• ‘I call it the hero complex’ – Critical considerations of power and privilege and seeking to be an agent of change in qualitative researchers’ experiences.

      Oakley, Lisa; Fenge, Lee-Ann; Taylor, Bethan; University of Chester, Bournemouth University, My CWA
      There is a relative paucity of studies specifically exploring the experiences of qualitative researchers undertaking research in socially sensitive areas or with marginalised groups. This paper reports some of the findings of a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of ten participant researchers. The findings of this study suggest that participant researchers are cognisant of issues of power and privilege in conducting their research. They also illustrate the motivation to enact change via the research findings. However, they demonstrate the complexities of power, privilege and change in the research process and how these concepts can be related to researcher guilt. The study shows that experience can act as a buffer in the qualitative research process but that further work in researcher resilience is required. Participant researchers suggest the need for more honest and open discussions around foundational principles of qualitative research. They suggest further development of cross institutional spaces for these discussions to take place. However, the paper also illustrates the necessity to consider issues of power, privilege and research as social change at individual, institutional and systemic levels,
    • I love to ride my bike: Living and promoting active mobility

      Cox, Peter; University Of Chester (2014-11-26)
    • I'm Half Turkish - Dancing Bears and Marble Stairs

      Egeli, Cemil; University of Chester (PCCS Books, 2016-12-31)
      This article explores some of my life experiences as a person of mixed culture.
    • Iceberg jam floods in Icelandic proglacial rivers: testing the self-organized criticality hypothesis

      Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Marren, Philip M.; Cossart, Etienne; University Clermont Auvergne; University Blaise Pascal; CNRS ; University of Chester (GFG, 2016-03-31)
      In this paper, we describe a fluvial marginal process associated with the formation of iceberg jams in Icelandic proglacial lakes. The floods triggered by the release of these iceberg jams have implications for the geomorphic evolution of the proglacial fluvial system. The process of iceberg jam floods share some conceptual characteristics with Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) approach of complex systems. Using a simple numerical model and field observations, we test the hypothesis that iceberg jam floods exhibit SOC. Field observations and aerial photo-interpretations in southeastern Iceland demonstrate the occurrence of icebergs jam in ice-contact lakes. The mapping of the south Vatnajökull margins between 2003 and 2012 reveals an increase of the calving potentiality and a rise in the likelihood of iceberg jam flood occurrence. Based on the results of the numerical model and field observations, we suggest that iceberg jam floods should be recognized as a SOC phenomenon. Analysis of the simulated time-series show that the iceberg jam floods become less frequent and more similar in magnitude over time. This global trend is related to the gradual enlargement of the lake outlet channel.
    • The IFP Campaign: Indlovu ayisindwa kawbaphambili!

      Francis, Suzanne; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (Jacana, 2010)
      The paper explores the alternative vision adopted by the Inkatha Freedom Party in their 2009 campaign. It focused on core supporters, local democratic branch structures and processes, a re-assertion of core values as central, and a re-casting of public policy to meet the needs of a heterogeneous society. Most importantly, it was a campaign that, win or lose, they fought alone without an ally or an impending coalition, and they fought it as a coherent party for the first time since 1994. The IFP, in the campaign, offered an alternative vision of ethics, etiquette and respect in government which was to speak to well educated, illiterate, wealthy and impoverished voters alike across the ideological spectrum. This was a new vision of integrity and public service that would pull South Africa back from the ‘brink of a crisis of governance’ and was rooted in the IFP discourse of etiquette and respect of customary good manners in a method of politics that spoke directly to political behaviour and transcended ideological divisions. Framed in the spirit of ubuntu-botho and the discourse of self-help, the IFP were to offer this alternative vision of as their method of governance. Unlike other parties, the IFP campaign set itself apart by its very political culture and not simply in its ideological and policy positions.
    • Ignorance is bliss? Exploring paranormal beliefs, coping and happiness in a UK and Singaporean sample

