• Badlands in the Tabernas Basin, Betic Chain

      Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Harvey, Adrian M.; Alexander, Roy; Cantón, Yolanda; Lázaro, Roberto; Solé-Benet, Albert; Puigdefábregas, Juan; University of Valencia, University of Liverpool, University of Chester, University of Almería, CSIC, Almería (Springer, 2014-04-19)
      The complex badland landscape at Tabernas results from a combination of relief amplitude generated by tectonic uplift since the Pliocene and reactivated several times during the Pleistocene, the properties of the Tortonian sedimentary rocks and a predominantly arid climate. The landscape is dominated by deep incision of the main river systems, which continues in part of the headwater tributaries, and characterized by contrasting slope morphologies and a variety of microecosystems. The Tabernas badlands exhibit a diversity of landforms resulting from the combination of multi-age soil surface components that allow a variety of processes to operate at different rates. These are dominated by rilling and shallow mass movements on south-facing hillslopes. On old surfaces and north-facing hillslopes, where biological components are present, overland flow with variable infiltration capacity and low erosion rates prevail. Incision in the gully bottoms occurs in the most active areas.
    • Bar deposition in glacial outburst floods: scaling, post-flood reworking, and implications for the geomorphological and sedimentary record

      Marren, Philip M.; University of Chester (GFG, 2016-03-31)
      The appearance of a flood deposit in the geomorphological and sedimentary record is a product of the both the processes operating during the flood, and those that occur afterwards and overprinting the deposit with a record of ‘normal’ processes. Nearly half of the total discharge of the November 1996 jökulhlaup on Skeiðarársandur was discharged through the Skeiðará river. The flood deposits have been extensively reworked since, up until 2009 when the channel was abandoned, effectively leaving the Skeiðará as a terrace, when retreat of Skeiðarárjökull directed meltwater to the adjacent Gígjukvísl river system. This paper describes the creation and modification of jökulhlaup barforms in the Skeiðará river, relating the changes to post-flood fluvial processes and glacier retreat. Large compound bars formed from the amalgamation of unit bars up to 1.5 km long. The location of the compound bars was governed by the macro-scale topography of the flood channel, and their size by upstream channel width in accordance with bar-scaling theory. Jökulhlaup bars are therefore scale invariant and formed in a similar fashion to braid bars in non-jökulhlaup braided rivers. Post-flood fragmentation and reworking of the bars consistently increased the length-width ratio of preserved bar fragments from approximately two and one half to over five. These observations increase our understanding of the preservation potential and final form of jökulhlaup deposits and provide the basis for an improved model for the recognition of jökulhlaup deposits in the geomorphological and sedimentary record.
    • Becoming part of the team: Female student athletes’ engagement in initiation activities.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; Wakefield, Caroline; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Human Kinetics, 2018-06)
      The aim of the present research was to explore female student athletes’ participation in initiation activities specifically to examining whether activities in the United Kingdom followed similar trends to those reported elsewhere. A sample of eight female athletes, representing both traditional and non-traditional team and individual sports (M age = 20 years 3 months, SD = 1 year 3 months) who met inclusion criteria of having taken part in an initiation ceremony consented to participate in a semi structured interview. Thematic content analysis resulted in the emergence of six higher order themes represented by two general dimensions, the initiation event and initiation outcomes. Findings indicated that female student athletes’ initiation activities encompassed discrete stages as they moved from team newcomer to accepted team member. Of particular concern is the direct and indirect role of alcohol within these events and the health and behavioural risks.
    • Behavioral and endocrine responses in male marmosets to the establishment of multimale breeding groups: Evidence for non-monopolizing facultative polyandry

      Schaffner, Colleen; French, Jeffrey A.; University College Chester : University of Nebraska (Elsevier, 2004-06)
    • The Behavioral Effects of Frequent Nightmares on Objective Stress Tolerance

      Hochard, Kevin D.; Heym, Nadja; Townsend, Ellen; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent University; University of Nottingham (Americal Psychological Association, 2016-03)
      Frequent nightmares have been linked to daily distress using self-report measures. The present study investigated the impact of frequent nightmares on a stressful cognitive test requiring participants to perform additions of two previously displayed single digit numbers from a number series, where display latency between digits becomes increasingly short - the Paced Visual Serial Addition Task-Computerized (PVSAT-C). Participants experiencing frequent nightmares (n=43) and controls (n=42) were compared on PVSAT-C performance. A significant main effect of nightmare frequency was observed with participants in the frequent nightmare group enduring the task for a shorter duration than controls (a behavioral measure of stress tolerance). Results suggest that individuals experiencing frequent nightmares have a reduced tolerance for stressors, leading to increased daily vulnerability to stressful stimuli. This study confirms previous findings linking nightmares and daily distress and extends the literature by providing objective evidence for the link between nightmares and reduced stress tolerance through behavioral testing. These findings highlight nightmares as a salient target for clinical intervention.
    • Behavioural measures of listening effort in school-aged children: Examining the effects of SNR, hearing loss, and amplification

