• Justify Your Alpha

      Lakens, Daniel; Adolfi, Federico G.; Albers, Casper J.; Anvari, Farid; Apps, Matthew A. J.; Argamon, Shlomo E.; Baguley, Thom; Becker, Raymond B.; Benning, Stephen D.; Bradford, Daniel E.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-02-26)
      In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to p≤ .005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level
    • Keeping it in the family: Refocusing household sustainability

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-01-24)
      Recent research on how best to support the development of pro-environmental behaviours has pointed towards the household as the scale at which interventions might be most effectively targeted. While pro-environmental behaviour research has tended to focus on the actions of adults, almost one-third of UK households also include children and teenagers. Some research has suggested that young people are particularly adept at exerting influence on the ways in which the household as a whole consumes. Yet this influence is not only one-way; parents continue to have direct input into the ways in which their children relate to and interact with the objects of consumption (such as personal possessions) through routine processes including acquisition, use, keeping and ridding. In this paper I draw on qualitative research with British teenagers to highlight how young people and their parents interact when managing household material consumption. I use this discussion to suggest that promoters of sustainability might increase the efficacy of their efforts by engaging households as complex family units, where individual household members’ distinct priorities are linked by shared familial values, and where family-based group identity is used to encourage shared commitment to lower-impact living.
    • Key Thinkers in Social Science

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2013-10-09)
      This book explores the relevance of key thinkers in social science from historical traditions to contemporary philosophers and the nature of modern society and how theories and concepts can be used to shed light on trends and inequalities around the world in which these thinkers lived. History is fast moving. The book attempts to explore the works of Weber, Durkheim, and Marx in the first three chapters to illustrate how their varieties of social science gave intimation about the social world in terms of social disorder and the remedies and actions needed to bring about social justice. The latter three chapters explore arguably the three most influential thinkers in social science of the 20th Century: Parsons, Foucault and Habermas. These thinkers in different ways gave a number of diagnoses of modern society. Some arguing for more balance between individuals and society as best regulated by institutions such as the family (Parsons), others argued for a more sophisticated understanding of power and how it plays out for social groups in modern society (Foucault) whilst for others critical social scientists should be focusing on defending the enlightenment ideals of reason and rationality as we go further into the 21st century. The book raises questions and provides many examples to stimulate thoughtful reflection about all our yesterdays, todays and tomorrows.
    • Kuresel Yaslanma: Egilimler, Sorunlar ve Karsilastirmalar

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Utopya, 2015-10)
      The representations and images of older people in Asia have increasingly become important in both the discipline and practice of social science (Chen and Powell 2012). Indeed, social policy based on old age appears to be moving from its traditional concern with ‘public issues’ in Asia to the question of how aging is socially perceived and experienced by individual social actors related to consumerism on the one hand, and populational control on the other (Powell and Cook, 2000). Aging identities have been grounded in policy discourses and professions of health and social care and the institutionalisation of state care policy in China (Cook and Powell, 2005a). However, a perceived corrosion of these structures has led to an interiorisation of the ground upon which a viable aging identity can be constructed. There are two key issues that are important in exploring the relationship between personal experiences of aging and policy discourse.
    • Landslide hazard mapping and impact in the Holywell area of NE Wales

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (National Museum Wales, 2015-05-15)
      Landslide hazard within urban environments in the UK is largely attributable to two distinct, but not mutually exclusive, types of landslide activity: i) relict landslides in the landscape that predate urban development, and whose presence may or may not have been known about at the time of development; and ii) new slope movements that postdate urban developments. Significant efforts have been made to delimit and categorise the hazard posed by relict slides through, for example, demarcation of known landslides on 1:50 000 maps produced by the British Geological Survey and the compilation of regional databases of landslide activity produced as part of the UK national landslides survey (e.g. Jones and Lee, 1994). This survey showed that much of the relict landsliding in the UK was originally the product of significant climate and environmental changes that followed on from the end of the last (Devensian) glaciation, and that many of these features are now stable in the British landscape, but with the potential to be reactivated either through human mismanagement and/or deteriorating environmental conditions; e.g. changing rainfall patterns linked to climate change (Jones, 1993; Arnell and Reynard 1996; Collison et al., 2000; Environment Agency, 2010). The mapping of landslide susceptibility beyond these relict features is far less complete within the UK, and varies in terms of the methodologies used. One common characteristic of many smaller scale studies is the assumption that the location and type of relict landsliding in an area can be extrapolated to identify new areas with similar geological and geomorphological characteristics that might be susceptible to failure in the future (Siddle, 2000). This assumption is explored in this paper with reference to the physical evidence for landslide damage within a moderately built up area of NE Wales. The research utilises the spatial analysis capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to produce slope susceptibility maps using hazard controlling parameters identified from relict landslides, and then explores the relationship between the relict and anticipated landslide hazard with physical evidence for landslide impact upon aspects of the built environment.
    • Landslide Susceptibility Assessment for ST. Thomas, Jamaica.