      Lasikiewicz, Nicola; University of Chester (2014-08)
      Previous research has indicated that belief in unusual phenomena and superstitious thinking may increase in times of stress (Keinan 1994; 2002). Further, believers in the paranormal often display avoidant coping strategies with little to no problem solving. These findings may, therefore, reflect a specific coping mechanism for stressful situations. However, little research has explored the possible interaction between the perception of stress and coping style on belief and further, an assessment of perceived happiness. Consequently, the current study aimed to explore possible associations between perceived stress and happiness, coping and paranormal belief. Further, these relationships were explored and compared in a sample of Western (UK) and South East Asian (Singapore) participants. Ninety-two male and female participants aged between 19 and 61 years (mean age=36.56 ± 11.74 years) from the UK and 145 male and female participants aged between 18 and 57 years (mean age=23.03 ± 5.51 years) from Singapore completed an online battery of psychological measures assessing paranormal belief (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; Tobacyk, 1988), superstitious thinking (Superstitions Questionnaire; Zebb & Moore, 2003), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, Cohen, 1994), coping (Ways of Coping Revised, Lazarus & Folkman, 1985) and happiness (Oxford Happiness Questionnaire; Hills & Argyle, 2002). Participants were predominantly students recruited using convenience sampling. Data were analysed using a series of backwards enter multiple regression analyses to determine the predictors of paranormal belief. For all participants, level of education (a higher score being indicative of a lower educational qualification), happiness and coping were significant predictors of global paranormal belief (R2=.22, F(6, 225)=10.787; p<.01). Specifically, a lower level of education (β=.20; p<.00) greater happiness (β=.16; p<.05) and coping in the form of low problem solving (β=-.16; p<.05) and greater positive reappraisal (β=.24; p<.00) were associated with greater belief. Further, a lower level of education (β=.13; p<.05) and coping (low problem solving (β=-.18; p<.05) and high distancing (β=.31; p<.00) were associated with significantly greater superstitious thinking (R2=.21, F(7, 224)=8.239; p<.01). In terms of crosscultural differences, paranormal belief was significantly greater in Singaporeans but no significant differences in happiness and perceived stress between the two nations were noted. In terms of predicting belief, level of education was a significant predictor of both global paranormal belief (β=.36; p<.00) and superstitious thinking (β=.25; p<.05) for participants in the UK (R2=.16, F(3, 85)=5.345; p<.01 and R2=.12, F(2, 86)=5.776; p<.01 respectively). For Singaporeans, greater happiness (β=.23; p<.00) significantly predicted greater paranormal belief in addition to low problem solving (β=-.19; p<.05), high avoidance (β=.21; p<.05) and greater distancing (β=.34; p<.00) coping strategies (R2=.22, F(5, 137)=7.832; p<.01). Further, the combination of high perceived stress and low problem solving was also a significant predictor of superstitious thinking in Singaporeans (R2=.27, F(5, 137)=9.919; p<.00; β=-.19; p<.00). The findings support the suggestion that belief in the paranormal may reflect a specific pattern of coping characterised by greater propensity for distancing and avoidance with low problem solving. Further, the combination of high stress and low problem solving may increase the propensity for belief and superstitious thinking, particularly in a South East Asian population. Further research is required to determine whether this apparent coping mechanism is protective or maladaptive in the long run and whether cultural differences may mediate this effect.
    • Impact Assessment of Holiday Provision in West Cheshire, 2019

      Francis, Michael; Dunne, Seona; Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester
      This piece of work analyses the impact of holiday activity and food provision in deprived areas of West Cheshire, with the intention to reflect on the impact in children, their families and the wider community and assess the need for this provision, and the need to continue funding these initiatives in the future.
    • The impact of a major Quaternary river capture on the alluvial sediments of a beheaded river system, the Rio Alias SE Spain

      Maher, Elizabeth; Harvey, Adrian M.; France, Derek; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool ; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2007-02-28)
      This article discusses a major river capture event within the Sorbas Basin (c.70 ka) which created a situation whereby the Rio Alias abruptly lost c. 70% of its drainage area and this led to a significant modification of the fluvial system in both upstream and downstream zones on the capturing stream, and downstream on the beheaded system.
    • The impact of a parenting guidance programme for mothers with an ethnic minority background

      Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine; University of Oslo ; University of Oslo ; University College London ; University College London (de Gruyter, 2014-09-16)
      The current mixed-method study investigates the effects of a culturally adapted version of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) with 135 mothers – 29 ethnic Pakistani mothers residing in Norway attending Urdu-language groups and a comparison group of 105 Norwegian mothers attending Norwegian-language groups. All mothers completed questionnaires on parenting and psychosocial health before and after attending the ICDP programme. In-depth interviews with a subgroup of 12 ethnic Pakistani mothers and 8 ethnic Norwegian mothers were analysed using thematic analysis. Before the ICDP programme, the Urdu-speaking mothers spent more time with the child, scored higher on distant child management and reported poorer mental health. Most changes over time were similar but significant for the Norwegian-speaking group only, which might imply that the minority mothers were in the process of change. In the interviews, the Urdu-speaking mothers’ emphasized enhanced communication and regulation, enhanced family relationships and life quality, whereas the Norwegian-speaking group told about increased consciousness and empowerment, and a more positive focus.
    • The impact of dams on floodplain geomorphology: are there any, should we care, and what should we do about it?

