• Gan's Journey from Thailand

      Holiday, Yewa; Gan; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-07-03)
      Gan’s situation is assessed in relation to the 1975 and 1990 ILO Migrant Workers Conventions (MWC). Article 12(g) of the 1975 MWC provides for equal treatment in working conditions for migrants. Article 25(a) of the 1990 MWC provides for equality of treatment in relation to health and article 28 requires access to medical care and safety in working conditions. Gan provides a personal insight into his experience as an international labour migrant in Saudi Arabia and the UK. Gan had a work accident on a construction site which eventually prevented him from working and thus stopped him from sending remittances to his family. Gan’s migrant premium is represented by the burden of ill health, the cost of a private operation in Thailand and its inability to correct his longstanding pain, the initial ignorance of UK doctors of the severity of his health needs, total loss of income and savings and reducing remittances to his family in Thailand. The chapter takes the form of an interview with Gan who generously shares his experiences of his migrant premium. Gan does all he can to fight against his migrant premium by trying to find a way to work despite the pain. However, the migrant premium prevents him from working, something which was – and continues to be - a strong part of his identity. The chapter suggests that one of the policy propositions for the Global Compact should be an understanding of the long term consequences and impact of discriminatory working conditions for the health of international labour migrants.
    • Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse

      Humphries, Rachel L.; Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; University of Chester, University of Huddersfield, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-02)
      There is a dearth of research investigating psychosocial correlates of attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse (CSA) in males and females, and a lack of such studies drawing on participants from the UK. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to examine gender differences in social and psychological predictors of attitudes towards reporting CSA. Participants drawn from the UK general population were recruited via an opportunistic sampling method. Cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaire was utilized. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that social support, masculinity, and age form significant associations with attitudes towards reporting CSA in females (total variance explained by the model was 25%). In the male sample, the only significant predictor of attitudes towards reporting CSA was interpersonal manipulation (total variance explained by the model was 9%). This study provides an important insight into psychosocial barriers/facilitators to reporting CSA. Such knowledge is crucial for the early detection and prevention of abuse.
    • Gender differences in the correlates of reactive aggression

      Debowska, Agata; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Boduszek, Daniel; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; University of Huddersfield (de Gruyter, 2015-11)
      The main aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behaviour) as well as childhood exposure to violence and reactive aggression in men and women. Participants were a sample of working adults (N = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan. Results indicated that reactive aggression among males formed significant associations with Erratic Lifestyle, Interpersonal Manipulation, and childhood exposure to violence. Only one correlate, Erratic Lifestyle, was a significant correlate of reactive aggression in females. These findings are discussed in light of theory and previous research findings.
    • Gender Variation in Asylum Experiences in the UK: The Role of Patriarchy and Coping Strategies

      Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Research Centre for Identity and Migration Issues (RCIMI), 2010-09-01)
      Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed. Their experiences are examined in relation to different patriarchal forces. In comparison to the males, differences are apparent in the level and types of agency of the female asylum seekers and refugees. Within this study certain types of patriarchy are reproduced in British society particularly at the household level, whilst individuals are also influenced by institutional patriarchy within the wider society. The variation in experiences found here suggests the need for policy to recognise the heterogeneity of these groups, so as to provide the most appropriate support for individuals.
    • Gender, Masculinity, Contemporary History and the Psychiatric Secure Estate: Back to the Future?

      Powell, Jason; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (World Scientific News, 2015-10-10)
      In contemporary history, the use of gendered treatments for women with mental health issues in the psychiatric secure estate is an issue of major concern in Great Britain. This paper examines women and gender in the psychiatric secure estate from a structural analysis drawing influence from Connell‟s (1987) theoretical and conceptual work on hegemonic masculinity. Bio-psychological approaches have almost dominated academic discussion in relation to women‟s incarceration and there is an reflexive need to develop other sociological frameworks on hegemonic masculinity because dominant bio-psychological models have failed to identify underlying configurations which combine to oppress women whilst simultaneously reproducing consequences of masculinity and power within institutional structures.
    • Gender, numbers and substance: The "politics of presence" and parliamentary women in KwaZulu-Natal

      Francis, Suzanne; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2009)
      This article investigates four dimensions of the political institutional representation of women by women parliamentarians in KwaZulu-Natal. It begins by exploring whether or not women Members of the Provincial Parliament (MPPs) actively seek to substantively represent women, and how they do this. Secondly, it probes the perceptions they hold of their impact in this area. Third, the question of whether and how contested conceptions of political representation impact on attempts to feminise the agenda, is raised. Lastly, the article explores the impact of women MPPs via the institutional mechanism of the Women’s Parliamentary Caucus (WPC). The results show that the majority of parliamentary women do seek to represent women and claim effectiveness in doing so. Challenges to this agenda however include party identity, and racial and cultural conceptions of representation that divide women and strengthen resistance to change. It was also found that while the WPC provides an arena for women to elucidate their specific concerns and partly circumvent the constraints of party and racial and cultural representation, its institutional inadequacies were found to impact negatively upon the women’s agenda – a factor recognised only by a minority of women MPPs.
    • Gender, social background and sexual attitudes among Chinese students

