• Daily rhythms in mobile telephone communication

      Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari; Aalto University School of Science; University of Oxford; University of Chester; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Public library of Science, 2015-09-21)
      Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day.
    • The Dark Side of Prosperity: Late Capitalism’s Culture of Indebtedness

      Horsley, Mark; University of Chester (Ashgate, 2015-03-02)
      This book offers a critical analysis of consumer credit markets and the growth of outstanding debt, presenting in-depth interview material to explore the phenomenon of mass indebtedness through the life trajectories of self-identified debtors struggling with the pressures of owing money.
    • The ‘Death of Deviance’ and the Stagnation of Twentieth Century Criminology

      Horsley, Mark; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014-10-22)
      In 1994 the British criminologist Colin Sumner published a lengthy obituary for the ‘sociology of deviance’. He claimed that the normative study of ‘crime’ as that which transgressed social values and norms was all but dead, replaced by a more useful and politically aware form of criminological theory. This new direction, he suggested, would benefit from conceptualising ‘crime’ as a form of social censure resulting from social reactions, power imbalances and manipulated public fears. This censure ultimately gives rise to certain acts being defined as ‘criminal’ and punished by formal and informal measures. In this chapter we consider this type of classic ‘social reaction’ theory in the light of Steve Hall’s (2012) assertion that late-twentieth century criminology has been captured, repurposed and impoverished by left and right variants of an underlying libertarian narrative. This has left us struggling to identify and explain persistent forms of criminality appearing throughout the social structure. Since the turn of the millennium, however, there have been significant moves in criminological theory and research back towards criminal motivations, the relationship between criminality and late capitalist culture and the social impact of the more harmful criminal activities. With these new moves in mind this chapter will explore the possibility that the ‘sociology of deviance’ might not be quite as moribund as Sumner’s obituary suggests.
    • Deception Detection and Truth Detection Are Dependent on Different Cognitive and Emotional Traits: An Investigation of Emotional Intelligence, Theory of Mind, and Attention

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Atherton, Catherine; Wright Whelan, Clea; University of Chester; Bangor University (Sage, 2018-09-28)
      Despite evidence that variation exists between individuals in high-stakes truth and deception detection accuracy rates, little work has investigated what differences in individuals’ cognitive and emotional abilities contribute to this variation. Our study addressed this question by examining the role played by cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM), emotional intelligence (EI), and various aspects of attention (alerting, orienting, executive control) in explaining variation in accuracy rates among 115 individuals [87 women; mean age = 27.04 years (SD = 11.32)] who responded to video clips of truth-tellers and liars in real-world, high-stakes contexts. Faster attentional alerting supported truth detection, and better cognitive ToM and perception of emotion (an aspect of EI) supported deception detection. This evidence indicates that truth and deception detection are distinct constructs supported by different abilities. Future research may address whether interventions targeting these cognitive and emotional traits can also contribute to improving detection skill.
    • Defining the future: An exploration of perceptions of employability of undergraduate minority ethnic student

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Society for Research into Higher Education, 2014-12)
    • Deinstitutionalization

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-02-12)
      An analysis of the process of deinstitutionalization (mental health systems) in the US and UK context.
    • Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning

      Wilkinson, Dean J.; Caulfield, Laura S.; University of Chester; University of Wolverhampton (NCBI, 2017-08-31)
      Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.
    • Determination of consensus among professionals for community safety terms through a Delphi study

      Warren, Jeremy J.; Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; University of Chester ; Northern Ontario School of Medicine ; University of Ulster (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013-10-17)
      This article reports the findings from a study of Community Safety professionals (Academics, Policymakers and Practitioners), using the Delphi method to determine common definitions, if any, for Community Safety terms in current usage. The study investigated the differences in the way that the terms were used and understood by the members of the three groups. The study was predicated on the view that the groups of Community Safety professionals probably use the language of Community Safety in different ways. It is suggested that work in the field would benefit from a shared terminology, where the same term has the same meaning for different professional groups.
    • Determined Learning Approach: Implications of Heutagogy Society Based Learning

      Halsall, Jamie; Powell, Jason; Snowden, Mike; University of Huddersfield; University of Chester (Cogent OA, 2016-08-25)
      Recently, within the higher education system in the United Kingdom, there has been close examination of the way institutions teach and assess students. This scrutiny has been intensified by central government with the proposed introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF). The anticipated TEF demands that higher education institutions evaluate their teaching and learning practices and think of new ways to develop excellent student experience. Self-determined learning has resurfaced as a popular approach in the higher education sector. At the centre of self-determined learning is the concept of heutagogy. This approach enables the student to apply what they have learned in an education setting and relate it to the workplace. The aim of this paper is to critically explore the theoretical framework behind the self-determined learning approach. The authors of this paper argue that, from a social science perspective, a determined learning approach is in the best place to provide a contemporary, exciting teaching and learning experience in a competitive higher education market.
    • Developing a Web 2.0 technology for hazard response simulation

