• Sensory ethnography and film interpretation: sociological readings of historical archives

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-06-19)
      Recent work in sensory ethnography, especially as applied to the study of mobilities makes extensive use of video recording as a means of making field notes. A body of literature has built up around these mobile methodologies and the practices of interpretation connected with using this data. Drawing on these approaches to mobile methods and visual research the author undertook a six month study to explore the sensory experiences of cycle riders as urban (and peri-urban) travellers. At the same time, investigations were undertaken using conventional analyses of photographic and written archive materials to locate current practices in historical contexts. During the course of this investigation it became clear that there were also film documentary sources that could inform this research. This then raised a question as to whether existing historical film sources could be “read” and interpreted using the same analytical frameworks deployed for the interpretation of the video field notes captured in the investigation of sensory experiences. This chapter outlines the methodological procedures involved in the analysis and the result of initial attempts to deploy these in relation to historical sources. By connecting approaches developed in the context of digital recording of mobile experience to extant analogue film sources it considers whether such connections can enable a richer understanding of historical mobile subjects. While visual analysis suggests that film-makers’ intentions, especially in framing and editing their subject matter, are always inescapable, interpretative practices applied to digital recordings of public space today suggest there may be value in considering incidental “background” mobilities in historical documentary film and incidentally explains how a critical sociologist comes to be developing historical research tools.
    • Cycling: a sociology of vélomobility

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-04-08)
      Cycling: a Sociology of Vélomobility explores cycling as a sociological phenomenon. Drawing on extensive ethnographic fieldwork, it considers the interaction of materials, competences and meanings that comprise a variety of cycling practices. What might appear at first to be self-evident actions are shown to be constructed though the interplay of numerous social and political forces. Using a theoretical framework from mobilities studies, its central themes respond to the question of what is it about cycling that provokes so much interest and passion, both positive and negative. Individual chapters consider how cycling has appeared as theme and illustration in social theory and considers the legacies of these theorizations. It expands on the image of cycling practices as product of an assemblage of technology, rider and environment. Riding spaces as material technologies are found to be as important as the machineries of the cycle, and a distinction is made between routes and rides to help interpret aspects of journey-making. Ideas of both affordance and script are used to explore how elements interact in performance to create sensory and experiential scapes. Consideration is also given to the changing identities of cycling practices in historical and geographical perspective. The book adds to existing research by extending the theorisation of cycling mobilities. It engages with both current and past debates on the place of cycling in mobility systems and the problems of researching, analysing and communicating ephemeral mobile experiences.
    • Ageing, veterans and offending: New challenges for critical social work

      Taylor, Paul; Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-01-30)
      The relationship between ageing and the study of veterans of military service who have offended is uncharted territory. What is available to us are accounts operating in disparate areas of ageing and offending and veterans and offending. This has rich implications for ‘critical social work’ to add weight of research and theory to the significance of ageing identities of veterans for professional social work. This has challenges for the knowledge base for a critical social work given the significance of veterans’ identities and experiences.
    • From a utilitarian universal health coverage to an inclusive health coverage

      Fernandez, Rosa; University of Chester (Springer, 2019)
      Healthcare systems vary across countries but the access to health is considered fundamental both individually and collectively. Individually, good health is one of the main contributors to well-being, and collectively it has an important effect on countries’ productivity. From a utilitarian perspective, governmental intervention in health coverage has the purpose to maximise the total ‘utility’, in this case the total welfare, of all the members of society. Health services must therefore be produced and allocated efficiently, and distributed in accordance to equity. This approach gave origin to the so-called ‘universal’ healthcare systems, in trying to provide healthcare for as many members of a community as possible. Such systems can be considered inclusive insofar to try not to leave anyone out of coverage, but their implementation is not free of criticism. One of the limitations is that they tend to provide the same level of coverage for everyone, regardless of their differing characteristics, circumstances, and needs. This also means that some health issues will not be covered by the public health system, and if patients need specialised attention they will need to use private health provision, with the subsequent exclusion of those without enough resources. It is for this reason that healthcare systems are evolving to become ‘inclusive’ in a different manner, away from the ‘one size fits all’ approach covering only basic minimum health services, and aiming to provide different services to people with different needs, including giving access to health to the poorest of society.
    • SDG3 Good Health and Well-Being: Integration and connection with other SDGs

