• Economic Crimes

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2021-05-14)
      The piece of work will be dedicated to look at some of the most common types of economic crimes, analysing their consequences, particularly with regard to how they can affect the achievement of sustainable development.
    • Trade Barriers

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2020-09-30)
      A basic definition of trade barriers could be ‘all factors that influence the amount of goods and services shipped across international borders’ (Feenstra and Taylor, 2017a). This definition is quite neutral, and it needs to be understood that the word ‘barrier’ has a negative connotation, which means that a trade barrier would be any instrument that limits or restrict trade between countries, as opposed to free trade. It is generally accepted that free trade is good for productivity and economic growth, but it is also true that most countries apply some sort of trade restriction, for different reasons.
    • Affordable Housing

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2020-08-26)
      This is a piece of work that intends to make a contribution to clarify the existing information available about what affordable housing means and what it involves, linking income with house prices but also with other variables, and indicating the different perceptions and problems depending on the country of reference.
    • There is no Other Monkey in the Mirror for Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

      Murray, Lindsay; Schaffner, Colleen; Aureli, Filippo; Amici, Federica; University of Chester, Adams State University, Universidad Veracruzana, Liverpool John Moores University, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (American Psychological Association, 2020-06-18)
      Mirror self-recognition (MSR), usually considered a marker of self-awareness, occurs in several species and may reflect a capacity that has evolved in small incremental steps. In line with research on human development and building on previous research adopting a gradualist framework, we categorized the initial mirror responses of naïve spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) according to four levels. We compared social, exploratory, contingent and self-exploratory responses to a mirror and faux mirror during three short trials. If spider monkeys respond as most monkey species, we predicted they would perform at level 0, mainly showing social behavior toward their mirror-image. However, because spider monkeys show enhancement of certain cognitive skills comparable to those of great ape species, we predicted that they would perform at level 1a (showing exploratory behavior) or 1b (showing contingent behavior). GLMMs revealed that monkeys looked behind and visually inspected the mirror significantly more in the mirror than the faux mirror condition. Although the monkeys engaged in contingent body movements at the mirror, this trend was not significant. Strikingly, they showed no social behaviors toward their mirror-image. We also measured self-scratching as an indicator of anxiety and found no differences in frequencies of self-scratching between conditions. Therefore, in contrast to most findings on other species, spider monkeys did not treat their image as another monkey during their initial exposure to the mirror. In fact, they reached at least level 1a within minutes of mirror exposure. These responses recommend spider monkeys as good candidates for further explorations into monkey self-recognition.
    • Should you be using mobile technologies in teaching? Applying a pedagogical framework

      France, Derek; orcid: 0000-0001-6874-6800; Lee, Rebecca; Maclachlan, John; McPhee, Siobhán R (Informa UK Limited, 2020-06-10)
    • Predictors of individual differences in emerging adult theory of mind

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Kirkham, Julie A.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2020-05-21)
      Little is known about what factors are associated with emerging adult theory of mind (ToM). We predicted that childhood fantasy play (CFP), need for cognition (NfC), and fiction reading would be positive predictors due to their deliberative, perspective-taking nature while engagement with media and technology would be a negative predictor due to increased interpersonal distance. The best-fit mixed logit model (n = 369) showed that CFP, texting frequency, and NfC were significant positive predictors while smartphone usage and preference for task switching were significant negative predictors. Email and phone call usage were contributing non-significant negative predictors. Our study extends previous findings regarding NfC, and highlights the importance of CFP engagement for ToM beyond immediate childhood. Future research should investigate how subtly different media (e.g., texting vs smartphone use) have differential predictive relationships with social cognition. Data and code are available at doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/CBD9J.
    • Developing an Integrated Approach

