• Advanced Qualitative Research: A Guide to Using Theory

      O’Reilly, Michelle; Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester; Leicester University (Sage, 2015-05-29)
      This distinctive, nuanced book addresses the more complex theoretical issues embedded in the qualitative research paradigm. Adopting a reflective stance that emphasises the role of the researcher it carefully avoids a standardised ‘tick box’ approach to methods. Throughout each chapter, theory is powerfully and persuasively interwoven as its impact on practical topics such as data management and safety in the field is discussed. O'Reilly and Kiyimba bring an authority and clarity to the debate, taking us beyond the mechanical notions of qualitative methods and standardised approaches to research. Instead, they focus on subjects like methodological integrity, perspective driven data collection and theoretically-led analysis. This will be an important resource for anyone looking to practically engage with advanced qualitative research methods.
    • Agenda setting with children using the ‘three wishes’ technique

      Kiyimba, Nikki; O'Reilly, Michelle; Lester, Jessica N.; University of Chester (Sage, 2018-03-15)
      The National Health Service (NHS; UK) offers initial screening appointments for children referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to determine clinical need and assess risk. Conversation analysis was utilised on 28 video-recordings of these assessments, lasting approximately 90 minutes each with a multidisciplinary team. This paper focuses on the agenda setting strategies used to establish relevant goals with children and adolescents; specifically, the technique of offering ‘three wishes’. For example, “if you had three wishes, what would you like to make happen?” In cases where children initially volunteered an assessment-relevant wish, they tended not to articulate further wishes. Non-assessment-relevant wishes (i.e. fantasy wishes, such as being “rich”) were treated as insufficient, with many approaches used to realign establishing assessment relevant goals. Where responses were not institutionally relevant, practitioners undertook considerable discursive work to realign the focus of the three wishes task to assessment relevance. In these cases, the wish responses were treated as irrelevant and tended to be dismissed, rather than explored for further detail. Such work with the children’s contributions has implications for engaging children and child-centred practices.
    • Bridging the gap: an exploration of the use and impact of positive action in the UK

      Davies, Chantal; Robison, Muriel; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-06-27)
      Despite laws in Britain permitting limited positive action initiatives to combat disadvantage faced by minority groups in employment since the mid-1970s, the subject has notoriously been a neglected and highly controversial area in the UK. Notwithstanding the potential provided by sections 158 and 159 of the Equality Act 2010, it still appears that organisations prefer to steer clear of this opportunity to address disadvantage suffered by protected groups. Whilst there is a body of work considering the theoretical importance of positive action in the UK, there is a lack of empirical exploration of the practical implications of these provisions. This paper will provide a brief overview of the theoretical context and current positive action legislative provisions within the UK. In light of this context, the early findings of a small-scale qualitative study carried out by the authors will be discussed looking at the experiences of a purposive sample of public and private employers in relation to the positive action provisions of the Equality Act 2010. Early research findings suggest that whilst there was a clear willingness and openness by employers to use of outreach measures in order to redress disadvantage, there was evident wariness regarding a move towards preferential treatment as expounded by section 159. Whilst respondents appeared to appreciate the business case for and utility of the positive action measures under section 158, there was far less enthusiasm for more direct preferential treatment, with many respondents raising serious concerns regarding this. These concerns often reflected a highly sensitive risk-based approach towards any action that could expose their organisation to the possibility of “reverse discrimination”.
    • Building a case for accessing service provision in child and adolescent mental health assessments

      O'Reilly, Michelle; Kiyimba, Nikki; Lester, Jessica N. (Sage, 2019-04-29)
      In everyday conversations, people put forward versions of events and provide supporting evidence to build a credible case. In environments where there are potentially competing versions, case-building may take a more systematic format. Specifically, we conducted a rhetorical analysis to consider how in child mental health settings, families work to present a credible ‘doctorable’ reason for attendance. Data consisted of video-recordings of 28 families undergoing mental health assessments. Our findings point to eight rhetorical devices utilised in this environment to build a case. The devices functioned rhetorically to add credibility and authenticate the case being built, which was relevant as the only resource available to families claiming the presence of a mental health difficulty in the child were their spoken words. In other words, the ‘problem’ was something constructed through talk and therefore the kinds of resources used were seminal in decision-making.
    • Child abuse in England and Wales 2003–2013: Newspaper reporting versus reality

