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Regulation of Multinational Corporations in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Civil Society as Behaviour Modification AgentsThis article focuses on the roles of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in the regulation of oil Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Nigeria. Arguably, the void created in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria by the non-performance of government regulatory bodies and the non-implementation of existing legal enactments is gradually being filled by CSOs. CSOs in Nigeria have proved by their antecedents that they have major roles to play. Thus, CSOs have engaged in information gathering, standard setting and behavior modification activities. However, this paper focuses on behavior modification activities of CSOs in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. This article contends that the regulatory activities of CSOs in Nigeria have led to a somewhat ‘decentred regulatory approach’ in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. In decentred regulation, the state is one of many actors in the regulatory regime or process. Thus, the interactions inherent in decentred regulation are said to strengthen the regulatory process. Arguably, CSOs in Nigeria have engaged in the regulatory process in the oil and gas industry, thereby impacting positively on the regulatory paradigm. The interactions of the CSOS in the oil and gas industry are at the core of this paper.