• Affordable Housing

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2020-08-26)
      This is a piece of work that intends to make a contribution to clarify the existing information available about what affordable housing means and what it involves, linking income with house prices but also with other variables, and indicating the different perceptions and problems depending on the country of reference.
    • Are sustainability strategies the losers of austerity times?

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Oviedo, 2015-06)
      During the last decade Europe seemed to be focused on reaching a sustainable development path and what it involved: low carbon economies, investment on renewable energies, environmental policy integration on the rest of policies, corporate social responsibility as the way forward for business behavior… The fight against climate change and the European Union international leadership on this area appeared as priority in all main forums and regulations. However the deep financial and economic crisis affecting most European economies seemed to have put on hold those priorities and made them become only wishful thinking. National budgets have been severely reduced and in some countries this has been translated on a reduction to the minimum on environmental protection expenditure, the cancellation of projects, the elimination of favourable fiscal regimes for renewable energies and even the disappearance of the institutions responsible for the implementation of sustainability measures. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the different European economies have reacted to the crisis in the environmental and sustainability areas and to which extent austerity measures can put at risk the targets that the EU have set for the medium and long term in order to achieve a sustainable, smart and inclusive growth path. Especial focus will be given to those countries whose bail out conditions have made their national budgets subject to international scrutiny, in comparison to those whose green economy approaches have provided room for growth without compromising sustainability. The methodology will include the analysis of quantitative and qualitative sets of data, in order to assess, among other factors, the influence of internal and external actors for macroeconomic policy determination, such as political parties preferences, citizens interests and exogenous shocks. Whenever possible, the differences in policies at national and regional level will be separated, as well as the possibilities of non-consistencies in the interactions between both levels of policy implementation. It is expected that findings will confirm that those countries more severely affected by the crisis will present a lack of green economy approach prior to the crisis, which will difficult a change of course in policy making and as such, the reinforce their possibility of lagging behind the most advanced countries in the reach of sustainable growth paths.
    • Community Renewable Energy Projects. The future of the sustainable energy transition?

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester
      The Energy Union and the European Green Deal advocate the participation of citizens and communities in the energy transition, which encourage a bottom-up approach in the implementation of sustainable energy initiatives. Both are in tune with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which attempt to involve all members of society in the sustainability path. The reality in EU Member States however, is that community energy still lacks the necessary regulatory framework to compete with large utility companies. This can indicate that the governance framework is lagging behind, still not ready to include communities (collective citizens) as full participants in the energy transition.
    • Conflicting energy policy priorities in EU energy governance

      Fernandez, Rosa M. (Springer, 2018-06-06)
      AbstractIn the last decade, energy policies across EU member states have shifted, with fears emerging over the feasibility of the decarbonisation targets set up at European level. In many cases, the changes have been triggered by weakened economic conditions linked to the last international economic crisis (2008), but in some others, they respond to national political preferences that have been given priority over long-term goals related to sustainability. The second half of 2016 was particularly full of events that on one hand, introduced uncertainty over markets, and on the other hand, may condition the progress (both weakening it and leaning it towards the wrong path) towards the Energy Union, the latest attempt to achieve energy market integration by the EU institutions. This paper will focus on three events to analyse their influence over EU’s energy governance patterns: The first is the Brexit vote and the implications over budget availability for emissions reduction projects. The second is the election of Donald Trump as president of the USA, with his declared disbelief in climate change. Finally yet importantly is the latest decision by OPEC to cut production in order to increase oil prices. With the exception of Brexit, these events are external to the EU, but all of them will have an impact over EU energy policy decisions. Bearing in mind that goals set up for 2030 are already ‘softer’ than expected compared to the 2020 ones, the question is whether those events could push policymakers more towards European targets concerned with security of supply, conflicting with emissions reduction goals.
    • Effects of economic crimes on sustainable development

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-11-12)
      The piece of work will be dedicated to look at some of the most common types of economic crimes, analysing their consequences, particularly with regard to how they can affect the achievement of sustainable development.
    • The effects of the international economic crisis on Spain’s environmental policy

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2018-12-20)
      The economic crisis has had a profound effect upon Spanish environmental policy. The government abandoned its once praised support schemes and instead adopted measures that penalise the development of renewable energy. This chapter provides an in-depth investigation of environmental policy implementation since the crisis, focusing on renewables, biodiversity, energy efficiency, and climate change. These four policy areas are compared in order to outline differences in policy approaches and the possibility of differentiated influential factors for policy change. The chapter identifies structural barriers as the main cause of recent policy reversals. Political preferences and decentralisation of the Spanish government system emerge as central explanatory variables for environmental policy implementation and change. The chapter also looks ahead into the possible future development of environmental policy in Spain. Governmental instability may mitigate against future investment, exacerbating existing problems of poor environmental policy integration, and a lack of civil society engagement with the environment.
    • Effects of the new 2020 strategy on regional energy initiatives and energy markets integration

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Birmingham (Routledge, 2014-07-19)
      This book chapter gives a view of the possible role that regional energy initiatives such as MedReg and the Energy Community can play in the future European Energy Policy. The context is given by the last international economic crisis and the targets of the 2020 Strategy with regard to energy. The international side of energy policy is foreseen as being reinforced, particularly in light of the EU high energy dependency.
    • Energy Governance in Spain

