• A qualitative exploration of therapists’ experiences as clients who prematurely terminated their therapy in England

      Gubi, Peter M.; Reeves, Andrew; Bonsmann, Christine F. (University of Chester, 2016-07-31)
      This qualitative study explored experiences of prematurely terminating adult individual therapy from the perspectives of therapists as clients in England. The aims of the study were to gain an overview of the experience of prematurely terminating therapy; to understand the experience of dissatisfaction when this is given as a reason for prematurely terminating therapy; and to inform and thus help improve practice. Rates of premature termination from counselling and psychotherapy remain high despite a considerable body of research into possible predictors of this phenomenon. Few studies have explored clients’ experiences of premature termination in depth. Clients often report dissatisfaction as a reason for premature termination, and this experience is under-researched. From practitioners’ perspectives, little is known about indicators of dissatisfaction, and how to manage premature termination if it occurs. The study was conducted in two stages. The purposeful sample were therapists who, as clients, prematurely terminated personal therapy after attending at least two sessions. Participants self-selected as having prematurely terminated therapy. Stage one used an online qualitative survey to gain an overview of participants’ experiences of premature termination, and the 40 usable responses were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. The survey was used to recruit participants for stage two. In stage two, six semi-structured interviews were carried out with participants who had prematurely terminated therapy for reasons of dissatisfaction. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Overall, the major themes created were: feeling dissatisfied; client becomes unable to continue therapy; and communication about the premature termination. The findings confirm the importance of the working alliance in therapy, and illuminate how the alliance failed to develop in experiences of dissatisfaction. It is argued that understanding clients’ experiences could enable practitioners to recognise the presence of dissatisfaction, and adapt therapy, if appropriate, to minimise avoidable premature termination. The need for therapy to ‘add value’ was also identified. The findings indicate a failure by some therapists to act in a relational way when clients prematurely terminated therapy, thereby disrupting the dominant discourse about the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Clients’ needs at the point of premature termination were identified. The findings of this study are not generalisable but may be transferable. The study concludes that therapists’ management of how therapy ends is just as important as the management of how it begins, regardless of how it ends. This has implications for practice and training. Areas for further research are identified.
    • Quantifying system disturbance and recovery from historical mining-derived metal contamination at Brotherswater, northwest England

      Schillereff, Daniel; Chiverrell, Richard; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine E.; Kings College London, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2016-08-18)
      Metal ore extraction in historical times has left a legacy of severe contamination in aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the UK, there are ongoing nationwide surveys of present-day pollution discharged from abandoned mines but few assessments of the magnitude of contamination and impacts that arose during historical metal mining have been made. We report one of the first multi-centennial records of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) fluxes into a lake (Brotherswater, northwest England) from point-sources in its catchment (Hartsop Hall Mine and Hogget Gill processing plant) and calculate basin-scale inventories of those metals. The pre-mining baseline for metal contamination has been established using sediment cores spanning the past 1,500 years and contemporary material obtained through sediment trapping. These data enabled the impact of 250 years of local, small-scale mining (1696 – 1942) to be quantified and an assessment of the trajectory towards system recovery to be made. The geochemical stratigraphy displayed in twelve sediment cores show strong correspondence to the documented history of metal mining and processing in the catchment. The initial onset in 1696 was detected, peak Pb concentrations (>10,000 µg g-1) and flux (39.4 g m-2 y-1) corresponded to the most intensive mining episode (1863-1871) and 20th century technological enhancements were reflected as a more muted sedimentary imprint. After careful evaluation, we used these markers to augment a Bayesian age-depth model of the independent geochronology obtained using radioisotope dating (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am). Total inventories of Pb, Zn and Cu for the lake basin during the period of active mining were 15,415 kg, 5,897 kg and 363 kg, respectively. The post-mining trajectories for Pb and Zn project a return to pre-mining levels within 54-128 years for Pb and 75-187 years for Zn, although future remobilisation of metal-enriched catchment soils and floodplain sediments could perturb this recovery. We present a transferable paleolimnological approach that highlights flux-based assessments are vital to accurately establish the baseline, impact and trajectory of mining-derived contamination for a lake catchment.
    • Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry in Mental Health Research

