• Development and Validation of the Retrospective Childhood Fantasy Play Scale

      Kirkham, Julie A.; Lloyd, Julian; Stockton, Hannah; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2018-08-16)
      This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Retrospective Childhood Fantasy Play Scale (RCFPS), a brief 11-item retrospective self-report measure of reference for, and engagement with, fantasy play during childhood. Five studies were conducted to (a) develop the initial items for the scale (n =77), (b) determine the underlying factor structure (n = 200), (c) test the fit of the model (n= 530), and (d) and (e) ascertain construct validity (n = 200) and convergent validity (n = 263). Overall, the results suggest that the RCFPS is a unidimensional measure with acceptable fit and preliminary validity. The RCFPS may prove useful in educational and developmental research as an alternative to longitudinal studies to further investigate how childhood fantasy play relates to individual differences in adulthood (e.g., in the areas of creativity, theory of mind, and narrative skills).
    • An examination of the developmental impact of continuing destructive parental conflict on young adult children.

      Fozard, Emily; Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2017-05-11)
      This research investigates the impact of destructive parental conflict in continuously married parents, on young adult children. Four trainee or practicing counselors, who had personal experience of growing up in families in which there was continuing destructive parental conflict, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings resulted in four superordinate themes: feelings of loss, impact to family structure, trauma associated with the conflict, and impacts to personal and professional development, within which were 12 subordinate themes. Short-term impacts focused on mental health and self-esteem, and loss of security at home. Long-term impacts focused on future relationships, defensiveness, parent–child role-reversal, impacts to career, trauma, and parent–child relationships. The results demonstrate the necessity for support to be made available to children who are exposed to destructive parental conflict in parents who remain married, as well as to the adult children of continuing destructive parental conflict.
    • One step forward and two steps back? The ‘20 Principles’ for questioning vulnerable witnesses and the lack of an evidence-based approach.

      Cooper, Penny; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Marchant, Ruth; Milne, Rebecca; Bull, Ray; Birkbeck University of London; University of Westminster; University of Sussex; University of Chester, Triangle, University of Portsmouth, University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2018-08-19)
      It is a widely held belief that questioning vulnerable witnesses is a specialist skill. In England and Wales vulnerable witness advocacy training built around ‘20 Principles’ has been developed and is being delivered. The 20 Principles do not cite a tested theoretical framework(s) or empirical evidence in support. This paper considers whether the 20 Principles are underpinned by research evidence. It is submitted that advocacy training and the approach to questioning witnesses in the courtroom should take into account the already available research evidence. The authors make recommendations for revision of the training and for a wider review of the approach taken to the handling of witness evidence.
    • Registered nurses’ experiences of communicating respect to patients: influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known on influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based United Kingdom registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and interpersonal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care.
    • Registered Replication Report: Schooler and Engstler-Schooler (1990)

      Alogna, V. K., Attaya, M. K., Aucoin, P., Bahník, Š., Birch, S., Birt, A. R., Bornstein, B. H., Bouwmeester, S., Brandimonte, M. A., Brown, C., Buswell, K., Carlson, C., Carlson, M., Chu, S., Cislak, A., Colarusso, M., Colloff, M. F., Dellapaolera, K. S., Delvenne, J.-F., Di Domenico, A., Drummond, A., Echterhoff, G., Edlund, J. E., Eggleston, C. M., Fairfield, B., Franco, G., Gabbert, F., Gamblin, B. W., Garry, M., Gentry, R., Gilbert, E. A., Greenberg, D. L., Halberstadt, J., Hall, L., Hancock, P. J. B., Hirsch, D., Holt, G., Jackson, J. C., Jong, J., Kehn, A., Koch, C., Kopietz, R., Körner, U., Kunar, M. A., Lai, C. K., Langton, S. R. H., Leite, F. P., Mammarella, N., Marsh, J. E., McConnaughy, K. A., McCoy, S., McIntyre, A. H., Meissner, C. A., Michael, R. B., Mitchell, A. A., Mugayar-Baldocchi, M., Musselman, R., Ng, C., Nichols, A. L., Nunez, N. L., Palmer, M. A., Pappagianopoulos, J. E., Petro, M. S., Poirier, C. R., Portch, E., Rainsford, M., Rancourt, A., Romig, C., Rubínová, E., Sanson, M., Satchell, L., Sauer, J. D., Schweitzer, K., Shaheed, J., Skelton, F., Sullivan, G. A., Susa, K. J., Swanner, J. K., Thompson, W. B., Todaro, R., Ulatowska, J., Valentine, T., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., Vranka, M., Wade, K. A., Was, C. A., Weatherford, D., Wiseman, K., Zaksaite, T., Zuj, D. V., Zwaan, R. A. (SAGE Publications, 2014-09-17)
      Trying to remember something now typically improves your ability to remember it later. However, after watching a video of a simulated bank robbery, participants who verbally described the robber were 25% worse at identifying the robber in a lineup than were participants who instead listed U.S. states and capitals—this has been termed the “verbal overshadowing” effect (Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990). More recent studies suggested that this effect might be substantially smaller than first reported. Given uncertainty about the effect size, the influence of this finding in the memory literature, and its practical importance for police procedures, we conducted two collections of preregistered direct replications (RRR1 and RRR2) that differed only in the order of the description task and a filler task. In RRR1, when the description task immediately followed the robbery, participants who provided a description were 4% less likely to select the robber than were those in the control condition. In RRR2, when the description was delayed by 20 min, they were 16% less likely to select the robber. These findings reveal a robust verbal overshadowing effect that is strongly influenced by the relative timing of the tasks. The discussion considers further implications of these replications for our understanding of verbal overshadowing.
    • ‘Soldiering by consent’ and military-civil relations: Military transition into the public space of policing

      Murray, Emma; Taylor, Paul; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2019-03-18)
      Growth in the Armed Forces undertaking public policing is occurring in the United Kingdom and elsewhere and as such a complex security landscape emerges, both practically and conceptually. The aim here is to pose questions of the manifest and latent issues in the assemblage of multiple actors in public policing. It aks to reader to consider the implications of military actors transitioning from defence duties ordinarily associated with military work, to policing activities in public spaces. Taking the London 2012 Olympic Games as our point of reference, this article argues that to understand military presence, their role must be considered in the broader context of military and policing functions, the ‘war on terror’, accountability, and future priorities for public policing. We must be careful not to assign the presence of the military into pre-existing understandings of how mega-events should be secured – the military patrolling the streets of London represents more. Instead, as their presence comes to be legitimate in certain geopolitical contexts, critical questions must be asked especially as public and private arrangements are continually reworked in the domestic fight against terrorism.