      Davies, Emma; O'Leary, Erin; Reed, John; Liverpool John Moores University, UK; Swinburne University of Technology, Australia (Sage, 2015-10-15)
      This study examined how child abuse and neglect were reported in a sample of 459 newspaper articles between 2003 and 2013 in England and Wales. The results were compared with data on child abuse and neglect over the same decade. Sexual abuse was by far the most commonly reported, in both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. Although neglect and emotional abuse are the most common causes of child protection plans in England and Wales, neglect and emotional abuse are relatively invisible in newspaper articles, as is physical abuse. Possible explanations for this disproportionate focus on sexual abuse, which has also been found in Australia and the United States, include the fact that sexual abuse cases reach the criminal courts more often than other forms of child victimisation. Although broadsheet papers were more likely than tabloid newspapers to comment on causes and solutions beyond the individual perpetrator committing a crime, the majority of articles in broadsheet papers still did not frame either the causes or the solutions in broader terms. It seems possible that the notion of the decontextualised ‘evil’ perpetrator serves to distance journalist and reader alike from the pervasiveness and pain of child abuse. The article concludes with ideas to improve the accuracy and utility of the coverage of child abuse and neglect in newspapers.
    • A comparison of pre-service teachers’ responses to cyber versus traditional bullying scenarios: similarities and differences and implications for practice

      Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.; University of Chester (Sage, 2013-11-11)
      Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom (N = 222) were presented with vignettes describing three subtypes of traditional bullying as well as cyber bullying, and the latter was directly compared with the former. Dependent variables were perceived seriousness, ability to cope, empathy, and intentions to intervene. Results showed that responses to cyber bullying were most similar to verbal traditional bullying, but distinct from physical and relational traditional bullying. For cyber bullying, willingness to intervene was significantly predicted from the other three dependent variables (collectively and each one uniquely). No gender differences were observed. The implications of the results concerning how teacher educators could help teachers to deal with cyber bullying were discussed
    • Deception Detection and Truth Detection Are Dependent on Different Cognitive and Emotional Traits: An Investigation of Emotional Intelligence, Theory of Mind, and Attention

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Atherton, Catherine; Wright Whelan, Clea; University of Chester; Bangor University (Sage, 2018-09-28)
      Despite evidence that variation exists between individuals in high-stakes truth and deception detection accuracy rates, little work has investigated what differences in individuals’ cognitive and emotional abilities contribute to this variation. Our study addressed this question by examining the role played by cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM), emotional intelligence (EI), and various aspects of attention (alerting, orienting, executive control) in explaining variation in accuracy rates among 115 individuals [87 women; mean age = 27.04 years (SD = 11.32)] who responded to video clips of truth-tellers and liars in real-world, high-stakes contexts. Faster attentional alerting supported truth detection, and better cognitive ToM and perception of emotion (an aspect of EI) supported deception detection. This evidence indicates that truth and deception detection are distinct constructs supported by different abilities. Future research may address whether interventions targeting these cognitive and emotional traits can also contribute to improving detection skill.
    • Discursive Psychology: Implications for counselling psychology

      Lester, Jessica N.; O’Reilly, Michelle; Kiyimba, Nikki; Wong, J.; University of Chester (Sage, 2018-07-13)
      In this article, we present discursive psychology (DP), a qualitative approach that focuses on the study of conversational and textual materials, including everyday interactions. Although DP is well-established methodologically and theoretically and used widely in Europe and in the Commonwealth countries, it is relatively unknown in counseling psychology in the United States. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of DP and offer guidance for researchers who may be interested in studying and using DP. We thus discuss practical considerations for doing DP, including the development of research questions, carrying out data collection, and conducting DP-informed analysis. We also provide a general overview of the history of DP and key resources for those interested in studying it further, while noting the usefulness of DP for counseling psychology.
    • Doing mental health research with children and adolescents: A guide to qualitative methods.

      O'Reilly, Michelle; Parker, Nicola; University of Chester; Leicester University (Sage, 2014-07-07)
      Researching child and adolescent mental health can be a daunting task, but with the right practical skills and knowledge your students can transform the way they work with children and young people, giving them a ‘voice’ through their research in the wider community. Michelle O'Reilly and Nikki Parker combine their clinical, academic and research expertise to take your students step-by-step through each stage of the research process. From first inception to data collection and dissemination, they’ll guide them through the key issues faced when undertaking their research, highlighting the dilemmas, challenges and debates, and exploring the important questions asked when doing research with this population. Providing practical advice and strategies for dealing with the reality of conducting research in practice, this book will; - Provide your students with an overview of the theories that underpin methodological choice and the value of using qualitative research. - Guide them through the planning stage of your project, clearly outlining important ethical and legal issues. - Take them through the most popular qualitative data collection techniques and support them with their analysis. - Help them write up their findings and demonstrate how research evidence translates into effective clinical practice. Supported by helpful hints and tips, case examples and definitions of key terms, this highly practical and accessible guide throws a lifebelt to any students or mental health practitioner learning about the research process for the first time.
    • Editorial Introduction: Rethinking Illness, Crisis and Loss