      Crespo, Laura; Fernandez, Rosa M.; Campos Martin, Jose M.; CSIC; CEDEX; University of Chester
      Spain is lagging behind in the transition to a sustainable energy system compared to other EU member states. Its unique position as an energy island, coupled with errors in energy planning inherited from previous government regimes, constitute a legacy that makes changes in the system difficult to achieve. Current political instability adds to the difficulties, under a governance framework characterised by lack of coordination and supremacy of the central government in the decision making process, in an environment where traditional energy companies still exert lobby power. The continuous changes in the regulatory framework of the energy sector have hindered investments in low carbon sources of energy due to perceived uncertainty. Small changes in the right direction are being observed though, with a more prominent role expected from the local levels of government. But many measures still originate on requirements linked to EU commitments and more initiatives at the national level need to be seen.
    • Environmental Economics

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-04-30)
      In this chapter you will learn about the interactions between the economy and the environment and as well as how economists try to solve the puzzle of giving the right value to our environmental resources so that sustainable development can be achieved. In this context, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agreed by United Nations in September 2015 (UN 2015) and discussed in detail in another chapter of this book will be used as framework. The aim of the chapter is to give Business and Management students an overview of how Economics concepts, approaches and tools can be applied by companies in their decision making process in order to make it more sustainable and aligned with Principles of Responsible Management (Global Compact 2014).
    • Environmental Economics

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Birmingham (Greenleaf Publishing, 2014-07-15)
      This is a book chapter where interactions between economy and the environment are presented to students, as well as, some of the main methods used to give value to environmental resources. Exercises for seminars, further readings and alternative activities are suggested at the end of the chapter.
    • From a utilitarian universal health coverage to an inclusive health coverage

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-10-01)
      Healthcare systems vary across countries but the access to health is considered fundamental both individually and collectively. Individually, good health is one of the main contributors to well-being, and collectively it has an important effect on countries’ productivity. From a utilitarian perspective, governmental intervention in health coverage has the purpose to maximise the total ‘utility’, in this case the total welfare, of all the members of society. Health services must therefore be produced and allocated efficiently, and distributed in accordance to equity. This approach gave origin to the so-called ‘universal’ healthcare systems, in trying to provide healthcare for as many members of a community as possible. Such systems can be considered inclusive insofar to try not to leave anyone out of coverage, but their implementation is not free of criticism. One of the limitations is that they tend to provide the same level of coverage for everyone, regardless of their differing characteristics, circumstances, and needs. This also means that some health issues will not be covered by the public health system, and if patients need specialised attention they will need to use private health provision, with the subsequent exclusion of those without enough resources. It is for this reason that healthcare systems are evolving to become ‘inclusive’ in a different manner, away from the ‘one size fits all’ approach covering only basic minimum health services, and aiming to provide different services to people with different needs, including giving access to health to the poorest of society.
    • Health and GDP

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-10-02)
      This piece looks at the relationship between health, development and economic growth, going beyond the traditional and incorrect use of GDP as a measure of welfare. The focus will be given to explain the relationship between investments in health and progress in development and growth. This will be done through the analysis of existing literature from health and economics disciplines, as well as the works (studies and reports) of international organisations. The contribution of this piece to the existing body of work will be the compilation of empirical evidence used as basis for policy recommendations. Specific areas that will be covered are the consideration of health as part of human capital, and the relationship between health and education, development and GDP.
    • Impact Assessment of Holiday Provision in West Cheshire, 2019

      Francis, Michael; Dunne, Seona; Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester
      This piece of work analyses the impact of holiday activity and food provision in deprived areas of West Cheshire, with the intention to reflect on the impact in children, their families and the wider community and assess the need for this provision, and the need to continue funding these initiatives in the future.
    • Interaction of regional and national environmental policies: The case of Spain

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Cogent OA, 2018-02-23)
      This paper uses a new approach to the concept of green budgeting within the context of green economy to analyse the different factors influencing the lack of consistency on environmental policies in Spain. It appears that structural issues have prevented Spain from becoming a real green economy, and thus from taking the right measures that could lead it into a sustainable growth path. This case study is presented as example of failure to integrate environmental issues in policy-making, with political factors being one of the main variables under analysis. A quantitative analysis on the approach to public environmental budget management during the period prior to the recent economic crisis is conducted at national and regional levels. Some of the findings are consistent with other European countries but some distinctive structural issues are also identified.
    • SDG3 Good Health and Well-Being: Integration and connection with other SDGs

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-10-01)
      Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3) pledges to ‘Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages’ (UN, 2015a). Health is affected by multitude of factors, inherent to each individual but also dependent on environmental and economic circumstances. This piece of work will look at the connection between SDG3 and other SDGs without being exhaustive, but trying to focus on those more directly related. As such, special attention will be given to SDG2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture, also connected to SDG12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns; SDG4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all; SDG5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls; SDG6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; and finally, SDG10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    • Spain and renewable energy promotion: Europeanization upside down

      Solorio, Israel; Fernandez, Rosa M.; National Autonomous University of Mexico; University of Chester (Edward Elgar, 2017-06-30)
      N/A
    • Trade Barriers

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2020-09-30)
      A basic definition of trade barriers could be ‘all factors that influence the amount of goods and services shipped across international borders’ (Feenstra and Taylor, 2017a). This definition is quite neutral, and it needs to be understood that the word ‘barrier’ has a negative connotation, which means that a trade barrier would be any instrument that limits or restrict trade between countries, as opposed to free trade. It is generally accepted that free trade is good for productivity and economic growth, but it is also true that most countries apply some sort of trade restriction, for different reasons.