      McGarrigle, Ronan; Gustafson, Samantha; Hornsby, Benjamin; Bess, Fred; University of Chester; Vanderbilt University Medical Center (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-06-13)
      Objectives: Increased listening effort in school-age children with hearing loss (CHL) could compromise learning and academic achievement. Identifying a sensitive behavioral measure of listening effort for this group could have both clinical and research value. This study examined the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hearing loss, and personal amplification on two commonly-used behavioral measures of listening effort: dual-task visual response times (visual RTs) and verbal response times (verbal RTs). Design: A total of 82 children (aged 6 – 13 years) took part in this study; 37 children with normal hearing (CNH) and 45 CHL. All children performed a dual-task paradigm from which both measures of listening effort (dual-task visual RT and verbal RT) were derived. The primary task was word recognition in multi-talker babble in three individually selected SNR conditions: Easy, Moderate, and Hard. The secondary task was a visual monitoring task. Listening effort during the dual-task was quantified as the change in secondary task RT from baseline (single-task visual RT) to the dual-task condition. Listening effort based on verbal RT was quantified as the time elapsed from the onset of the auditory stimulus to the onset of the verbal response when performing the primary (word recognition) task in isolation. CHL completed the task aided and/or unaided to examine the effect of amplification on listening effort. Results: Verbal RTs were generally slower in the more challenging SNR conditions. However, there was no effect of SNR on dual-task visual RT. Overall, verbal RTs were significantly slower in CHL versus CNH. No group difference in dual-task visual RTs was found between CNH and CHL. No effect of amplification was found on either dual-task visual RTs or verbal RTs. Conclusions: This study compared dual-48 task visual RT and verbal RT measures of listening effort in the child population. Overall, verbal RTs appears more sensitive than dual-task visual RTs to the negative effects of SNR and hearing loss. The current findings extend the literature on listening effort in the pediatric population by demonstrating that, even for speech that is accurately recognized, school-age CHL show a greater processing speed decrement than their normal-hearing counterparts; a decrement that could have a negative impact on learning and academic achievement in the classroom.
    • Being ethically minded: Practising the scholarship of teaching and learning in an ethical manner

      Healey, Ruth L.; Bass, Tina; Caulfield, Jay; Hoffman, Adam; McGinn, Michelle K.; Miller-Young, Janice; Haigh, Martin; University of Chester ; Coventry University ; Marquette University ; University of Dubuque ; Brock University ; Mount Royal University ; Oxford Brookes University; This article was submitted to the RAE2014 for the University of Chester - Geography, Environmental Studies and Archaeology: Geography and Development Studies. (Indiana University Press, 2013-09-01)
      The authors propose a working definition of ethical SoTL, an ethical framework for SoTL inquiry, and present a case study that illustrates the complexity of ethical issues in SoTL. The Ethical SoTL Matrix is a flexible framework designed to support SoTL practitioners, particularly in the formative stages of their inquiries. Three dominant ethical traditions form the basis of the matrix: teleological or pragmatic, external, and deontological. The key message of the paper is that SoTL practitioners should reflect on different perspectives in their efforts to do what is right in any given situation. The matrix introduces three dominant ethical traditions, but SoTL practitioners may ultimately move beyond these traditions to explore a range of ethical considerations appropriate to their projects and disciplines.
    • Beliefs about weight and breast cancer: An interview study with high risk women following a 12 month weight loss intervention