      Ogden, Cassandra A.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2014-10-22)
      A dictionary entry explaining the main qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry in research interested in mental health.
    • A Quantitative Sensory Testing Approach to Pain in Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Vaughan, Sarah; McGlone, Francis; Poole, Helen; Moore, David J.; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University (Springer Verlag, 2019-02-15)
      Sensory abnormalities in autism has been noted clinically, with pain insensitivity as a specified diagnostic criterion. However, there is limited research using psychophysically robust techniques. Thirteen adults with ASD and 13 matched controls completed an established Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) battery, supplemented with measures of pain tolerance and central modulation. The ASD group showed higher thresholds for light touch detection and mechanical pain. Notably, the ASD group had a greater range of extreme scores (the number of z-scores outside of the 95% CI >2), dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation; phenomena not typically seen in neurotypical individuals. These data support the need for research examining central mechanisms for pain in ASD and greater consideration of individual difference.
    • The quaternary evolution of the Rio Alias southeast Spain, with emphasis on sediment provenance

      France, Derek; Maher, Elizabeth (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2005-12)
      This study aims to determine the late-Quaternary evolution of an ephemeral, transverse river system developed in southeast Spain, with particular reference to sediment provenance variation. The Rio Alias drains two inter-montane east-west orientated Neogene sedimentary basins; the Sorbas and Almeria basins. Pliocene to present transpressional tectonics has led to inversion of the sedimentary basins and incision of the developing fluvial system. Fluvial incision has led to the preservation of a suite of alluvial terraces recording the late-Quaternary development of the Rio Alias. Fluvial system inauguration began in the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. The primary fluvial system developed as a consequent river later becoming superimposed and transverse to structure. The drainage basin of the Rio Alias has been sub-divided into 4 sub-basins; The Lucainena, Polopos, Argamason and El Saltador sub-basins. Each basin is structurally controlled. The impact of climate, tectonics, river-capture and eustatic sea-level variation on the fluvial system evolution varies both spatially and temporally across the sub-basins of the Rio Alias. Across the region alluvial aggradation is thought to relate to global glacial periods and incision to interglacial periods. The Lucainena sub-basin is largely controlled by climatic variation related to glacial interglacial cycles with slight modification due to local small scale river-capture and regional epeirogenic uplift. The Polopos sub-basin is also largely controlled by climatic variation, however a major river-capture event c.70ka beheaded the Rio Alias of c.70% of its drainage area. Following the loss of drainage the beheaded Rio Alias system lost stream power, this is reflected in the decrease in size of bedform geometry and the reduced incisional capacity of the fluvial system of the post-capture terrace sequence. In the Argamason sub-basin the Rio Alias crosses the Carboneras Fault Zone, a left-lateral strike slip fault. Late-Quaternary tectonic activity has significantly modified the climatically generated signal. Large tortuous meanders developed in response to normal tectonic activity and continued tectonically driven base-level lowering led to abandonment of terraces and local incision. The El Saltador sub-basin is located at the seaward end of the system and the climate generated phases of aggradation and incision have been greatly complicated by eustatic sea-level variation related to glacial/interglacial cycles. The lowering of base-level due to sea-level regression initially led to pronounced incision along steep gradients and to the development of meander loops in the seaward end of the Rio Alias, during what regionally was a climate driven phase of aggradation. Analysis of the alluvial sediment using a combination of field based clast analysis and laboratory analysis (petrology, SEM, magnetic analysis) allows a detailed picture of sediment provenance variation to be established throughout the evolution of the Rio Alias. Provenance analysis provides information on the timing and extent of river-capture related loss of drainage area, the relative timing of local tectonic activity and also provides new information regarding sediment source area variation throughout the development of the fluvial system. Detailed analysis of the terrace sediments and the modern channel indicates that as the fluvial system incises, local input of sediment from the steepening valley sides grows increasingly dominant. The coupling between the hillslopes and the channel thus changes through time. Sediment provenance analysis has increased our understanding of the long-term fluvial evolution of the Rio Alias, identifying not only sediment provenance variation due to river-capture and changing geology but to fluvial system development.
    • Question use in child mental health assessments and the challenges of listening to families.