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; University of Chester (Higher Education Academy, 2012)
      Students studying disaster/hazard management in UK Higher Education institutions (HEi's) traditionally focus on hazard mapping and process analysis, but have limited opportunities to develop their risk communication skills which are required during emergency response situations. These skills are vital for the real world and employment. Opportunities to develop risk communication skills are not readily available to students during their studies as employers are reluctant to offer placements due to legal barriers. Therefore, universities have to develop tools to provide students with this vital ‘real-world’ experience. Over the last two years, the department of Geography & Development Studies at the University of Chester has begun to explore and evaluate the role of the Web 2.0 tool, Yammer (microblogging/communication tool) for natural hazard (volcano) simulation exercises. This paper highlights the continuing development of the natural hazard simulation exercise through input from external emergency/contingency practitioners locally and internationally to enhance its usability. Input from practitioners has resulted in the adaptation of the tool to flooding hazard emergency response and to other geographically based scenarios (e.g. crime analysis). The input from professionals in the field has enhanced the quality of the exercise/tool as well as providing students with vital employability skills currently used in the workplace of hazard management. Feedback from students highlighted their feeling of a ‘real-life’ pressure situation in which ‘real-time’ decisions have to be made in response to a rapidly changing environment. At the same time they indicated that their experience was stimulating, fun, innovative and enabled networking and interactive opportunities between tutors and students. The development of the Web 2.0 simulation tool through contributions from practitioners and an assessment as to whether the use of such technologies enhances student-learning experience is the focus of this paper.
    • Developing active personal learning environments on smart mobile devices.

      Whalley, Brian; France, Derek; Park, Julian; mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, University of Reading (Springer, 2019-10-10)
      ‘Tablets’ and other 'smart' devices (such as iPads and iPhones)have established themselves as a significant part of mobile technologies used in mobile (m-)learning. Smart devices such as iPads and the Apple Watch not only provide many apps that can be used for a variety of educational purposes; they also allow communication between students and tutors and with the world at large via social media. We argue that 'smart' mobile devices enable personalized learning by adjusting to the educational needs of individuals. We refer to Salmon's quadrat diagram to suggest where using mobile technologies should be of benefit to revising our views of pedagogy, making it much more responsive to students' needs in education as well as the world in general. Smart mobile devices now contain computing power to allow voice and face recognition, augmented reality and machine learning to make them intelligent enough to act as tutors for individual students and adjust and respond accordingly. To take advantage of these facilities on mobile devices, pedagogy must change from an institution-centred to a student-tutor-device focus. This is best done via 'active learning' and incorporating cognitive awareness into an educational operating system that can develop with the owner.
    • Developing an Integrated Approach

      Tod, David; Lafferty, Moira; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Routledge, 2020-05-05)
      Integration occurs when consultants combine multiple theoretical orientations and ways of operating to enhance the efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, and ethical standing of services they provide clients. There is no one model of integration. The models practitioners develop are shaped by their histories, inclinations, and proclivities; the contexts and cultures in which they operate; the types of work they undertake; and the clients they serve. Integrated models allow practitioners to feel congruent, authentic, and comfortable with the ways they help clients. In this chapter, we define integration, discuss why it is viable in our field, examine ways practitioners integrate service delivery systems, consider obstacles to integration, and suggests ways educators and supervisors can assist practitioners.
    • Developing ethical geography students? The impact and effectiveness of a tutorial based approach

      Healey, Ruth L.; Ribchester, Chris; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-02-17)
      This paper explores the effectiveness of a tutorial based approach in supporting the development of geography undergraduates’ ethical thinking. It was found that overall the intervention had a statistically significant impact on students’ ethical thinking scores as assessed using Clarkeburn et al.’s (2003) Meta-Ethical Questionnaire (MEQ). The initiative led to a convergence of scores, having a bigger impact on those who had a relatively low score prior to the intervention. Interestingly the approach had the biggest impact on students who self-identified as physical geographers. Unlike some previous research there was little evidence of difference between male and female students.
    • Developing Heads of Department to Manage Quality: An examination of Performance Management Frameworks

      Warren, Jeremy J.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-07-03)
      The chapter addresses a number of questions related to the impact of performance management policies and processes upon the delivery of good quality teaching and learning; examining the advantages that can be gained from the analysis of good quality data but also recognising some of the ‘pit-falls and bear-traps’ that may be encountered if decision-makers do not take into account the limitations of an over reliance upon performance metrics. The chapter provides a short historical context to the development of a performance culture in the UK before considering how performance has been both measured and treated in other countries, discussing examples from the Netherlands, Pakistan, Canada, the USA and China that sought to introduce frameworks for the most effective disbursement and use of available funds for Research purposes. The chapter goes on to review some of the formal approaches that have been developed to support performance management and monitoring within organisations, including the Balanced Scorecard, Total Quality Management (TQM) and the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). The conclusion to the chapter starts with an examination of the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) in the UK, with the resultant need to collect robust performance data to support the metrics already supplied as part of statutory data returns. Finally considering the roles that individuals can play in the delivery and maintenance of quality management systems that enhance institutions and do not act as proverbial mill-stones.
    • Development and Validation of the Retrospective Childhood Fantasy Play Scale