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sage, 2014-09-01)
      This timely issue of Illness, Crisis and Loss brings us a wealth of inspirational approaches on understanding spirituality, culture and grief, end-of-life care, nursing education, and implications of coping models. The articles in this issue address key issues in understanding individual experiences of loss, grief, and coping models. As bereaved people, we need our experiential grief to be recognized, to be acknowledged. We require an understanding of the meaning of the relationship that has been lost—and this is often what is least understood by others. The impact of a loss is determined, not so much by the name given to the relationships, but by the meaning of that relationship in the bereaved individual’s life. Someone significant in our life is missing, and we realize that the cost of our love is the pain of our grief.
    • Editorial: Introduction

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sage, 2014-04-01)
      This issue of the Journal brings together a number of comparative articles on illness, crisis, and loss. This issue illuminates that illness, crisis, and loss are central forces shaping personal biographies and social life across comparative cultures. These international articles draw on qualitative methodologies to tap an understanding of illness and in combination provide a broad yet holistic perspective on the interrelationships of illness, crisis and loss. Each of the articles illustrates how they contribute to social change and how the cultural meanings of illness, crisis and loss are created to make sense of personal experiences in contemporary society. These are important existential issues but also significant additions to debates and discussions on illness, crisis, and loss for practitioners, user groups, and researchers. Engaging with different cultural contexts is essential to see how illness, crisis, and loss is experienced, managed, and researched.
    • Ethics in Praxis: Negotiating the Role and Functions of a Video Camera in family therapy

      Hutchby, Ian; O'Reilly, Michelle; Parker, Nicola; University of Leicester (Sage, 2012-12-01)
      The use of video for research purposes is something that has attracted ethical attention and debate. While the usefulness of video as a mechanism to collect data is widely agreed, the ethical sensitivity and impact of recording equipment is more contentious. In some clinical settings the presence of a camera has a dual role, as a portal to a reflecting team and as a recording device to obtain research data. Using data from one such setting, family therapy sessions, this article shows how the role played by recording equipment is negotiated in the course of talk and other activities that constitute sessions. Analysis reveals that members of the therapy interaction orient in different ways and for different purposes to the value of recordings. The article concludes that there are layers of benefit to be derived from recording of clinical interactions, including for members themselves, and this has wider implications for the ways in which qualitative research designs in health sciences are evaluated.
    • The experience of young people transitioning between youth offending services to probation services

      Price, Jayne; University of Chester
      This article explores the experience of transitioning from youth offending services to adult probation services upon turning age 18 years whilst incarcerated. The significant differences in the level of provision has been described as a ‘cliff-edge’ (Transition to Adulthood Alliance, 2009). Drawing upon interviews with young people held in institutions, stakeholders and survey data from Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons (HMIP), it is argued that the drop in support is exacerbated by poor communication between institutions and services which has harmful implications for young people during this crucial period of developmental maturity and beyond custody.
    • An exploration of the ways in which feelings of ‘maternal ambivalence’ affect some women

      Gubi, Peter M.; Chapman, Emma; University of Chester; Private Practice (Sage, 2019-08-18)
      This study explores the ways in which feelings of “maternal ambivalence” affect women. Through semistructured interviews, four women spoke about their experiences that led to ambivalent feelings about their motherhood. The data gathered from these interviews were analyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. This research found that these women experienced a loss of independence, relationships, and confidence when they became mothers. Together, these losses felt like a loss of “self” which led to many unexpected and unwanted feelings. They were shocked and confused when they experienced feelings of resentment towards themselves, others, and their children. They also experienced unexpected feelings of boredom and anxiety in relation to mothering. However, with time and perspective, these women experienced a reemergence of “self” through their ability to begin to balance parts of “self” and accept their ambivalent feelings towards motherhood.
    • ‘Gossiping' as a social action in family therapy: The pseudo-absence and pseudo-presence of children

