• Building a voice of influence: Supporting social science doctoral students with disabilities

      Taylor, Paul; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester
      This chapter draws together experience from two supervisors on the subject of supporting social science doctoral students with disabilities. Our aims here are to illuminate the structural obstacles that students may encounter, and how supervisors might assist their students in navigating the terrain of ‘poor listeners’, unsubstantiated criticism, and views that are expressed that serve to suppress the voice and influence of the doctoral scholar. It is not our intention here to render the doctoral student as a powerless individual whose identity is one of deficit, on the contrary; rather in identifying structural and disciplinary barriers, supervisors, and their students may better prepare from what they may experience.
    • A case for taking the dual role of counsellor-researcher in qualitative research

      Fleet, Doreen; DasGupta, Mari; Reeves, Andrew; Burton, Amy; University of Staffordshire; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-03)
      There is ongoing debate about whether the challenges of practice-based research in counselling, with clients’ discourses providing the raw data, can be overcome. This article begins by considering the argument of whether taking a dual role of counsellor-researcher within case study research is a legitimate qualitative approach. A case example using sand-tray in short-term therapy with adults from a pluralistic perspective is provided to demonstrate how the challenges of the dual role can be managed to produce effective research findings. It is suggested that this approach closes the gap between research and practice to produce findings that are highly relevant to the counselling context. The ethical considerations of taking a dual role of counsellor-researcher are considered, and opportunities and challenges when adopting this approach are identified.
    • ‘Combatting’ self-harm and suicide in the US military and after: Culture, military labor and no-harm contracts

      Taylor, Paul; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-11-17)
      Taylor and Reeves' chapter opens with the increasing concerns regarding the self-harm suicide rate amongst the veteran community across the USA. The author's highlight powerfully that this issue wrenches the attention beyond those veterans who have sustained mental injury from conflict alone. The issue's contemporary relevance is focused around the US military's proposal to draw up 'no harm contract' under a ‘Separation Oath’ model. The chapter provides an overview of the current situation facing US military veterans' engagement with health and welfare sectors. The authors assert the roots of stigma and the avoidance of help-seeking are operating at both formal and informal levels in the military, at the added expense of mental health crises experienced by those in non-combat roles, which are often carried out into their civilian lives. The chapter then critically examines the notion of the no harm contract suggestion- finding a distinct lack of evidence for their efficacy in reducing the potential for suicide and self-harm. The chapter closes with a critic of the adoption of Oaths on Exit as a therapeutic intervention.
    • Disseminating Research

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-10-16)
      This chapter considers the different mechanisms for disseminating research findings and how counselors and psychotherapists might find the right audience for their work. The chapter includes 'how to' guides for a range of publishing opportunities.
    • An exploration of how working in the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, might affect the personal and professional development of counsellors: an analytical autoenthnographic study

      Mason, Richard; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-29)
      Since implementing the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme in 2008, provision of counselling and other idiographic approaches to psychological therapy in the English National Health Service (NHS) has been reduced to several manualised therapies supported by NICE guidelines for depression and anxiety. Many counsellors who previously provided psychological therapies in the NHS subsequently left or retrained in IAPT compliant models of treatment. This study explores the effect that working in IAPT services over an eight-year period had on the professional and personal development of the primary author, resulting in a strong exhortation for counsellors to take advantage of, and influence the professional development opportunities it presents. This study takes an analytical autoenthnographic approach, undertaking the thematic analysis of naturally occurring data, taken from previously published opinion columns in a professional journal, and an unpublished doctoral assignment to illuminate previously unrecognised narrative. Themes of ideological resistance, and being out-group resulting in a sense of professional loss, uncertainty and cessation of professional development preceded acceptance of the IAPT nomothetic ideology. After which, a sense of being in-group facilitated a sense of gain, certainty, and the reimplementation of professional growth. Counsellors in IAPT may be prejudiced by their idiographic ideology. Professional uncertainty and a sense of loss could inhibit professional development. Development of a pluralistic ideological stance, and integrative approach to treatment is encouraged. Counsellors who accept a Cinderella like status in IAPT, are exhorted to adapt, influence from within, and thrive in IAPT.
    • Exploring the 'talk' of suicide: Using discourse-informed approaches in exploring suicide risk

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester
      This chapter considers how discourse-based approaches can help facilitate mental health work with clients/patients who present at risk of suicide. This is discussed in the context of a predominant and traditional risk assessment questionnaire approach, increasingly acknowledged as having low predictive quality.
    • Helping clients who are suicidal or self-injuring

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (SAGE, 2015-12-17)
      The chapter considers how a pluralistic approach can be used to inform therapeutic work with people at risk of suicide or who are self-injuring. It includes theoretical considerations, practice guidance and ethical implications of such work.
    • How do counsellors and psychotherapists understand diet and nutrition as part of the therapy process?

      Terry, Nicola; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-08-13)
      Background: Opinion and information in the public domain suggest that an individual's dietary and nutritional intake may be an important factor in both their physical and mental health. However, at this time in the counselling and psychotherapy field, it is not common for therapists to address issues of dietary intake and nutrition with clients. Aims: This qualitative heuristic study explores the perceptions and beliefs of qualified counsellors and psychotherapists, exploring how they understand dietary and nutritional information to be relevant as part of the therapeutic process with clients. Method: six participants were recruited through email, journal advert, poster and leaflet distribution. Data were gathered with semi-structured telephone interviews and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings: Seventeen themes were identified and organised under four master themes: (A) personal aspects of the therapist; (B) therapeutic approach and philosophy; (C) diet and nutrition within the therapy process; and (D) considering ethical practice. Implications: Implications for practice include the consideration of multidisciplinary working and developing appropriate training for practitioners in this area.
    • In a search for meaning: Challenging the accepted know-how of working with suicide risk