      Wright, Claire E.; Harvie, Michelle N.; Howell, Anthony; Evans, D. Gareth; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Donnelly, Louise S.; University of Chester ; University Hospital of South Manchester ; University Hospital of South Manchester ; University of Manchester ; University of Chester ; University Hospital of South Manchester (BioMed Central, 2015-01-09)
      Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. Lifestyle factors including excess weight contribute to risk of developing the disease. Whilst the exact links between weight and breast cancer are still emerging, it is imperative to explore how women understand these links and if these beliefs impact on successful behaviour change. Overweight/obese premenopausal women (aged 35–45) with a family history of breast cancer (lifetime risk 17–40%) were invited to a semi-structured interview following their participation in a 12 month weight loss intervention aimed at reducing their risk of breast cancer. Interviews were carried out with 9 women who successfully achieved ≥5% weight loss and 11 who were unsuccessful. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes were developed from the analysis. The first theme how women construct and understand links between weight and breast cancer risk is composed of two subthemes, the construction of weight and breast cancer risk and making sense of weight and breast cancer risk. The second theme - motivation and adherence to weight loss interventions - explains that breast cancer risk can be a motivating factor for adherence to a weight loss intervention. The final theme, acceptance of personal responsibility for health is composed of two subthemes responsibility for one’s own health and responsibility for family health through making sensible lifestyle choices.Beliefs about weight and breast cancer risk were informed by social networks, media reports and personal experiences of significant others diagnosed with breast cancer. Our study has highlighted common doubts, anxieties and questions and the importance of providing a credible rationale for weight control and weight loss which addresses individual concerns.
    • Beyond using composite measures to analyze the effect of unmet supportive care needs on caregivers’ anxiety and depression

      Lambert, Sylvie D.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Belzile, Eric; Ciampi, Antonio; Girgis, Afaf; McGill University; University of Chester; University of New South Wales (Wiley, 2018-03-06)
      Objective: Caregiver research has relied on composite measures (e.g., count) of unmet supportive care needs to determine relationships with anxiety and depression. Such composite measures assume that all unmet needs have a similar impact on outcomes. The purpose of this study is to identify individual unmet needs most associated with caregivers’ anxiety and depression. Methods: 219 Caregivers completed the 44-item Supportive Care Needs Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale [minimal clinically important difference (MCID)=1.5] at 6-8 months, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years following the patients' cancer diagnosis. The list of needs was reduced using Partial Least Square regression and those with a Variance Importance in Projection > 1 were analyzed using Bayesian Model Averaging. Results: Across time, eight items remained in the top 10 based on prevalence and were labelled “core”. Three additional ones were labelled “frequent”, as they remained in the top 10 from 1- year onwards. Bayesian Model Averaging identified a maximum of four significant unmet needs per time point – all leading to a difference greater than the MCID. For depression, none of the core unmet needs were significant, rather significance was noted for frequent needs and needs that were not prevalent. For anxiety, 3/8 core and 3/3 frequent unmet needs were significant. Conclusions: Prevalent Those unmet needs that are most prevalent are not necessarily the most significant ones, and findings provide an evidence-based framework to guide the development of caregiver interventions. A broader contribution is proposing a different approach to identify significant unmet needs.
    • Bicycle design history and systems

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-02-02)
      This chapter focuses on the ways in which bicycle design connects with a range of factors; how external forces may shape reinterpretations of bicycle design, and how bicycle design, in turn, may be used to try to shape the external world. Two historical cases are explored to show how bicycles, as design objects, are entangled with practices and identities: Germany in the 1920s and 1930s and England in the 1960s and 1970s. In the first case, design is used to reproduce and reinforce a dominant political ideology through reinterpretation rather than innovation. Here the bicycle allows new connections to be made between state and citizen. In the second case, design innovation is employed to challenge dominant ideologies of mobility: bicycles are used to connect citizens to new mobility practices. Both cases illustrate the relations between design and politics and both have implications for inclusion and access aspects of social justice. Both studies make use of close reading of manufacturers’ literature but place it more strongly in a political/cultural context to understand the relationship between the design objects and wider society.
    • A bifactorial solution to the psychopathy checklist screening version in a sample of civil psychiatric patients

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Hyland, Philip; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; National College of Ireland ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-03-31)
      Background: There is considerable debate about the underlying factor structure of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). An established view is that it reflects a unitary construct underpinned by two correlated factors. More recent research has, however, undermined this conceptualisation. Aims: Our aim was to compare 10 competing models of the PCL: SV in a sample of civil psychiatric patients. Method: Ten distinct factor models were specified and tested using conventional confirmatory factor analytic techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor modelling. Results: A bifactor model, including two general factors (interpersonal-affective and antisocial-lifestyle), and four subordinate factors (interpersonal, affective, antisocial, and lifestyle) provided the best fit to the data. The reliability of the conceptualisation was supported through the use of composite reliability, and the differential relationships exhibited between the general factors and measures of personality, impulsivity, and mental health. Conclusions: The results suggest that two general factors should be taken into account when interpreting the PCL:SV for clinical purposes.
    • Biking and Tourism

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2016-02-24)
      Keynote presentation at Cycling Forum, organized by Institute of Parks and Recreation, held at the Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore.
    • The Bio‐Medical Model and Ageing: Towards an Anti‐Reductionist Model?