      Higgins, Louise; Sun, Chun Hui; University of Chester ; Beijing Normal University (Taylor & Francis, 2007-01)
      This article discusses current attitudes to sexual behaviour and marriage amongst 1100 university students from different parts of China.
    • Gendered experiences of academic staff in relation to research activity and the REF2014

      Davies, Chantal; Healey, Ruth L.; Cliffe, Anthony D.; University of Chester (2016-06)
      This report is based on research commissioned by the institutional Research and Knowledge Transfer Office between June 2015 and June 2016. This research has focused on generating qualitative and quantitative data as to the potential reasons why there appears to be a gender disparity in research productivity within the commissioning institution. In particular, the number of women self-selecting for representation in the REF2014 was comparatively low. This research was led by Dr Chantal Davies (as part of her broader remit in relation to the Forum for Research into Equality and Diversity) with Dr Ruth Healey as co-researcher and Anthony Cliffe as research assistant. A Steering Group made up of representatives from across the institution oversaw the process.
    • Gendered Perspectives of Research Activity Symposium Report 2016

      Davies, Chantal; Healey, Ruth L.; Manfredi, Simonetta; Vickers, Lucy; University of Chester; Oxford Brookes University (University of Chester, 2016-10-20)
      On the 15th-16th June 2016, The Forum for Research into Equality and Diversity (University of Chester), in partnership with the Centre for Diversity Policy Research and Practice (Oxford Brookes University), hosted the Gendered perspectives of research activity Symposium at the University of Chester, Chester, UK. The Symposium brought 30 representatives and researchers from across Higher Education in the UK, Europe and beyond together with sector bodies and policy drivers in order to workshop the gendered barriers and obstacles to research activity in Higher Education. This report provides a summary of the discussions and findings, as well as the key ideas, themes, questions, challenges and conclusions that came out of the two-day discussion. A further goal of the report is to seek to articulate the participants’ deliberations and considerations in order to contribute to the development of an effective strategy in the UK and beyond seeking to break down gendered barriers in relation to research activity.
    • A Genealogy of Old Age, Welfare and Professional Power

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (Institute for Public Enterprise, 2013-12-29)
      NA
    • Genuine and simulated suicide notes: An analysis of content

      Ioannou, Maria; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2014-11-01)
      The present study examined genuine and simulated suicide notes aiming to identify the measures of content that best differentiate between the two. Thirty- three genuine and thirty-three simulated suicide notes were content-analysed and data subjected to Smallest Space Analysis (SSA), a Multidimensional Scaling Procedure. The core of all suicide notes was discovered to be constructed with the use of three variables: expressions of love, positive construction of partner and apologies. Furthermore, four different genuine suicide note themes (‘planned escape’, ‘negative affect and self-mitigation’, ‘positive affect and failed relationship’, ‘lack of self-acceptance’) and three simulated suicide note themes (‘escape’, ‘positive affect and self-blame’, ‘purposeless life’) were identified revealing that authentic suicide note themes were more internally consistent and clearer to interpret.
    • Genuine partnership and equitable research: working “with” older people to develop a smart activity monitoring system

      Pratesi, Alessandro; Sixsmith, Judith; Woolrych, Ryan (2013-12)
      Recent UK government policy has highlighted the value of user involvement in service development, particularly concerning assistive technologies and their role in providing care. This article illustrates the case of a person-centred, participatory project involving older people in the design, implementation and development of innovative technological solutions to enable older people to live independently and age-in-place within their homes and communities. The research aims and objectives included: the identification of technological, psychological and social needs of older people; the definition of user requirements to inform an activity monitoring system for use in private homes and residential care settings; and the analysis of the ways in which such systems impact on the everyday lives of older adults in different settings. The innovative aspects of the user-driven, participatory approach illustrated in this paper concern the involvement of older people as co-researchers throughout the research process. This article reports the reflexive accounts which emerged during the project and provides viable and practical pathways to facilitate participatory research in the development of assistive technology for older adults. It provides practical guidelines for future user-driven, participatory research involving older adults in the design, development and implementation of assistive technologies. Our findings show that developing authentic, non-tokenistic research partnerships and including older people’s ideas, motivations and perspectives in the design and development of these types of technology can lead to productive forms of mutual inspiration and technological solutions grounded in the experiences of older people.
    • Geographical Information Systems (GIS) applied to landslide hazard zonation in the North Wales coalfield