      Fernandez, Rosa; University of Chester (Springer, 2019)
      Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3) pledges to ‘Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages’ (UN, 2015a). Health is affected by multitude of factors, inherent to each individual but also dependent on environmental and economic circumstances. This piece of work will look at the connection between SDG3 and other SDGs without being exhaustive, but trying to focus on those more directly related. As such, special attention will be given to SDG2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture, also connected to SDG12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns; SDG4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all; SDG5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls; SDG6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; and finally, SDG10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    • Traditional Oath-Taking as an Anti-Corruption Strategy in Nigeria

      Ekhator, Eghosa; University of Chester (Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) Nigeria, 2019)
      The concept of corruption is culture-bound. In the UK, it is unusual and criminal for public officers to accept gifts. However, corruption is seen to be part of the culture of many developing (especially Asian and African) countries. In Nigeria, corruption is seen to be a negative part of the administrative or bureaucratic culture and a way of life. This paper will argue that because of the institutional failures of the Nigerian state in the area of corruption, recourse to the ‘traditional’ oath-taking akin to the variant used in customary arbitration cases amongst many communities (in Nigeria) to corruption cases might be a useful strategy to help fight the scourge of corruption. Furthermore, this chapter suggests that the Nigerian government should extend the jurisdiction of customary courts (via constitutional amendment) to try corruption cases arising from the anti-corruption statutes enacted since the return of democracy in 1999. This will reduce the pressure on the superior courts of records in the country.
    • Economic Crimes

      Fernandez, Rosa Maria; University of Chester (Springer, 2019)
      The piece of work will be dedicated to look at some of the most common types of economic crimes, analysing their consequences, particularly with regard to how they can affect the achievement of sustainable development.
    • By any other name? The impacts of differing assumptions, expectations and misconceptions in bringing about resistance to student-staff ‘partnership’

      Healey, Ruth; Lerczak, Alex; Welsh, Katharine; France, Derek; University of Chester (McMaster University, 2019)
      Most of the existing literature on student-staff partnership explores the experiences of people who are keen to be involved and who have already bought into the ethos of students as partners. We explore the challenges of conducting student-staff partnership in the context of resistance. Specifically, we focus on the interpretations of ‘partnership’ by students and staff who were attempting to work in partnership for the first time. The views of the participants were captured during a six-month project in which four undergraduate students were employed to work with eight academics to re-design the second-year undergraduate curriculum on one programme. Notwithstanding an introductory briefing and on-going support, some participants showed indications of resistance. Our findings suggest that different perspectives on ‘partnership’ influenced participants’ experiences. We argue that assumptions and misconceptions around the terminology used to describe ‘students as partners’ practice may hinder the process itself, as some people may not ‘buy-in’ to the practice. However, despite the challenges of this project, the experience of being involved has led to reduced resistance and emerging partnership practices throughout the department.
    • Participant Concerns for the Learner in a Virtual Reality Replication of the Milgram Obedience Study

      Gonzalez-Franco, Mar; Slater, Mel; Birney, Megan E.; Swapp, David; Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D.; Microsoft Research; University College London; University of Barcelona; University of Chester at University Centre Shrewsbury; University of Queensland; University of St. Andrews (Public Library of Science, 2018-12-31)
      In Milgram’s seminal obedience studies, participants’ behaviour has traditionally been explained as a demonstration of people’s tendency to enter into an ‘agentic state’ when in the presence of an authority figure: they attend only to the demands of that authority and are insensitive to the plight of their victims. There have been many criticisms of this view, but most rely on either indirect or anecdotal evidence. In this study, participants (n = 40) are taken through a Virtual Reality simulation of the Milgram paradigm. Compared to control participants (n = 20) who are not taken through the simulation, those in the experimental conditions are found to attempt to help the Learner more by putting greater emphasis on the correct word over the incorrect words. We also manipulate the extent to which participants identify with the science of the study and show that high identifiers both give more help, are less stressed, and are more hesitant to press the shock button than low identifiers. We conclude that these findings constitute a refutation of the ‘agentic state’ approach to obedience. Instead, we discuss implications for the alternative approaches such as ‘engaged followership’ which suggests that obedience is a function of relative identification with the science and with the victim in the study. Finally, we discuss the value of Virtual Reality as a technique for investigating hard-to-study psychological phenomena.
    • Patient-reported outcomes of sexual and gender minority cancer survivors in Australia