      Powell, Jason; Owen, Tim; University of Chester; UCLan (Emerald, 2005-09-10)
      Anti‐reductionist social theory is a relatively ‘new’ but methodically eclectic body of theory which analyses the complexity of the tripartite theory, policy and practice.
    • The BME student experience at a small northern university: An examination of the experiences of minority ethnic students undertaking undergraduate study within a small northern university

      Davies, Chantal; Garrett, Matt; University of Chester (University of Greenwich, 2012-06)
      This article discusses a small-scale study exploring BME student experiences at a small northern England university using focus groups and interview data. The findings were based on the themes of belonging and segregation, academic and social experiences, differential treatment and equal opportunities, and early education and employability.
    • Body Part Removal: A Thematic Exploration of U.K. Homicide Offenses.

      Almond, Louise; Pell, Connor; McManus, Michelle (2018-11-28)
      Body part removal (BPR) is a rare homicide phenomena, which emerges as a result of a variety of motives. Fifty-eight BPR U.K. homicide cases were analyzed. Findings indicated key characteristics within BPR murder offenses, with most offenders males; aged around 31 years; knew their victims; with presence of alcohol, drugs, and mental health issues; and more than two thirds of the sample had previous convictions, more than 50% for theft. Offense behaviors showed "multiple wounds" and "victim naked" as highest frequency, with the head as the most frequently removed body part. Smallest space analysis (SSA) identified two behavioral themes (expressive and instrumental) with 62.1% of cases classified as one of these. The study has provided the largest U.K. sample of BPR homicide, furthering understanding this type of offense and the offenders who commit it.
    • Book review of Bruce D. Epperson (2014) Bicycles in American Highway Planning. The critical years of policy-making 1969-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2015-12)
      Book review of Bruce D. Epperson (2014) Bicycles in American Highway Planning. The critical years of policy-making 1969-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland
    • Book review: Crimes of Mobility. Criminal Law and the Regulation of Immigration, written by Ana Aliverti

      Holiday, Yewa; University of Chester (Brill, 2014-05-23)
      Book review: Crimes of Mobility. Criminal Law and the Regulation of Immigration, written by Ana Aliverti
    • Book review: Quest for speed

      Cox, Peter; University Of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2013-12-01)
      This is a book review of Quest for Speed, a book which brings together a wealth of data on the emergence of cycling racing and, in particular, on the relationship between sport and technological innovation.
    • Book Reviews

      Gutelius, Beth; Gibson, Janet; Zunino Singh, Dhan; Gold, Steven J.; Portmann, Alexandra; Cox, Peter; Volti, Rudi; Drummond-Cole, Adrian; Spalding, Steven D. (Berghahn Books, 2017-12-01)
      Matthew Heins, The Globalization of American Infrastructure: The Shipping Container and Freight Transportation (New York: Routledge, 2016), 222 pp., $145 (hardback)Lesley Murray and Susan Robertson, eds., Intergenerational Mobilities: Relationality, Age and Lifecourse (London: Routledge, 2017), 194 pp., 14 illustrations, $145 (hardback)Sebastián Ureta, Assembling Policy: Transantiago, Human Devices, and the Dream of a World-Class Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015), 224 pp., 22 illustrations, $39 (hardback)Yuk Wah Chan, David Haines, and Jonathan H. X. Lee, eds., The Age of Asian Migration: Continuity, Diversity, and Susceptibility, vol. 1 (Newcastle on Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014), 450 pp., £54.99Robert Henke and Eric Nicholson, eds., Transnational Mobilities in Early Modern Theater (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) 320 pp., 22 illustrations, $117 (hardback)Ruth Oldenziel and Helmuth Trischler, eds., Cycling and Recycling: Histories of Sustainable Practices (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2016), 256 pp., 18 illustrations, £67 (hardback)Margo T. Oge, Driving the Future: Combating Climate Change with Cleaner, Smarter Cars (New York: Arcade, 2015), xv + 351 pp., $25.99 (hardback)Thomas Birtchnell, Satya Savitzky, and John Urry, eds., Cargomobilities: Moving Materials in a Global Age (New York: Routledge, 2015), 236 pp., 16 illustrations, $148 (hardback)Jacques Lob and Jean-Marc Rochette, Snowpiercer 1: The Escape, trans. Virginie Sélavy (London: Titan Comics, 2014), 110 pp., $19 (hardback)