      Miller, Servel; Harris, Norman; Bhalai, Suresh; University of Chester; Mines and Geology department, Jamaica (2007-07-01)
      The parish of St Thomas in Jamaica is highly prone to slope failure and in the past this has resulted in extensive damage and in some cases loss of life. To reduce the effect from landslides, there was an urgent need to map and assess areas that may be prone to future failure. Aerial photographs coupled with geomorphological field mapping were used to inventory the landslides. The factors conditioning the slopes for failure were assessed and a weighting value assigned to them. The weighting was achieved by using the principle of Bayesian conditional probability. The weighted factors were combined in a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a landslide susceptibility model for the study area. The susceptibility model created is in general agreement with the distribution of landslides in the area. Comparison of the model with the existing landslides showed that 97% of the landslides fell within the high and very high susceptibility zones of the model. Comparison of the model with landslides that occurred during 2002, and that were not used in the construction of the model, shows that 83 of the 89 slides that occurred fell within the high and very high susceptibility zones. The landslide susceptibility model created hopefully will be one of the first steps in looking at the risks landslides pose to lives, developments, whether it is housing, agriculture or the physical infrastructure and may be used to guide land-use planning in the parish
    • Landslide susceptibility mapping in North-East Wales

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011-10-04)
      In North-East Wales, United Kingdom, slope instability is a known environmental hazard which has caused significant damage to the built environment in the recent past. This paper reports on the creation of a digital landslide inventory for North-East Wales and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create landslide susceptibility models that are applicable to landslide hazard management in the area. The research undertaken has resulted in the most comprehensive landslide inventory of North-East Wales to date, documenting 430 landslides within the area. Landslide susceptibility models created within a GIS using a statistical (multiple logistic regression) approach, divide the landscape of North-East Wales into areas of ‘low’, ‘moderate’ and ‘high’ landslide susceptibility using calculated probability values. These models indicate that 8% of the surface exposure of drift deposits and 12% of the area of solid geology is of high or very high susceptibility to slope instability. Validation tests have demonstrated the accuracy of these models and their potential value in a predictive sense. The digital landslide database and susceptibility models created are readily available to interested stakeholders, and may be useful tools in land-use planning, development of civil contingency plans and as guidance for the insurance industry.
    • Landslides in Jamaica: Distribution, Cause, Impact and Management

      Miller, Servel; Shalkowski, Anestoria; Harris, Norman; Richards, Dionne; Brown, Lyndon; University of Chester; University of the West Indies (CRC Press, 2018-03-21)
      Jamaica has one of the highest natural hazard risk exposures in the world, with more than 90% of the population exposed to two or more natural hazards. The island of Jamaica is particularly prone to multiple hazards, including hurricanes, earthquakes and slope instability, due to its geographical position (within the track of Atlantic hurricanes and its location on the Caribbean ‘tectonic’ plate) and its topography and geology (steep slopes with highly weathered material). Of these hazards, slope instability is the most common, affecting not only mountainous areas but also the coastal plains, where submarine landslides have been known to generate tsunamis. One such tsunami contributed to the destruction of the then capital city of Port Royal in 1692. Landslides are predominantly triggered by seismic activities and heavy rainfall associated with hurricanes and tropical depressions. These landslides have caused loss of lives, widespread destruction to the built and natural environment and long-term damage to the socio-economic development of the country. The slope instability problem is compounded by the lack of awareness of the impact by the general public, developers and planners, as well as uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization on marginal lands susceptible to slope failure.
    • Later Life

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2013-09-05)
      This book explores the theoretical issues inherent in exploring later life in modern society. To deal effectively with the challenges created by population aging, it is vital to first understand these demographic, economic, and social changes and, to the extent possible, their causes, consequences, and implications. Sociological theories offer a knowledge base, a number of useful analytic approaches and tools, and unique theoretical perspectives that can be important aids to this task for students, researchers and policy makers.
    • Launching a Journal About and Through Students as Partners

      Cliffe, Anthony D.; Cook-Sather, Alison; Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; Marquis, Beth; Matthews, Kelly E.; Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Ntem, Anita; Puri, Varun; Woolmer, Cherie (2017-05-08)
      Editorial of first issue of the International Journal for Student as Partners.
    • Law students with Dyslexia and their experience of academic assessment