      Lisy, Karolina; Ward, Andrew; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas; Bishop, Jim; Jefford, Michael; Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne; The Social Research Centre, Melbourne; Swinburne University, Melbourne; University of Chester, UK; Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Melbourne; University of Melbourne (Wiley, 2018-12-03)
      Five key points: This is the first population‐based survey of Australian cancer survivors to include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex (LGBTI) identity. Few respondents (1.6%) identified as LGBTI, less than half the reported prevalence in Australia. LGBTI respondents were more likely to be younger, employed, and born in Australia. LGBTI people may experience more problems with anxiety/depression, body image and financial benefits, and greater needs for diet and lifestyle information. Commonly used patient‐reported outcome measures may not be sensitive to LGBTI issues; areas for future enquiry are proposed.
    • Working with Risk of Suicide

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2018-11)
      This article considers the challenges faced by counsellors and psychotherapists in their daily work with suicidal clients. Specifically, it considers a number of key practice areas, including: policies and procedures; personal perspectives; managing confidentiality; positive risk-taking; supervision and self-care; and responding to suicidal potential. A number of practice guidelines are suggested.
    • Shared meaning in children’s evaluations of art: A computational analysis

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie A.; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2018-11)
      Art appreciation is often considered highly individual, but research has shown that there is also a shared element, which may be due to shared meanings and associations triggered by artworks. In the current analysis, we examined semantically based justifications given to aesthetic evaluations of abstract and representational artworks provided by 80 primary schoolchildren, aged 4, 5, 8, and 10 years. Using a computational semantic similarity analysis technique (UMBC Ebiquity), the authors found that children showed evidence for shared meaning in response to representational but not abstract art. The effect was present from age 4 through to age 10. In addition, it was found that the presence of semantic elements in the justifications boosted aesthetic appreciation, especially of abstract artworks. This suggests that individually constructed meaning is key to aesthetic appreciation and is, to an extent, independent from the meaning that might be assumed to be inherent in artworks, particularly if it is representational. The authors evaluate their findings in relation to aesthetic and developmental theories and make suggestions for future research. They argue that the current data, alongside calibrating analyses that apply their randomization and semantic analysis protocol to children’s picture naming responses, further demonstrate the robustness of the computational semantic similarity analysis method, with great potential for further studies in semantic interpretation of art or other types of stimuli.
    • Social Policy and Narrative: The Global and State Contradictions of Care

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sryahwa, 2018-10-01)
      This article provides a critical assessment of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. At the time of writing in late 2018, the impact of globalization has had a profound impact but we cannot underemphasise state power in examining care policy, theory and practice. Hence, deploying a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting ‘informal care’ and the link with neo-liberal and ‘third way’ notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.
    • Aging, Healthy Families and Narrative Approaches

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Lupine Publishers, 2018-09-21)
      Due to the mounting importance of recent research in the areas of healthy families and aging, the paper assesses the particular relationship between old age, health and family life by means of studying the role of grand-parenting and the way it is perceived by older people, the family, and the society at large. The study applies a narrative approach; hence, telling the meaning of the family and grand parenting through personal stories and public discourse, based on the theory of Michel Foucault. The findings put forth suggest that identities of health and family and grand-parenting are built on multiple grounds, and that therefore theory should be sensitized accordingly, as identities are managed at different levels, for different audiences and at different levels of awareness.
    • Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the relationship between having a sibling with developmental disabilities and anxiety and depression symptoms

      Murray, Lindsay; O'Neill, Linda; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-09-17)
      Background Children growing up with a sibling with disabilities report higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms as adults. Here, we examined whether personality characteristics also play a part in mediating this relationship. Method We tested for differences in personality traits between 132 individuals who have a sibling with developmental disabilities and 132 closely matched comparisons. Results Differences in Big Five factors of personality were demonstrated across the disability groups and between the disability groups and the comparisons, especially in Extraversion, Neuroticism and Openness. Individuals growing up alongside a sibling with developmental disabilities have a higher tendency to experience anxiety and depression symptoms, and this research is the first demonstration that personality traits mediate this relationship. Specifically, Neuroticism is a strong mediator of anxiety while both Neuroticism and Extraversion contribute mediating effects toward the development of depression. Limitations Our study made use of self-report methodology which, although having recognized limitations, is more reliable than parental reports. Given the cross-sectional nature of our design, we were not able to examine pre-existing developmental factors that may have influenced the participant’s propensity to particular personality traits and affective disorders. However, we obtained a large sample and closely matched participants to examine differences between those with a sibling with disabilities and those without. Conclusions As such, differences in personality traits have important implications for the understanding and treatment of siblings presenting with anxiety and depression symptoms. We recommend that intervention should target those high in Neuroticism among individuals who have a sibling with disabilities, and that more social support is put in place for siblings to mitigate their tendency towards introversion and buffer them against psychological maladjustment.
    • Health and Trust Relations

