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Dyslexia and time: A comparison of speed and accuracy of young dyslexics and non-dyslexics on time recognition and time management by adult dyslexicsWheeler, Timothy J.; Reynolds, David; Ellis, Antony R. (University of Chester, 2013-08)This research describes two invesitgations into temporal processing by dyslexics. Firstly, the accuracy and speed of response that dyslexic children and matched controls demonstrate on three types of time comparison task was explored. The participants were 96 boys and 24 girls, divided into three age bands: 7:0 - 7:11; 11:0 - 11:11 and 14:0 - 14:11 years of age of whom 60 were dyslexic and 60 non-dyslexic. Dyslexics in all age bads took longer and made fewer correct responses than non-dyslexics in time telling. Younger dyslexics were differentially disadvantaged when compared to older dyslexics in speed and correctness. Both groups showed improved accuracy and speed with age. The dyslexic cohort aged 14 years improved in accuracy from age 11, though with only marginal improvement in reaction time speed. Complex time perception proved most difficult for both groups. Reason for these differences are discussed with reference to limited sort-term memory problems affecting performance especially for dyslexics. The research substantiates particular theories of dyslexia and a new model helps to explain the process. Practical implications are suggested for parents, teachers and examiners concerned with dyslexic children. Secondly, the time management skills of dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults were examined for 43 dyslexic and 41 non-dyslexic particpants who answered an online questionnaire about their time management skills. The adult questionnaires revealed that dyslexics find time management, estimation, planning and sticking to a schedule particualrly difficult, resulting in task delay or incompletion, and heightened levels of stress as time pressures increase. Questions revealed lack of confidence in time management techniques amongst dyslexics. Many dyslexics had found these difficulties placed severe contraints on career choices, areas of employment and lifestyle. Possible reasons for these diffierenecs are discussed with an accompanying model that stresses the contraints caused by poor working memory.