      Newton, Jethro; Davies, Chantel; Healey, Ruth L.; Morrow, John W. (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      The research explores the experience that students with Dyslexia, on law degrees, have of academic assessment, and the environmental factors that influence their experience and perceptions. The research is situated in one HEI (the Research Institution), which has a student population of 18,800, of which 634 had declared a Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD) (including Dyslexia) during the academic year 2014/15. Previous research has shown that students with Dyslexia are disadvantaged by traditional forms of academic assessment. Whilst little research has been carried out on Dyslexia and law degrees, the predominance of traditional approaches to assessment is commonly believed to disadvantage students with Dyslexia. This potential disadvantage is explored within the Research Institution (RI). In light of their obligation under the Equality Act 2010 to take reasonable steps to alleviate such disadvantages, specific consideration is given to the RI’s response to potential disadvantages faced by such students. In order to facilitate this objective a multiple-methods approach has been utilised for gathering data. Data has been collected through questionnaires, focus groups and interviews, with law students with and without Dyslexia, with lecturers inside and outside the law school, and with student support staff and other professionals. The range of data was then analysed, utilising an inductive approach. Five main themes emerged, and were explored using a social model of Dyslexia and from an emancipatory perspective. The themes are: 1) diagnosis and categorisation of Dyslexia; 2) the students’ experience of academic assessment; 3) the students’ experience of adjustments to academic assessment; 4) the impact of the law school environment on the experience of students with Dyslexia, and 5) the effect of the wider institutional environment and institutional policy and practice on the experiences and perceptions of how students with Dyslexia, and how they are responded to. The data collected pointed to the fact that students with Dyslexia struggled with traditional academic assessment, to a more significant degree than students without Dyslexia. While reasonable adjustments were provided by the institution to help students with Dyslexia overcome such difficulties, and whilst these were helpful to some extent, their overall effectiveness was shown to be limited. The main reasons for the student experiences that emerged from the research were related to the fact that, due to their Dyslexia, the forms of assessment used by their department presented a direct difficulty for students. Traditional forms of assessment utilised on law degrees are therefore considered to be a ‘disabling barrier’, as they inhibit students with Dyslexia from fully demonstrating their academic ability. The thesis then presents pointers to how law degree providers can respond to this issue. It is argued that this can be achieved by adjusting assessment methods in a way that removes, or at least reduces, the ‘disabling barriers’ faced by law students with Dyslexia. The research suggests that this is made possible by utilising a broader range of assessment methods beyond those traditionally utilised in law degrees. It also details how the individualistic nature of Dyslexia means that the most effective means of improving inclusivity for all students is to provide them with elements of choice as to the form of assessment adopted. The research concludes with proposals for alleviating the disadvantage experienced by law students with Dyslexia in respect of their experience of the academic assessment process and academic assessment outcomes. It is argued that to enhance the quality of their learning opportunities, and in order to be inclusive, academic assessment policy and practice should be informed by/premised upon a social interpretation of Dyslexia.
    • Learning to Think in a Second Language: Effects of Proficiency and Length of Exposure in English Learners of German

      Athanasopoulos, Panos; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Burnand, Julie; Bylund, Emanuel; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-01-29)
      The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of non-aspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task involving working memory (Athanasopoulos & Bylund, 2013; Bylund & Athanasopoulos, 2015), the current study asks whether native speakers of an aspect language start paying more attention to event endpoints when learning a non-aspect language. Native English and German (a non-aspect language) speakers, and English learners of L2 German, who were pursuing studies in German language and literature at an English university, were asked to match a target scene with intermediate degree of endpoint orientation with two alternate scenes with low and high degree of endpoint orientation, respectively. Results showed that, compared to the native English speakers, the learners of German were more prone to base their similarity judgements on endpoint saliency, rather than ongoingness, primarily as a function of increasing L2 proficiency and year of university study. Further analyses revealed a non-linear relationship between length of L2 exposure and categorization patterns, subserved by a progressive strengthening of the relationship between L2 proficiency and categorization as length of exposure increased. These findings present evidence that cognitive restructuring may occur through increasing experience with an L2, but also suggest that this relationship may be complex and unfold over a long period of time.
    • A leftward bias for the arrangement of consumer items that differ in attractiveness

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2020-06-24)
      People are frequently biased to use left side information more than right side information to inform their perceptual judgements. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applied to preferences for the arrangement of everyday consumer items. Pairs of consumer items were created where one item was more attractive than the other item. Using a two-alternative forced choice task, Experiment 1 found a robust preference for arrangements with the more attractive consumer item on the left side rather than the right side of a pair. Experiment 2 reversed the judgement decision, with participants asked to choose the arrangement they least preferred, and a bias for arrangements with the more attractive item on the right side emerged. Experiment 3 failed to find an effect of the ‘attractive left’ preference on participants’ purchasing intentions. The preference for attractive left arrangements has implications for the display of consumer products and for the aesthetic arrangement of objects in general. The findings are discussed in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in processing and the role of left to right scanning.
    • A leftward perceptual asymmetry when judging the attractiveness of visual patterns