      O’Reilly, Michelle; Karim, Khalid; Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester; University of Leicester (The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2015-10-07)
      Background: The mental health assessment is a fundamental aspect of clinical practice and central to this is the use of questions. Aims: To investigate the frequency and type of questions utilised within a child mental health assessment. Method: The data consisted of 28 naturally occurring assessments from a UK child and adolescent mental health service. Data were analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analysis to determine frequencies and question type. Results: Results indicated a total of 9086 questions in 41 h across the 28 clinical encounters. This equated to a mean of 3.7 questions per minute. Four types of questions were identified; yes–no interrogatives, wh-prefaced questions, declarative questions and tag questions. Conclusions: The current format of questioning may impede the opportunity for families to fully express their particular concerns and this has implications for service delivery and training.
    • Questioning authority: New perspectives on Milgram’s ‘obedience’ research and its implications for intergroup relations

      Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D.; Birney, Megan E.; University of Queensland; University of St. Andrews; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-04-23)
      Traditionally, Milgram's 'obedience' studies have been used to propose that 'ordinary people' are capable of inflicting great harm on outgroup members because they are predisposed to follow orders. According to this account, people focus so much on being good followers that they become unaware of the consequences of their actions. Atrocity is thus seen to derive from inattention. However recent work in psychology, together with historical reassessments of Nazi perpetrators, questions this analysis. In particular, forensic re-examination of Milgram's own findings, allied to new psychological and historical research, supports an “engaged follower” analysis in which the behaviour of perpetrators is understood to derive from identification with, and commitment to, an ingroup cause that is believed to be noble and worthwhile.
    • Race and the student experience

      Davies, Chantal; Garrett, Matt; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2011-04)
      Introduction to a research project on race and the student experience.
    • Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: Insights into human warfare?

      Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathy; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Unidad Oaxaca (Wiley, 2006-05-09)
      This article discusses the first witnessed cases of raiding parties of male spider monkeys.
    • Rainfall Thresholding and Susceptibility assessment of rainfall induced landslides: application to landslide management in St Thomas, Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Brewer, Tim; Harris, Norman; University of Chester; Cranfield University (Springer Verlag, 2009-08-02)
      The parish of St Thomas has one of the highest densities of landslides in Jamaica, which impacts the residents, local economy and the built and natural environment. These landslides result from a combination of steep slopes, faulting, heavy rainfall and the presence of highly weathered volcanics, sandstones, limestones and sandstone/shale series and are particularly prevalent during the hurricane season (June–November). The paper reports a study of the rainfall thresholds and landslide susceptibility assessment to assist the prediction, mitigation and management of slope instability in landslide-prone areas of the parish.
    • (Re)connecting politics? Parliament, the public and the Internet

      Lusoli, Wainer; Ward, Stephen; Gibson, Rachel; University of Chester ; University of Oxford ; Australian National University (Oxford University Press, 2005-11-04)
      Much concern has been voiced about the ability of UK parliamentary institutions and elected representatives to respond to twenty-first century politics. Consequently, there has been an increasing focus around the need to modernise representative politics and re-engage public interest in democratic institutions. Perhaps not surprisingly, the emergence of the internet and email, has been seized upon as one potential solution to public disconnection from parliament. This article examines the extent to which new media can: open up new channels of communication between MPs and the public and whether it could widen/deepen participation in parliamentary politics. To answer such questions, the paper draws on public opinion survey data which assesses: the extent of current usage of parliamentary websites; whether there is a new audience using online communication; the comparative value of different forms of communication with representatives; the demand for online parliamentary consultation and participation; and attitudes towards use of new media in the parliamentary politics. It concludes by suggesting that whilst new media technologies have potential, without wider changes to parliamentary politics, they are just as likely to reinforce existing participation patterns.
    • Reachability does not explain the middle preference: a comment on Bar-Hillel (2015)

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Thoma, Volker; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of East London (Sage, 2016-03-28)
      Choosing an object from an array of similar objects is a task that people complete frequently throughout their lives (e.g. choosing a can of soup from many cans of soup). Research has also demonstrated that items in the middle of an array or scene are looked at more often and are more likely to be chosen. This middle preference is surprisingly robust and widespread, having been found in a wide range of perceptual-motor tasks. In a recent review of the literature Bar-Hillel (2015) proposes, among other things, that the middle preference is largely explained by the middle item being easier to reach, either physically or mentally. We specifically evaluate Bar-Hillel’s reachability explanation for choice in non-interactive situations in light of evidence showing an effect of item valence on such choices. This leads us to conclude that the center-stage heuristic account is a more plausible explanation of the middle preference.
    • A real-time emergency response scenario using Web 2.0 (Yammer) technology

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; University of Chester (2013-12)
    • Realism, reflection and responsibility: The challenge of writing effective scenarios to support the development of ethical thinking skills