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (National Museum Wales, 2015-05-01)
      In areas with a history of slope instability problems, landslide hazard zonation is increasingly becoming an integral tool in the effective management of this hazard (Chauhan et al., 2010; Leventhal and Kotze, 2008; Fells et al., 2008; Moreiras, 2005). Landslide hazard zonation provides the scientific basis for the implementation of land-use, emergency management and loss reduction measures in landslide-prone areas (Haubin et al., 2005). Although such techniques are commonly used worldwide in the management of slope instability, their use has been limited in the UK to a number of localised studies; e.g. South Wales coalfield (Halcrow and Partners, 1989) and Derbyshire Peak District (Thurston, 1997). It has been recognised that there are numerous relict landslides throughout the UK, which are being reactivated due to climatic factors (Arnell and Reynard 1996; Collison, 2000; and Environmental Agency, 2010) as well as land-use changes (Norbury, 2002; Smith, 2002). As indicated by Glade (2003, p3) ‘Land-use change has been recognized throughout the world as one of the most important factors influencing the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides’. Hazard mapping and susceptibility modelling (zonation) in landslide-prone areas should be a vital component of land-use planning, particularly where development continues to spread onto slopes deemed unstable. This paper outlines the development of a landslide susceptibility zonation model for areas of solid geology in the North Wales Coalfield and Halkyn Mountain. The model has been validated and has the potential to be utilised in land-use planning at a local and regional level
    • Geotagging photographs in student fieldwork

      Welsh, Katharine E.; France, Derek; Whalley, W. Brian; Park, Julian R.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Sheffield ; University of Reading (Routledge, 2012-01-23)
      This article provides guidance for staff and students on the potential educational benefits, limitations and applications of geotagging photographs.
    • Gestural communication and mating tactics in wild chimpanzees.

      Roberts, Anna I.; Roberts, Sam G. B.; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2015-11-04)
      The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.
    • Gestural repertoire size is associated with social proximity measures in wild chimpanzees.

      Roberts, Anna I.; Chakrabarti, Anwesha; Roberts, Sam G. B. (2019-02-01)
      Studying the communication systems of primates can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human language. Some theories propose that language evolved to help meet the demands of managing complex social relationships. Examining the associations between sociality and communication in the great apes can help to identify the specific selection pressures that may have been important for language evolution. In particular, gestural communication is believed to be important because it is a relatively recent trait seen only in primates and particularly in the great apes. However, the extent to which more complex gestural communication plays a role in managing social relationships, as compared to less complex gestural communication, is not well understood. Using social network analysis, we examined the association between complex gesturing (indexed as repertoire size) and complexity of social relationships indexed as proximity (the duration of time spent within 10 m, per hour spent in same party) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Repertoire size (the total number of gesture types a focal subject produced toward other individuals) and dyadic repertoire size (the number of gesture types produced toward the dyad partner, per hour spent within 10 meters) were positively associated with proximity at the level of the group (centrality in the proximity network) and the dyad (proximity duration between dyads), respectively. Further, the repertoire size of visual and auditory short-range gestures was positively associated with proximity, while the repertoire size of tactile gesture was negatively associated with proximity. Overall these results suggest that gestural repertoire size has important implications for maintaining social relationships in wild chimpanzees and more broadly that gestural communication may have played an important role in language evolution. [Abstract copyright: © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.]
    • Girls being Rey: ethical cultural consumption, families and popular feminism

      Wood, Rachel; Litherland, Benjamin; Reed, Elizabeth (Informa UK Limited, 2019-08-29)
    • The Global Challenge: Aging Populations, Bio-medicine and China

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Publishers, 2013-12-15)
      This book explores the global challenge: understanding aging as a medical concept, social concept and population term. The focus is on China and global aging. The book further assesses the rapid rise of aging populations and what could be entitled ‘The Silver Tsunami’, highlighting how an unstoppable force of populational aging needs to be analyzed and what the social and economic implications are for all continents across the globe.
    • The Global Dynamics of Aging

      Powell, Jason; Chen, Sheying; University of Chester; Pace University (Nova Publishers, 2012-09-19)
      This book explores the issue of global ageing and its impact on different nation states across the world. It is in three parts: the first part sets the scene about the challenges of global ageing; part two utilises a number of case studies examining how different nation states manage social issues associated with acing; the final part explores the impact of global ageing on some of the continents such as Europe and the Americas. The book is by its very nature global as it brings researchers from all parts of the world to give the reader a very rich comparative book.
    • The global south: The case of populational aging in Africa and Asia

      Powell, Jason; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (World Scientific News, 2015-06)
      This paper explores the implications of social and economic changes in the Global South of the World. In particular, we examine case studies of Japan and China and the impact of populational aging on their economic policies and social practices. Key examples of uneven distributions of, or access to, opportunities have the potential to give rise to further social or economic tensions. Whilst the scholarly base is expanding, more is to be done to ascertain the characterization of inequalities. Indeed, if these substantive issues are to be addressed comprehensively, the key then is to move beyond a Western academic paradigm, and to purposefully involve critical scholarship from intellectuals from the Global South. Doing so will add a vitality of experience in discussing how economic growth is, or may not be coupled with, inequality.