      Marren, Philip M.; Grove, James R.; Webb, J. Angus; Stewardson, Michael J.; University of Melbourne (7th Australian Stream Management Conference / asn events, 2014)
      We undertook a review of the potential for dams to impact floodplain geomorphology, using both a conventional literature review and a systematic review using ‘causal criteria’ analysis. The literature review identified potential impacts on overbank flooding, scour and sedimentation, within-channel bank erosion, meander migration and cutoff frequency, and avulsion characteristics and frequency. The temporal scale of impacts ranged from years and decades, through to millennia. The causal criteria analysis indicated that with the exception of reduced meander migration rates, most impacts had been too poorly documented to be confident of their impact at present. We identify a distinction between ‘passive impacts’ (floodplain disconnection) and ‘active impacts’ (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). Dams do impact floodplain geomorphology: many of the impacts will be subtle, and over very long timescales (1000s of years), but altered overbank sediment loads have the potential to change patterns of scour and deposition across floodplains. Further research is needed that specifically seeks to identify the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology, hydrology-geomorphology-vegetation interactions, and floodplain ecological response. Given the practical constraints on overbank environmental flow releases, there is relatively little that can be done to mitigate dam impacts on floodplain geomorphology. The main options include using within-channel flows to maintain meander migration and partial floodplain connectivity. We suggest that the major action should be that once dams come online, efforts should be made to prevent channel enlargement through scour, channel widening and wood removal, so that geomorphological processes can fully reestablish immediately once the dam ceases to operate.
    • Impact of large instream logs on river bank erosion

      Zhang, Nuosha; Rutherfurd, Ian; Marren, Philip M.; University of Melbourne (Zhang, Rutherfurd); University of Chester (Marren) (11th International Symposium on Ecolhydraulics, 2016-02-29)
      There has been abundant research into the effect of tree roots on stabilizing river banks, and also on the effect of trees on bed-scour after they have fallen into the stream, but there is little research into the effect of instream logs on bank erosion. Here we develop the hydraulic theory that predicts local and reach scale bank erosion associated with instream logs with various configurations and distributions and conclude that individual log can increase local bank erosion, but multiple logs can reduce overall reach erosion. Where there is consistent bank strength, the local erosion varies in a non-linear way with the angle, size and position of the log. The reach scale effect of multiple logs depends on the distribution of logs and the proportion of the reach occupied by logs. Erosion effects of instream logs are difficult to measure. We are testing the above theory of erosion associated with instream logs in a series of anabranches of different sizes that experience consistent irrigation flows each year (on the Murray River in SE Australia). These channels have high erosion rates, abundant logs, and are like a giant flume that allows us to measure erosion processes, as well as hydraulics, in a controlled setting.
    • The Impact of Sensitive Research on the Researcher: Preparedness and Positionality

      Fenge, Lee Ann; Oakley, Lisa, Kathryn, Jusin & Mor Kinmond, Humphreys & Dioum; Taylor, Bethan; Beer, Sean; Bournemouth University, University of Chester, Cheshire without Abuse, Bournemouth University
      There is currently limited research exploring the impact of undertaking sensitive or challenging research on the researcher, although some textbooks explore researcher preparedness. This article presents a discussion of the findings from a research project which engaged with the seldom heard voices of researchers themselves. The aim was to explore researchers’ experiences of undertaking research on sensitive topics, or with marginalized groups, as this can expose researchers to emotionally disturbing situations throughout data collection and analysis, which can be psychologically challenging. Although ethical codes of practice include discussion around protection of both the researcher and the participant, in practice, the ethics approval process rarely considers the impact of the proposed research on the researcher. Their experiences are therefore seldom acknowledged or heard, resulting in potential distress for the researcher. Semi- structured interviews were undertaken with social science researchers from a range of discipline backgrounds and at different points in their research careers (n = 10). This article explores two themes emerging from the data: preparedness and positionality. It considers what these themes mean in terms of supporting researchers who encounter challenging research data, and issues related to supporting researcher reflexivity and the requirements for institutional support offered to researchers will also be considered.
    • The Impact of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on Domestic Law: A Case study of Nigeria

      Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-06-09)
      The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) establishes a system or mechanism for the promotion and protection of human rights in Africa within the framework of the African Union (formerly known as the Organisation of African Unity). The African Charter promotes a range of human rights such as civil and political, socio-economic and cultural, individual and collective rights. The African Charter is the first regional mechanism to incorporate the different classes of human rights in a single document. There have been a plethora of academic postulations indicating that the African Charter has impacted Nigerian Law minimally. This article contends that the African Charter has impacted positively on Nigerian law notwithstanding the academic postulations to the contrary.
    • Impeachment as an accountability measure in a presidential system. Views from Nigeria's Fourth Republic