      Ribchester, Chris; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-07)
      Universities are paying increased attention to how they might support the ethical development of their students as one of a range of graduate attributes that will enable them to negotiate increasingly complex professional, civic and personal futures. Scenario-based learning (SBL) is a longstanding strategy used in ethical teaching and this paper describes and evaluates a version of this approach as applied to a second year undergraduate tutorials module. A quantitative assessment of the development of students’ ethical sensitivity over the course of two deliveries of the module shows an uneven impact but also some encouraging trends. A detailed qualitative analysis of how students responded to each scenario identifies five factors that appear to precipitate more in-depth reflection on ethical problems, and these are presented as useful points of guidance for teachers writing ethical scenarios for the first time or for those aiming to hone their existing practice. These factors include the challenge of devising circumstances which appear realistic and plausible to contemporary undergraduate students, constructing scenarios which encourage readers to reflect on and test their personal values, and portraying events which push students to intervene proactively and so taking individual responsibility for their decisions and actions.
    • Realizing Substantive Rights to Healthy Environment in Nigeria: A Case for Constitutionalization

      Ekhator, Eghosa O.; Anaebo, Onyeka K. (Sage, 2015-06-05)
      There has been never-ending debate concerning the right to a healthy environment and the extent to which the law has provided for or guaranteed the right in national and international contexts. Whilst some countries have expressly recognised the right to a healthy environment in their constitutions and subsidiary laws, others have relied on regional instruments and treaties to guarantee such rights, especially where domestic legislation is either lacking, inadequate or ineffective. This article will contend that constitutionalising (rather than regionalising before a human rights commission or treaty) environmental rights domestically would improve environmental outcomes in Nigeria. To further buttress the constitutionalisation argument, this article will undertake a critical analysis of the right to the environment in South Africa which has constitutionalised the right to the environment.
    • Reclaiming the spiritual in Reflective Practice Groups for Clergy

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2017-07-01)
      Reclaiming the spiritual in reflective practice groups
    • ‘Recognition of cultural diversity cannot justify inaction on FGM’: Common themes from attempts to eradicate FGM

      Chappell, Caroline; University of Chester (2014-11-18)
      This powerpoint presentation discusses historical attempts to erradicate female genital mutilation.
    • Reconciling diverse lacustrine and terrestrial system response to penultimate deglacial warming in southern Europe

      Wilson, Graham P.; Reed, Jane M.; Frogley, Michael R.; Hughes, Philip D.; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; University of Chester, University of Hull, University of Sussex, University of Manchester, University College London (The Geological Society of America, 2015-09-01)
      Unlike the most recent deglaciation, the regional expression of climate changes during the penultimate deglaciation remains understudied, even though it led into a period of excess warmth with estimates of global average temperature 1‒2 °C, and sea level ~6 m, above preindustrial values. We present the first complete high-resolution southern European diatom record capturing the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition, from Lake Ioannina (northwest Greece). It forms part of a suite of proxies selected to assess the character and phase relationships of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to rapid climate warming, and to resolve apparent conflicts in proxy evidence for regional paleohydrology. The diatom data suggest a complex penultimate deglaciation driven primarily by multiple oscillations in lake level, and provide firm evidence for the regional influence of abrupt changes in North Atlantic conditions. There is diachroneity in lake and terrestrial ecosystem response to warming at the onset of the last interglacial, with an abrupt increase in lake level occurring ~2.7 k.y. prior to sustained forest expansion with peak precipitation. We identify the potentially important role of direct input of snow melt and glacial meltwater transfer to the subterranean karst system in response to warming, which would cause rising regional groundwater levels. This explanation, and the greater sensitivity of diatoms to subtle changes in temperature, reconciles the divergent lacustrine and terrestrial proxy evidence and highlights the sensitivity of lakes situated in mountainous karstic environments to past climate warming.
    • Reconciling Work, Care and Justice: informal care, status inclusion and self-empowering dynamics

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2014-09-30)
      The phenomenological analysis presented in this chapter sheds light onto the less visible and often unexplored aspects of care. One of these aspects concerns the energising and empowering effects of care responsibilities that clearly help people not only to overcome the exhaustion connected with multi-task operations but also to balance their perceived status exclusion from other settings. Indeed, the crucial role of care in terms of status inclusion represents one of the unexpected and certainly still uncharted aspects of care. Such broader phenomenological analysis brings to the surface important and understudied elements, perhaps a blend of new and old elements, which acquire a completely new sense in light of the Interaction Ritual model (Collins, 2004) and with the inclusion of gay/lesbian and single carers.