      Kirkham, Julie A.; Lloyd, Julian; Stockton, Hannah; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2018-08-16)
      This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Retrospective Childhood Fantasy Play Scale (RCFPS), a brief 11-item retrospective self-report measure of reference for, and engagement with, fantasy play during childhood. Five studies were conducted to (a) develop the initial items for the scale (n =77), (b) determine the underlying factor structure (n = 200), (c) test the fit of the model (n= 530), and (d) and (e) ascertain construct validity (n = 200) and convergent validity (n = 263). Overall, the results suggest that the RCFPS is a unidimensional measure with acceptable fit and preliminary validity. The RCFPS may prove useful in educational and developmental research as an alternative to longitudinal studies to further investigate how childhood fantasy play relates to individual differences in adulthood (e.g., in the areas of creativity, theory of mind, and narrative skills).
    • Development of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) activities and an Evaluation of their Impact on Learning: Geoscience students’ perceptions,

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Chester (National Committee of Geography of Belgium, Société Royale Belge de Géographie, 2015)
      Recently, the recognition of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) tools in natural hazard management and disaster reduction has gained prominence. A successful CERC will ensure the relevant stakeholders are effective communicating with each other. This requires a clear plan and set of principles that enables the stakeholders to function effectively in a crisis. Students hoping to work in the emergency and natural hazard management field need to develop these skills. This paper outlines the development of a range of risk communicating activities including simulation exercises for undergraduate Geoscience students. Progress in the development of the students risk communication skill through the series of activities is tracked and evaluated. Results indicate that 87% of the students perceived their risk communication skills were good or excellent after undertaking the exercises compared to 26% before. This paper also evaluates the impact of the activities and if they motivated them to learn more about the subject as a whole. Students generally indicated that the exercises motivated them to learn more about natural hazard management and they felt that they have become better risk communicators. They also indicate that they gained a more in-depth understanding of the requirements of effective and timely communications should they need to develop a CERC strategy during a crisis.
    • The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking

      Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie A.; Schepman, Astrid; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia; University of Chester (Frontiers, 2016-02-05)
      Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n = 80) were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract) and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4–8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages.
    • Developmental Trauma and the Role of Epigenetics

      Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2016-10-31)
      This is an article investigating the role of epigenetics in developmental trauma, providing fascinating insights into the debate about the relationship between nature and nurture, and the possibilities for healing
    • Differential Effects of Single and Double Parental Death on Child Emotional Functioning and Daily Life in South Africa

      Sherr, Lorraine; Croome, Natasha; Clucas, Claudine; Brown, Elizabeth; University College London; University of Chester; Mad About Art Kynsa, SA (Child Welfare League of America, 2014-01-01)
      There is a high level of orphaning in Africa due to war, violence, and more recently HIV and AIDS. This study examines parental death in South African children and examines the differential impact on child functioning of double, single and non-orphanhoods. Bereavement, depression, behavior problems, and violence were examined in a consecutive sample of 381 children/adolescents (51.2% girls) between 8 and 19 years of age (M = 12.8). Parental death experience was high; 70 (17.5%) reported the death of one parent, and a further 24 (6%) reported the death of both. Group comparisons showed double orphans had elevated depression, worse psychosocial functioning, were more likely to be kept home from school for household chores, and were more likely to be slapped. Single orphans were more similar to the non-orphans than the double orphans on most scores. Our study reveals that parental loss should be studied with more fine-grained definitions and that emotional sequelae should be addressed.
    • 'Digital by Default' and the 'hard to reach': Exploring solutions to digital exclusion in remote rural areas

      Williams, Fiona; Philip, Lorna; Farrington, John; Fairhurst, Gorry; University of Chester; University of Aberdeen (SAGE, 2016-09-30)
      In the UK, the geography of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure required for Internet connectivity is such that high speed broadband and mobile phone networks are generally less available in rural areas compared with urban areas or, in other words, as remoteness and population sparsity increase so too does the likelihood of an area having no or very poor broadband connectivity. Against a policy backdrop of UK Government efforts to bring forward network infrastructure upgrades and to improve the accessibility of broadband services in locations where there is a weak commercial investment case, this paper considers the options for the ‘final few’ in the prevailing ‘Digital by Default’ public services context. The paper outlines the Rural Public Access WiFi Services project, a study focused upon enabling Internet connectivity for commercially ‘hard to reach’ rural areas in the UK. The Rural Public Access WiFi Services concept and the experiment are introduced before findings from a pilot deployment of a broadband service to households in a remote rural area, who may be classified as ‘digitally excluded’, are presented. The paper then reflects on our field experiment and the potential of the Rural Public Access WiFi Services model as a solution to overcoming some of the digital participation barriers manifest in the urban–rural divide. Early indications show that the Rural Public Access WiFi Services model has the potential to encourage participation in the Digital Economy and could aid the UK Government’s Digital by Default agenda, although adoption of the model is not without its challenges.