      Tod, David; Lafferty, Moira; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Routledge, 2020-05-05)
      Integration occurs when consultants combine multiple theoretical orientations and ways of operating to enhance the efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, and ethical standing of services they provide clients. There is no one model of integration. The models practitioners develop are shaped by their histories, inclinations, and proclivities; the contexts and cultures in which they operate; the types of work they undertake; and the clients they serve. Integrated models allow practitioners to feel congruent, authentic, and comfortable with the ways they help clients. In this chapter, we define integration, discuss why it is viable in our field, examine ways practitioners integrate service delivery systems, consider obstacles to integration, and suggests ways educators and supervisors can assist practitioners.
    • Auto-ethnography: Managing Multiple Embodiments in the Life Drawing Class

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2020-04-30)
      There has been growing interest in the role of sketching, drawing, and other forms of artistic and/or creative practice as a research method within (and beyond) the social sciences. In such projects researchers have been firmly, often deeply, embedded in their practice, either as long-standing practitioners of their chosen art or craft, or as curious newcomers. In this chapter I consider how auto-ethnography, as a state of ‘reflexive-thinking-being’, employed here within a space of artistic activity (life drawing classes), has enabled me to explore geographies of bodies, nudity, sexuality and intimacy by moving – physically, conceptually and recursively – between moments of the mundane to instances of the spectacular. Consideration of how touch, smell, gesture, as well as different kinds of looking – all of which are fundamental to the work and practice of a life class – is drawn into an analysis of how the act of (re)producing bodies, inside and outside the life class, mediates body-space relations.
    • Video-mediated behavior in gorillas (G. g. gorilla): A stage in the development of self-recognition in a juvenile male?

      Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-12)
      The anomalous position of gorillas (G. g. gorilla) in the capacity for self-recognition remains puzzling. The standard measure of self-recognition is Gallup’s (1970) mark test that assesses an individual’s ability to recognize its altered image in a mirror following the application of paint marks to visually inaccessible areas. Here, the results of a small-scale pilot study are presented, utilizing video playback through a television monitor, to examine behavioural differences indicative of developing self-recognition. The behaviors of four Western lowland gorillas at Bristol Zoo, UK were observed while watching a TV screen during five conditions: blank screen, white noise interference, footage of unfamiliar gorillas, self previously recorded, and self-live. Differences were predicted in the frequency of the gorillas’ observed behaviors when viewing each of the conditions: specifically, that there would be more visual inspection, contingent body and facial movements, and self-exploration in the self-recorded and self-live conditions compared to the other conditions. These predictions were partially supported. No agonistic or fear responses were observed and self-exploration was only seen in the self-live condition. During live playback, contingency-checking movements and self-exploration of the mouth were observed, particularly in the youngest gorilla, providing important video evidence of a close parallel to the mouth exploratory behavior witnessed in self-recognizing chimpanzees. On the basis of these preliminary findings of differentiated spontaneous behaviors, a tentative framework is proposed for categorizing gorillas according to levels of developing self-recognition along a continuum.
    • Theorising infrastructure: a politics of spaces and edges

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2020-01-29)
      As a growing number of authors demonstrate, ‘infrastructure is never neutral and always inherently political’ (Nolte 2016: 441, compare McFarlane and Rutherford 2008; Young and Keil 2009). Infrastructures of all types, whether hard (as in material structures) or soft (as in skills and knowledge) are those systems that support action. Infrastructures both provide the potential for social actions and processes and are produced by social actions and processes. In creating potential, however, infrastructures inevitably also order and govern the actions they make possible (Koglin 2017). Infrastructures organise and shape potentials, providing for some courses of action and not for others. The mechanism of ordering and governing is one of facilitation – infrastructural provision being the provision of material facilities or the facilitation of actions through social development. While certain actions are facilitated by both kinds of infrastructure, actions and practices that fall outside of its desired outcomes are rendered unruly, ungoverned, perhaps even ungovernable and deviant. Consequently, material infrastructures are not only comprised of their material dimension but also operate on discursive levels. Infrastructure’s multiple dimensions and impacts can be traced, according to Picon (2018: 263), as ‘the result of the interactions between a material basis, professional organizations and stabilized sociotechnical practices, and social imagination’. These interactions, and the constitution of those actants, are ably traced in individual chapters elsewhere in this volume. This chapter seeks to engage with a selected range of current theorisations of the politics of infrastructure, and to apply them to specific cases of cycle-specific infrastructures. It subsequently relates the ideas of social and spatial justice arising from these perspectives to bell hooks consideration of marginalisation, to consider how the patterns of marginalisation and mainstreaming revealed in the contributions to this volume might be understood through a lens of a critical and radical politics.
    • The politics of cycling infrastructure: introduction

