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Mothers and Fathers Attending the International Child Development Programme in NorwayFathers are understudied in parent training studies. This study investigates whether mothers and fathers benefit equally from participating in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide programme in Norway in their parenting behaviour, perceived child difficulties and their psychosocial health. The questionnaire study used a pre-post design comparing 105 mothers and 36 fathers who attended a regular ICDP course. Results showed that the mothers and fathers differed on parenting behaviours prior to the course but showed similar changes, including on emotional and regulative aspects of parenting and autonomy supportive behaviours. However, only the mothers perceived a decrease in their child’s difficulties after the course while the fathers showed a greater increase in behaviours assumed to support the child’s meaning-making and in self-efficacy, and a greater decrease in anxiety after the course. ICDP courses appear to be a useful tool for supporting both mothers and fathers in their parenting role.
Reflections from behind the screen: avoiding therapeutic rupture when utilising reflecting teamsSince Tom Andersen developed the use of reflecting teams to facilitate the progress and process of family therapy, little empirical evidence has emerged regarding their effectiveness or use in therapeutic practice. Reflecting teams are typically embraced by family therapists as a positive mechanism for enhancing practice and thus it is important that research explores how they are utilized. In this article, we draw upon videotaped data of naturally occurring family therapy from the United Kingdom. Using conversation analysis, we identified three performative actions related to interrupting the therapeutic conversation to consult with a reflecting team. We found that therapists had difficulty exiting therapy, that on some occasions exit was hindered, and that there were disturbances in feeding back the reflections of the team. By examining the use of teams in real practice, we were able to make a number of recommendations for practicing family therapists to facilitate the use of this valuable resource.