      Francis, Suzanne; Fagbadebo, Omololu; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (University of KwaZulu-Natal and University of St Thomas, 2014-12-01)
      Extant provisions of Nigeria’s presidential constitution seek to promote a culture of accountability through a system of checks and balances. Since Nigeria’s return to civil rule in May 1999, promotion of good governance through accountability government continues to be a challenge. All indications point to a worsening governance crisis in the midst of abundant resources. Besides, Nigeria’s socio-economic performance and visible poor service delivery depict a deepening governance crisis occasioned by mismanagement of public resources. The data collected by means of documents and literature indicates that the presidential system has checks and balances as measures to prevent the abuse of power. Impeachment is the major institutionally recognised legislative mechanism to hold the executive accountable. The puzzle since the inception of Nigeria’s Fourth Republic is the failure of the legislature to appropriate this statutory authority to police the execution of public policies in a manner that will conform to the constitutional requirements. While there are requisite constitutional provisions that mandate the legislature to ascertain its power over the executive, indicating Nigeria’s commitment to the promotion of good governance, the legislature has failed to appropriate these instruments to stimulate a responsible government that is open to promoting good governance. Using the theories of structural functionalism and elites, this paper argues that this legislative failure to appropriate the instrument of impeachment to instil the culture of responsible executive in policy process engenders the prevailing governance crisis in Nigeria. The paper concludes that a political system where systemic corruption prevails will reduce impeachment to a mere instrument of political vendetta.
    • Implicit knowledge and memory for musical stimuli in musicians and non-musicians.

      Thorpe, Lisa; Cousins, Margaret; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-03-21)
      The phoneme monitoring task used by Bigand, Tillmann, Poulin, D’Adamo and Madurell (2001) is a musical priming paradigm that demonstrates that both musicians and non-musicians have gained implicit understanding of prevalent harmonic structures. Little research has focused on implicit music learning in musicians and non-musicians. This current study aimed to investigate whether the phoneme monitoring task would identify any implicit memory differences between musicians and non-musicians. It focuses on both implicit knowledge of musical structure and implicit memory for specific musical sequences. Thirty-two musicians and non-musicians (19 female and 13 male) were asked to listen to a seven-chord sequence and decide as quickly as possible whether the final chord ended on the syllable /di/ or /du/. Overall, musicians were faster at the task, though non-musicians made more gains through the blocks of trials. Implicit memory for musical sequence was evident in both musicians and non-musicians. Both groups of participants reacted quicker to sequences that they had heard more than once but showed no explicit knowledge of the familiar sequences.
    • The importance of relationship

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2015-02-21)
    • In a search for meaning: Challenging the accepted know-how of working with suicide risk

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-09-14)
      This opinion piece considers the current predominance of assessment tools and strategies in working with people at risk of suicide, and questions their efficacy and how they are privileged in day to day mental health practice. While such tools and an evidence-based ‘scientific’ approach to assessment clearly has its place, the author instead asserts that the modus operandi of therapy – a discursive based exploration – has much more to offer and should be the primary intervention in understanding suicide potential. Helping the client to gain insight into the meaning of their suicidality helps position the client – and practitioner – in the best possible place to reduce risk.
    • In the face of adversity: Resiliency in winter sport athletes

      Brown, Hollie; Lafferty, Moira E.; Triggs, Carmel; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-02-07)
      Objectives.- To explore winter sports athletes' experiences of adversity within their sporting careers. Methods.- Data were collected from semi structured interviews with seven British elite winter sports athletes (mean age =23.1 years, SD =2.4), representing a range of winter sport disciplines. Results.- Twelve general dimensions emerged, serving to support the pioneering conceptual model of sport resilience, and emphasizing the role previous experiences of adversity have on the acquisition of resilient qualities. Conclusions.- The findings from this study have the potential to inform applied sport psychology practice. Specifically regarding the development of a ‘resiliency package’, which could aim to protect athletes from maladaptive and/or dysfunctional responses to adversity, and encourage adaptive and resilient reintegration.
    • Inadvertent environmentalism and the action–value opportunity: reflections from studies at both ends of the generational spectrum

      Hitchings, Russell; Collins, Rebecca; Day, Rosie; University College London; University of Chester; University of Birmingham (Routledge, 2013-11-22)
      A recent turn towards a more contextually sensitive apprehension of the challenge of making everyday life less resource hungry has been partly underwritten by widespread evidence that the environmental values people commonly profess to hold do not often translate into correspondingly low impact actions. Yet sometimes the contexts of everyday life can also conspire to make people limit their consumption without ever explicitly connecting this to the environmental agenda. This paper considers this phenomenon with reference to UK studies from both ends of the generational spectrum. The first questioned how older people keep warm at home during winter and the second examined how young people get rid of no longer wanted possessions. Both found that, though the respondents involved were acting in certain ways that may be deemed comparatively low impact, they were hitherto relatively indifferent to the idea of characterising these actions as such. We outline three ways in which sustainability advocates might respond to the existence of such “inadvertent environmentalists” and consider how they might inspire studies that generate fresh intervention ideas instead of lingering on the dispiriting recognition that people do not often feel able to act for the environment.