      Cox, Peter; Koglin, Till; University of Chester, UK; Lund University, Sweden (Policy press, 2020-01-29)
      Introduction to edited collection. Provides an overview of the issues and introductions to chapters
    • Mass Indebtedness and the Luxury of Payment Means

      Horsley, Mark; Lloyd, Anthony; University of Chester; University of Teesside (Routledge, 2020-01-08)
      Without the remarkable explosion of the credit industry since the early 1990s it’s almost inconceivable that late capitalism, in its neoliberal mode, could have maintained the vibrant and multifaceted consumer markets of the last few decades. Its capacity to create payment means by attaching contractual claims to prospective futures has allowed capitalism to transcend the decline of its material productivity, sustaining consumption against the upward concentration of wealth. In this chapter we consider both the source and the implications of that transcendence, tracing it from the rarefied confines of the financial industry into the lives of consumers to explore the implications of distributing payment means as a kind of ‘systemic luxury’ running counter to the material productivity of prevailing systems and processes.
    • “It’s not just part of my life, it is my life”: The paradoxical identities of a community judo coach

      Ryrie, Angus; Lafferty, Moira E.; Liverpool John Moores, University of Chester (Manchester Metropolitan University Press., 2019-12-31)
      The aim of this chapter is to explore coaching identities and present a case study that captures the everyday realities and multifaceted roles a community judo coach undertakes. In doing so, it provides a platform to explore and discuss the identities exhibited; evaluate practice within contextually different settings to present a realistic appraisal of coaching in the “field.”
    • Field-based pedagogies for developing learners' independence

      Fuller, Ian; France, Derek; Massey University, University of Chester (Edward Elgar, 2019-12-30)
      For fieldwork to be effective in fostering independent thinking it requires careful design and alignment within the degree programme (Fuller et al., 2006; Fuller, 2012). In this chapter we draw from our own research evidence and experience to provide examples that illustrate how fieldwork can be successfully embedded in the geography undergraduate curriculum from first to final year adopting specific pedagogies to develop, enhance, and refine students as independent learners throughout their undergraduate career.
    • Recruiting cancer survivors into research studies using online methods: a secondary analysis from an international cancer survivorship cohort study.

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Pendrous, Rosina; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Swash, Brooke; University of Chester (ecancer Global Foundation, 2019-12-12)
      Recruiting participants into cancer survivorship research remains a significant challenge. Few studies have tested and compared the relative use of non-clinical online recruitment methods, especially in samples of adult cancer survivors. This paper reports on the feasibility of recruiting a representative cohort of cancer survivors using online social media. Two-hundred participants with a cancer diagnosis within the past 12 months were recruited via social media (Facebook, Twitter, Reddit) into a longitudinal questionnaire study. Different methods of online recruitment proved to be more effective than others over time. Paid Facebook boosting, Reddit posts, and Twitter adverts placed by existing cancer charities proved most helpful in reaching our recruitment target (contributing 27%, 22% and 32% respectively). Recruiting online achieved a more demographically and clinically representative sample for our study: our sample was younger, less heteronormative, including those with a range of clinical diagnoses, primary and recurrence illness, and patients who had both completed and were still receiving treatment. This was certainly not a quick method of sample recruitment but that could have been optimised by focussing only on the three most effective methods describe earlier. Whilst we found that online recruitment is significantly lower cost than traditional recruitment methods, and can reduce some biases, there still remains the potential for some biases (e.g. excluding much older participants) and ethical/methodological issues (e.g. excluding those without access to the internet). We outline our recruitment strategy, retention rates, and a cost breakdown in order to guide other researchers considering such methods for future research in cancer survivorship.
    • Innovative Pedagogies