      Parker, Nicola; O'Reilly, Michelle; Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health Foundation Trust; University of Leicester (Sage, 2012-08-01)
      Family therapists face a number of challenges in their work. When children are present in family therapy they can and do make fleeting contributions. We draw upon naturally occurring family therapy sessions to explore the ‘pseudo-presence’ and ‘pseudo-absence’ of children and the institutional ‘gossiping’ quality these interactions have. Our findings illustrate that a core characteristic of gossiping is its functional role in building alignments’ which in this institutional context is utilized as a way of managing accountability. Our findings have a number of implications for clinical professionals and highlight the value of discourse and conversation analysis techniques for exploring therapeutic interactions.
    • The Impact of Sensitive Research on the Researcher: Preparedness and Positionality

      Fenge, Lee Ann; Oakley, Lisa, Kathryn, Jusin & Mor Kinmond, Humphreys & Dioum; Taylor, Bethan; Beer, Sean; Bournemouth University, University of Chester, Cheshire without Abuse, Bournemouth University
      There is currently limited research exploring the impact of undertaking sensitive or challenging research on the researcher, although some textbooks explore researcher preparedness. This article presents a discussion of the findings from a research project which engaged with the seldom heard voices of researchers themselves. The aim was to explore researchers’ experiences of undertaking research on sensitive topics, or with marginalized groups, as this can expose researchers to emotionally disturbing situations throughout data collection and analysis, which can be psychologically challenging. Although ethical codes of practice include discussion around protection of both the researcher and the participant, in practice, the ethics approval process rarely considers the impact of the proposed research on the researcher. Their experiences are therefore seldom acknowledged or heard, resulting in potential distress for the researcher. Semi- structured interviews were undertaken with social science researchers from a range of discipline backgrounds and at different points in their research careers (n = 10). This article explores two themes emerging from the data: preparedness and positionality. It considers what these themes mean in terms of supporting researchers who encounter challenging research data, and issues related to supporting researcher reflexivity and the requirements for institutional support offered to researchers will also be considered.
    • Implicit knowledge and memory for musical stimuli in musicians and non-musicians.

      Thorpe, Lisa; Cousins, Margaret; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-03-21)
      The phoneme monitoring task used by Bigand, Tillmann, Poulin, D’Adamo and Madurell (2001) is a musical priming paradigm that demonstrates that both musicians and non-musicians have gained implicit understanding of prevalent harmonic structures. Little research has focused on implicit music learning in musicians and non-musicians. This current study aimed to investigate whether the phoneme monitoring task would identify any implicit memory differences between musicians and non-musicians. It focuses on both implicit knowledge of musical structure and implicit memory for specific musical sequences. Thirty-two musicians and non-musicians (19 female and 13 male) were asked to listen to a seven-chord sequence and decide as quickly as possible whether the final chord ended on the syllable /di/ or /du/. Overall, musicians were faster at the task, though non-musicians made more gains through the blocks of trials. Implicit memory for musical sequence was evident in both musicians and non-musicians. Both groups of participants reacted quicker to sequences that they had heard more than once but showed no explicit knowledge of the familiar sequences.
    • An Introduction to Counselling: From Theory to Practice

      Reeves, Andrew; The University of Chester (Sage, 2018-05-26)
      An authoritative introductory text for counselling and psychotherapy
    • Introduction to Illness, Crisis and Loss

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sage, 2015-04-01)
      This collection of papers highlights some of the key cultural and social interpretations of illness, crisis, and loss across different personal and institutional spaces—the ways that values, beliefs, behavior, emotions, and institutional arrangements concerning chronic illness, bereavement, and professional practice are structured by social environments and contexts. Although illness and death are universal human experiences, societal responses vary according to cultural attitudes, as well as contextual factors including the primary causes of illness and death, and normative age at which illness and death occurs. In this issue of the journal, researchers, social scientists, policy makers, practitioners, and students will be learning about topics of direct relevance to understanding the world in which we live.
    • Ongoing processes of managing consent: the empirical ethics of using video-recording in clinical practice and research

      O'Reilly, Michelle; Parker, Nicola; Hutchby, Ian; University of Leicester (Sage, 2011-12-05)
      Using video to facilitate data collection has become increasingly common in health research. Using video in research, however, does raise additional ethical concerns. In this paper we utilise family therapy data to provide empirical evidence of how recording equipment is treated. We show that families made a distinction between what was observed through the video by the reflecting team and what was being recorded onto videotape. We show that all parties actively negotiated what should and should not go ‘on the record’ with particular attention to sensitive topics and the responsibility of the therapist. Our findings have important implications for both clinical professionals and researchers using video data. We maintain that informed consent should be an ongoing process and with this in mind we present some arguments pertaining to the current debates in this field of health care practice.