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Crossley, Becky; Lee, Jennifer; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-15)
      Perceptual judgements concerning the magnitude of a stimulus feature are typically influenced more by the left side of the stimulus than by the right side. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applies to judgements of the attractiveness of abstract visual patterns. Across four experiments participants chose between two versions of a stimulus which either had an attractive left side or an attractive right side. Experiments 1 and 2 presented artworks and experiments 3 and 4 presented wallpaper designs. In each experiment participants showed a significant bias to choose the stimulus with an attractive left side more than the stimulus with an attractive right side. The leftward bias emerged at age 10/11, was not caused by a systematic asymmetry in the perception of colourfulness or complexity, and was stronger when the difference in attractiveness between the left and right sides was larger. The results are relevant to the aesthetics of product and packaging design and show that leftward biases extend to the perceptual judgement of everyday items. Possible causes of the leftward bias for attractiveness judgements are discussed and it is suggested that the size of the bias may not be a measure of the degree of hemispheric specialisation.
    • Life-span development and spiritual needs

      Gubi, Peter M.; Goss, Phil M.; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2015-02-21)
    • Limb preference and personality in donkeys (Equus asinus)

      Diaz, Sergio; Murray, Lindsay Elaine; Rodway, Paul; University of Chester; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      Interhemispheric laterality has often been linked to different behavioural styles. This study investigates the link between limb preference and personality in donkeys. The sample consisted of 47 donkeys (Equus asinus), 30 males and 17 females. Limb preference was determined using observation of the leading limb in a motionless posture and personality was measured using the Donkey Temperament Questionnaire (French, J. M. (1993). Assessment of donkey temperament and the influence of home environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 36(2), 249–257. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(93)90014-G) completed by the donkeys’ keepers. A Principal Component Analysis obtained two components: Agreeableness and Extraversion. Age showed a positive relationship with Agreeableness, echoing trends in humans Donkeys did not show a population-level preference towards either side. Limb preference significantly predicted the trait difficult to handle: donkeys with a preference to keep the right foot forward when motionless were harder to handle. This study presents the first investigation into limb preference and personality in donkeys, although more research is needed to clarify whether there is a population-level limb preference bias in donkeys, and the relationship between limb preference and Agreeableness.
    • Listening to Less-Heard Voices: Developing Counsellors’ Awareness

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2015-05-01)
      This book is written in order to enhance practice and understanding in Counselling and allied helping professions. The contributors are all qualified Counsellors and the work is grounded in research. They explore: the phenomenology of the tattooed client; the impact of Person-Centred Counselling training on friendship; the therapeutic importance of pets; non-physical abuse; mothers’ experiences of the impact of a traumatic birth; the experience of Counsellors who work with complicated grief; and the role of mother-tongue in counselling Welsh speakers. These individual chapters provide valuable insights into working with client groups and needs which are rarely explored in the wider literature. As a result, professionals practising in these specific fields will find this book particularly relevant. Equally, for the general reader in the Counselling and allied helping fields, the specific areas covered will spark curiosity and provide food for thought to apply to their own work. This book is an exemplar of good practice in the publication of excellent Counselling students’ research, which draws on the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis method of research, in which the participants’ voices are clearly heard.
    • Lockdown Scrapbook

      Bennett, Julia; University of Chester
      The Covid-19 lockdown in England began on 23rd March 2020, when people were told to stay at home and only go out for essential purposes, which included an hour’s daily exercise. These measures were originally scheduled to last for three weeks, but were then extended for a further three weeks. On 17th April, shortly after the three week extension began, I started to record my daily walks. For just over a month I chose a word which signified the current moment in some way and took photos related to my chosen theme. I posted four pictures per day, most days, on Twitter (@drjuliabennett). This is a description of the photos, the walks and news media during this period.
    • The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme

      Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine; University of Oslo ; University of Oslo ; University College London ; University College London (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-21)
      Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6–12 months after the programme. For this, a nonclinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme (N ¼ 79) and a nonattending comparison group (N ¼ 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6–12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6–12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains.
    • Longitudinal associations between social skills problems and different types of peer victimization

      Fox, Claire L.; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; University of Chester (Springer, 2006-06)
      This article discusses a study in which 449 children aged 9 to 11 years completed an inventory to assess the bidirectional longitudinal associations between three different types of victimization and submissive/nonassertive social behaviour.