• Equality at work? positive action in gender segregated apprenticeships

      Davies, Chantal; University of chester (Young Women's Trust, 2018-06)
      This research explores the attitudes towards and the use of positive action aimed at addressing gender inequality in apprenticeships offered in sectors in which women are underrepresented in England. This research has been conducted as a means of following up recommendations made in research undertaken by the Young Women’s Trust (YWT) in 2016. The YWT report recommended that where it can be shown that the number of women undertaking apprenticeships in any given sector is disproportionately low employers should consider whether they can take positive action to increase the participation of women. It was therefore considered that in the context of apprenticeships, the overwhelming gender disparity in certain sectors and in particular the attitudes towards and use of positive action in resolving this gender disparity required further exploration. The engineering, ICT and construction sectors have therefore been chosen by the researcher and the YWT due to the stark underrepresentation of women in these sectors in England. This research concludes with appropriate specific recommendations on positive action in relation to gender segregated apprenticeships in England within the particular sectors explored. However, it is hoped that these may provide a foundation for the development of wider recommendations in relation to the effective use of positive action initiatives more generally across the protected characteristics and beyond apprenticeships in the UK.
    • Exploring positive action as a tool to address under-representation in apprenticeships

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2019-03-04)
      Apprenticeships are an important route into work, offering paid employment, on-the- job training and a qualification. The UK, Scottish and Welsh governments have all set targets to increase the number of apprenticeships and recognised the need to increase the diversity of those starting, participating in and completing apprenticeships. With the drive towards increasing diversity within apprenticeships, there is a need for employers, governments and policy makers to consider the tools that are available to address long-standing under-representation. This report seeks to evaluate the use of positive action to address under-representation of female apprentices in gender- segregated sectors, and disabled people and ethnic minorities in apprenticeships more broadly.
    • Gender Variation in Asylum Experiences in the UK: The Role of Patriarchy and Coping Strategies

      Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Research Centre for Identity and Migration Issues (RCIMI), 2010-09-01)
      Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed. Their experiences are examined in relation to different patriarchal forces. In comparison to the males, differences are apparent in the level and types of agency of the female asylum seekers and refugees. Within this study certain types of patriarchy are reproduced in British society particularly at the household level, whilst individuals are also influenced by institutional patriarchy within the wider society. The variation in experiences found here suggests the need for policy to recognise the heterogeneity of these groups, so as to provide the most appropriate support for individuals.
    • Gender, Masculinity, Contemporary History and the Psychiatric Secure Estate: Back to the Future?

      Powell, Jason; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (World Scientific News, 2015-10-10)
      In contemporary history, the use of gendered treatments for women with mental health issues in the psychiatric secure estate is an issue of major concern in Great Britain. This paper examines women and gender in the psychiatric secure estate from a structural analysis drawing influence from Connell‟s (1987) theoretical and conceptual work on hegemonic masculinity. Bio-psychological approaches have almost dominated academic discussion in relation to women‟s incarceration and there is an reflexive need to develop other sociological frameworks on hegemonic masculinity because dominant bio-psychological models have failed to identify underlying configurations which combine to oppress women whilst simultaneously reproducing consequences of masculinity and power within institutional structures.
    • Scaling the mountain: an exploration of gendered experience of academic staff in relation to the Research Excellence Framework 2014

      Davies, Chantal; Healey, Ruth L.; Cliffe, Anthony D.; University of Chester (2015-12)
      This paper will explore the experiences of female academics within the research institution in relation to the recent Research Excellence Framework in 2014 (REF 2014). Pursuant to the Equality Act 2010, there is now a legal duty (the Public Sector Equality Duty or PSED) for public bodies and therefore Higher Education Institutions (HEI) to have ‘due regard’ to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination; advance equality of opportunity; and foster good relations between people who share a protected characteristic and people who do not share it (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2015). It is considered that the PSED thus requires individual institutions to consider and explore the experience of female academics with a view to generating qualitative data about the experience of this group in relation to the REF 2014. This paper will explore some of the early findings of an institutionally funded research project in relation to the gendered experience of academic staff in the research institution in relation to the REF 2014 process and provide the opportunity for local perspectives in this regard to feed into lessons learnt at a national and global level.