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-09-14)
      This opinion piece considers the current predominance of assessment tools and strategies in working with people at risk of suicide, and questions their efficacy and how they are privileged in day to day mental health practice. While such tools and an evidence-based ‘scientific’ approach to assessment clearly has its place, the author instead asserts that the modus operandi of therapy – a discursive based exploration – has much more to offer and should be the primary intervention in understanding suicide potential. Helping the client to gain insight into the meaning of their suicidality helps position the client – and practitioner – in the best possible place to reduce risk.
    • An Introduction to Counselling: From Theory to Practice

      Reeves, Andrew; The University of Chester (Sage, 2018-05-26)
      An authoritative introductory text for counselling and psychotherapy
    • Managing Risk Online

      McGarry, Amanda; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester
      This article considers the professional considerations in working with clients at risk of suicide in an online therapeutic environment.
    • The Missing Link: Relational Exploration in Working with Suicide

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Regent's University, London, 2018-09-01)
      Empirical research has driven the agenda around suicide risk assessment for many years leading to mental health services and allied professionals, including counsellors and psychotherapists, relying more heavily on risk factor-based questionnaires as the primary mechanism for identifying suicide potential. Research also suggests however, that the efficacy of such risk questionnaires is, at best, questionable and does not really provide a reliable insight into the likelihood of harm. This article argues the position that while factor-based information can be contextually helpful, the only way in which a deeper understanding of the meaning of, and potential for, suicide can be achieved is through the therapeutic discourse. Suicide exploration, it is asserted, provides not only greater insight into the process of suicide for the client, but also contributes to a context where the client may be enabled to support themselves effectively at times of suicidal crisis.
    • Risk: Assessment, exploration and mitigation

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2017-10-04)
      The chapter considers what is meant by risk in the context of counseling and psychotherapy practice, and reviews the evidence for how best to respond to risk situations, including of suicide, self-harm, safeguarding and violence to others.
    • Self-harm and suicide

      Reeves, Andrew; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2017-06-02)
      This chapter considers contemporary perspectives of self-harm and suicide and how they are often contextualized within a medicalised construct. It challenges this position and instead offers an alternative perspective, together with good practice parameters.
    • Social class and the therapeutic relationship: The perspective of therapists as clients. A qualitative study using a questionnaire survey.

      Trott, Alison; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-03-01)
      Background: This research aimed to explore clients’ perceptions of the impact of social class and whether, if so how, perceived social class disparities impact upon the therapeutic relationship. Method: A total of 45 completed questionnaires, via an online survey, were returned, comprising 30 middle-class and 15 working-class qualified and practising therapists from their role as client. A quasi-phenomenological approach was taken and thematic analysis used to interrogate the data. Findings: Four primary themes were identified as follows: (1) Perceptions of own social class; (2) Social class as a facilitative aspect of therapy; (3) Negative impact of social class on therapy; and (4) Clients perceptions of their therapeutic relationship. The findings show that where there was social class disparity, it was the explicit recognition and acknowledgement of disparity that were shown to have a positive impact on the client; improving equality, increasing rapport and enabling greater psychological growth. Implications for practice: Therapists’ lack of awareness of social class was shown to lead to inadvertent oppressive and/or classist behaviour. For a client to take full benefit from therapy, therapists must recognise the importance of social class and classism and their impact upon the therapeutic relationship, and be prepared to attend to these dynamics when appropriate. Conclusions: Though many respondents thought social class was an irrelevant factor within their therapeutic relationship, this study illustrates that social class was a silent but powerful force affecting clients’ feelings of equality and the effectiveness of therapy.
    • Staff as mental health supporters: building confidence and capacity in helping students

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-09-28)
      This chapter considers the factors staff working in higher education need to be aware of in supporting students who present with mental health problems. A range of skills and training resources and considered, including good practice indicators.
    • Suicide and self harm

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2017-10-04)
      This chapter considers the theoretical and practice considerations for working with clients to self-injure and/or present with suicide risk in counselling and psychotherapy, including definitions and good-practice indicators.
    • Transformation hidden in the sand; a pluralistic theoretical framework using sand-tray with adult clients

      Fleet, Doreen; Reeves, Andrew; Burton, Amy; DasGupta, Mani; University of Staffordshire; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2021-06-14)
      Jungian sandplay predominates the existing literature on sand-tray therapy. Although there is a small volume of literature on alternative approaches of using sand-tray with adults, most primarily focuses on children and adolescents. The study aimed to establish a sand-tray therapy framework to be utilized by practitioners who are not Jungian trained and intend to use this intervention with adult clients. The grounded theory (Strauss and Corbin, 1990, 1998) multiple case study involved six client-participants receiving six sand-tray therapy sessions. The pluralistic model established incorporates inter-relational and intra-psychic dimensions. Concepts include phenomenological shift and two sand-tray specific mechanisms of phenomenological anchor and phenomenological hook, aiding ‘edge of awareness’ and unconscious processing. In this study, pluralistic sand-tray therapy was deemed successful based on improved CORE-10 clinical scores and the various participant feedback collected.
    • Trauma and Crisis

      Reeves, Andrew; Buxton, Christina; University of Chester
      This chapter seeks to understand the nature of crisis and trauma in the context of mental health delivery and offers some key practice indicators for counsellors in the field.
    • Where do we go from zero?

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2018-09-30)
      When writing about working with suicide risk, the temptation is to focus only on the practical details – contracting, managing confidentiality and so on – as these are often at the forefront of practitioners’ minds. However, in this article I want to explore working with suicide potential from a more relational perspective – once we move beyond the risk assessment tools and questionnaires, where do we go next?