of comparative grounding of aging through the theory of globalization.
    • Towards a Translational Approach to Food Addiction: Implications for Bulimia Nervosa

      Leslie, Monica; Lambert, Ellen; Treasure, Janet; King's College London
      Purpose of review: In recent years, the food addiction hypothesis of loss-of-control eating has gained traction in the field of eating disorders. In particular, the neural process of food addiction plays a dominant role in the recently formulated “addictive appetite” model of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Nonetheless, several components of the food addiction hypothesis, including the presence of withdrawal and tolerance effects, as well as the proposition that some foods possess “addicting” properties, remain highly controversial. In response, the current review synthesises existing evidence for withdrawal and tolerance effects in people with bulimia nervosa. Recent findings: The recent development of a validated tool to measure withdrawal from highly processed foods will aid in measuring withdrawal symptoms and testing hypotheses related to withdrawal in the context of food addiction. We subsequently describe preclinical and human evidence for a central insulin- and dopamine-mediated pathway by which recurrent loss-of-control binge eating is maintained in bulimia nervosa. Summary: Evidence in populations with bulimia nervosa and loss-of-control eating provides preliminary support for the role of food addiction in the maintenance of bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal research is needed to develop a clearer profile of illness progression and to clarify the extent to which dysregulation in glucose metabolism contributes to food craving and symptom maintenance in bulimia nervosa.
    • Trade Barriers

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2020-09-30)
      A basic definition of trade barriers could be ‘all factors that influence the amount of goods and services shipped across international borders’ (Feenstra and Taylor, 2017a). This definition is quite neutral, and it needs to be understood that the word ‘barrier’ has a negative connotation, which means that a trade barrier would be any instrument that limits or restrict trade between countries, as opposed to free trade. It is generally accepted that free trade is good for productivity and economic growth, but it is also true that most countries apply some sort of trade restriction, for different reasons.
    • Traditional Oath-Taking as an Anti-Corruption Strategy in Nigeria

      Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) Nigeria, 2019)
      The concept of corruption is culture-bound. In the UK, it is unusual and criminal for public officers to accept gifts. However, corruption is seen to be part of the culture of many developing (especially Asian and African) countries. In Nigeria, corruption is seen to be a negative part of the administrative or bureaucratic culture and a way of life. This paper will argue that because of the institutional failures of the Nigerian state in the area of corruption, recourse to the ‘traditional’ oath-taking akin to the variant used in customary arbitration cases amongst many communities (in Nigeria) to corruption cases might be a useful strategy to help fight the scourge of corruption. Furthermore, this chapter suggests that the Nigerian government should extend the jurisdiction of customary courts (via constitutional amendment) to try corruption cases arising from the anti-corruption statutes enacted since the return of democracy in 1999. This will reduce the pressure on the superior courts of records in the country.
    • Trauma and Spiritual Growth

      Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2017-04-21)
      This chapter explores how trauma impacts one’s sense of the spiritual, and examines the concept of post-traumatic spiritual growth