      Hill, jennifer; France, Derek; University of West of England, University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-12-04)
      We scope eight innovative pedagogies that have the potential to provoke major shifts in teaching, learning, and assessment in geography at the undergraduate level. There are further opportunities for geography educators to embrace newly emerging pedagogies to the positive benefit of students, staff, and the health of the discipline. The next decade of higher education geographical pedagogy might focus less on individual elements of our practice and more on how to integrate latent pedagogies into an effective process for future-facing lifelong learning, which might be achieved by focusing on heutagogy in borderland spaces of learning; bringing together a multiplicity of geography and other disciplinary students over diverse spaces and times to co-construct understanding dialogically, allowing them to determine their own learning needs, and preparing them to be successful citizens in a dynamic and uncertain future.
    • New-Old Jeans or Old-New Jeans? Contradictory aesthetics and sustainability paradoxes in young people’s clothing consumption

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (TU Berlin, 2019-11-30)
      This paper reports on an ongoing research project exploring the role of aesthetics – particularly aesthetics related to the multiple meanings of ageing – in young people’s interventions in the material lives of their clothes. Provoked by the trend for ‘pre-aged’ jeans, this study interrogates how material manifestations of the passing of time shape young consumers’ relationships with their clothes. Specifically, this enquiry focuses on the multiple, intersecting and sometimes contradictory aesthetics of aged garments. It examines the extent to which – and circumstances in which – young consumers view the visible lived history of their garments as positive, and the role played by personal manual interventions (e.g. acts of repair, customization, upcycling or repurposing) in transforming an un(der)loved and un(der)used item into one with heightened forms of value. Drawing on practice-based workshop-interviews with around 20 18-22 year olds, this research seeks to contribute to emerging debates around sustainability, consumer agency and ownership in relation to the consumption of fashion.
    • Youth transitions as ‘wiki-transitions’ in youth policies platforms

      Cuzzocrea, Valentina; Collins, Rebecca; Universita degli Studi di Cagliari; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2019-11-21)
      In recent years, a number of youth-focused online platforms have emerged which, in different ways, seek to support young people across Europe in building pathways to independent adulthood. In this article, we draw on data from Edgeryders, a recent youth policy research project, to reflect on the extent to which online discussion platforms are useful instruments for understanding the challenges youth face in their transitions to independent adulthood across Europe. Noting the collaborative emphasis articulated by both the project designers and participants, we ask how we might make sense of the data – and the meanings conveyed by that data – produced by online projects. We propose the notion of ‘wiki-transitions’ as a means of theorising young people’s use of online space to support their transitions to adulthood.
    • ‘Combatting’ self-harm and suicide in the US military and after: Culture, military labor and no-harm contracts

      Taylor, Paul; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-11-17)
      Taylor and Reeves' chapter opens with the increasing concerns regarding the self-harm suicide rate amongst the veteran community across the USA. The author's highlight powerfully that this issue wrenches the attention beyond those veterans who have sustained mental injury from conflict alone. The issue's contemporary relevance is focused around the US military's proposal to draw up 'no harm contract' under a ‘Separation Oath’ model. The chapter provides an overview of the current situation facing US military veterans' engagement with health and welfare sectors. The authors assert the roots of stigma and the avoidance of help-seeking are operating at both formal and informal levels in the military, at the added expense of mental health crises experienced by those in non-combat roles, which are often carried out into their civilian lives. The chapter then critically examines the notion of the no harm contract suggestion- finding a distinct lack of evidence for their efficacy in reducing the potential for suicide and self-harm. The chapter closes with a critic of the adoption of Oaths on Exit as a therapeutic intervention.