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sryahwa, 2018-09-13)
      The paper is a critical review of the problems and implications of trust and in managing health in the British health system. It is a system in need of strong management in the light of the global downturn in recently. Despite of policies on leadership in health in the UK, the macro issues for why the needs of diverse groups are not met are difficult to understand at particular levels of analysis. The central problem has been lack of ‘trust’ relations. The paper detangles the implications of different forms of trust in order to understand health relations in health contexts which has implications for practitioner, policy makers and medical personnel.
    • Rethinking Bicycle Histories

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Brill, 2018-09-11)
      Bicycle history and historiography is currently undergoing significant reassessment. Historical studies on bicycles and bicycle mobility have been dominated by the legacy of chronologically organised accounts of the bicycle as artefact. While valuable, this approach has had a tendency to elide significant differences between specific histories of the place of the bicycle as a component of broader mobility systems in varying geographical locations. New areas of social and cultural history are combining with colonial and post-colonial analyses to understand both the Eurocentric nature of dominant accounts and the hidden possibilities of multiple and plural narratives. Moving away from an artefactual bicycle history, this study embraces recent developments in the study of technology and draws on use-pattern approaches to the study of bicycle technology. Shifting focus to a use-centred account and comparing experiences across geographical and other boundaries reveals substantial differences in patterns and timescales of user experiences of cycles and cycling beyond its function as mass mobility. The chapter therefore explores bicycle historiography and historiology, examining in particular the implications of oversimplified periodization and schematic linear histories of bicycle development. Subjecting these narratives to critical scrutiny, the chapter considers how they serve both to continue to render the bicycle invisible, even within dramatically changing mobility scenarios, and to limit understanding of the potential of bicycles and other human-powered and hybrid human-motor vehicles to sustainable mobility futures.
    • China, Aging and Health

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Lupine Publishers, 2018-09-11)
      Academics from across the world are increasingly concerned about the rising numbers of older people in their society. There are worries about the inadequacy of pension funds, of growing pressures on health systems, and on the inability of shrinking numbers of younger people to carry the burden of their elders. This article focuses on such health issues in China, where the older people have become a rapidly expanding proportion of the population. While resources do need to be targeted on the vulnerable older people, the presumption that older people as a whole are an economic and health burden must be questioned. This is an agist view that needs to be combated by locating how bio-medical views on aging seep into health policy spaces in China that position negative perceptions of aging as both individual and populational problems. The article then moves to observe the implications of bio-medicine for older people in China in terms of "vulnerable" aging but deconstruct such "fixed" explanations by juxtaposing active aging as key narrative that epitomizes "declining to decline" as espoused by health sciences.
    • Trust, Risk, Health and Aging in Asia: A New Philosophy

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Lupine Publishers, 2018-09-10)
      This paper reviews the important of trust and risk in relation to healthcare in Asia.
    • Fieldwork@40: fieldwork in geography higher education

      France, Derek; Haigh, Martin; University of Chester; Oxford Brookes University (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-09)
      Fieldwork is the most powerful learning invitation in the toolkit of Geographical Education. This review of papers in The Journal of Geography in Higher Education (JGHE) suggests seven modes in the development of fieldwork. These are arrayed as a kind of historical, perhaps evolutionary, sequence but most remain current in Geography fieldwork practice. At the far end (1960s) of the sequence are didactic modes that are teacher centred and use the field as an adjunct to the classroom, in the middle (1990s) are modes that involve active learning and focus on the development of students as investigators and at the near end (2010s) are those that centred on the field study area and its qualities, that involve concern about the ethics of student engagement and that employ blended learning technologies. The review charts the JGHE’s gradual shift away from its original, almost exclusively, UK-focus toward something rather more international and inclusive. Fieldwork is where Geographers learn “from doing” Geography to “do” Geography. Its special attributes include providing experiential, sometimes transformative, learning through the immersion of the learner in the field experience. In 40 years, JGHE has helped Geography Fieldwork move from the margins of the curriculum to its current place at its core.