• A bifactorial solution to the psychopathy checklist screening version in a sample of civil psychiatric patients

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Hyland, Philip; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; National College of Ireland ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-03-31)
      Background: There is considerable debate about the underlying factor structure of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). An established view is that it reflects a unitary construct underpinned by two correlated factors. More recent research has, however, undermined this conceptualisation. Aims: Our aim was to compare 10 competing models of the PCL: SV in a sample of civil psychiatric patients. Method: Ten distinct factor models were specified and tested using conventional confirmatory factor analytic techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor modelling. Results: A bifactor model, including two general factors (interpersonal-affective and antisocial-lifestyle), and four subordinate factors (interpersonal, affective, antisocial, and lifestyle) provided the best fit to the data. The reliability of the conceptualisation was supported through the use of composite reliability, and the differential relationships exhibited between the general factors and measures of personality, impulsivity, and mental health. Conclusions: The results suggest that two general factors should be taken into account when interpreting the PCL:SV for clinical purposes.
    • The effect of male incarceration on rape myth acceptance: Application of propensity score matching technique

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; DeLisi, Matthew; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; Iowa State University (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-17)
      The aim is to assess the effect of imprisonment on rape myth acceptance. The research used a sample of male prisoners incarcerated for non-sexual crimes (n = 98) and a sample of males drawn from the general population (n = 160). Simple linear regression did not indicate a significant effect of incarceration on rape myth acceptance. After controlling for background covariates using propensity score matching, analysis revealed a positive significant effect of incarceration on rape myth acceptance. Although further research is required, results indicate that being subject to incarceration has a significant positive effect on stereotypical thinking about rape.
    • The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI)

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield, Leeds Beckett University, University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-22)
      The integrated psychosocial model of criminal social identity attempts to synthesize, distil, and extend our knowledge and understanding of why people develop criminal social identity, with a particular focus on the psychological and social factors involved. We suggest that the development of criminal social identity results from a complex interplay between four important groups of psychosocial factors: (1) an identity crisis which results in weak bonds with society, peer rejection, and is associated with poor parental attachment and supervision; (2) exposure to a criminal/antisocial environment in the form of associations with criminal friends before, during, and/or after incarceration; (3) a need for identification with a criminal group in order to protect one’s self-esteem; and (4) the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between criminal/antisocial environment and the development of criminal social identity. The model produces testable hypotheses and points to potential opportunities for intervention and prevention. Directions for future research are discussed.
    • Introduction and validation of Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS) in a large prison sample

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; Dhingra, Katie; DeLisi, Matthew; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland; University of Chester; Leeds Beckett University; Iowa State University (Elsevier, 2016-02)
      Purpose: The aim of this study was to create and validate a brief self-report scale of psychopathic personality traits for research purposes which would grasp the essence of a psychopathic personality, regardless of respondents’ age, gender, cultural background, and criminal history. Methods: The Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS), The Measure of Criminal Social Identity, Self-Esteem Measure for Criminals, The Child Sexual Abuse Myth Scale, Attitudes Towards Male Sexual Dating Violence, and Lie Scale were administered to 1,794 prisoners systematically sampled from 10 maximum- and medium-security prisons. Dimensionality and construct validity of the PPTS was investigated using traditional CFA techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor analysis and multitrait-multimethod modelling (MTMM). Seven alternative models of the PPTS were specified and tested using Mplus with WLSMV estimation. Results: MTMM model of PPTS offered the best representation of the data. The results suggest that the PPTS consists of four subscales (affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, interpersonal manipulation, and egocentricity) while controlling for two method factors (knowledge/skills and attitudes/beliefs). Good composite reliability and differential predictive validity was observed. Conclusion: This brief measure of psychopathic traits uncontaminated with behavioural items can be used in the same way among participants with and without criminal history.
    • The moderating role of psychopathic traits in the relationship between period of confinement and criminal social identity in a sample of juvenile prisoners

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, Poland; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-03)
      The main aim of the current study was to examine how primary psychopathy may interact with period of confinement to predict Criminal Social Identity (CSI) scores, while controlling for covariates. Methods: The Measure of Criminal Social Identity, Levenson Self-report Psychopathy Scale, and the Measure of Criminal Attitudes and Associates were administered to 126 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Results: Results indicated no significant direct relationship between period of confinement and CSI scores. However, as expected, a significant moderating effect of primary psychopathy on the association between period of confinement and CSI scores was observed while controlling for covariates. Specifically, the significant effect of period of confinement on CSI was observed only for those participants who scored higher (1 SD above the mean) on primary psychopathy (affective and interpersonal features). Conclusion: For incarcerated juveniles with greater primary psychopathic traits, the formation and/or intensification of CSI may be an adaptive response to incarceration.
    • Psychopathy, gang membership, and moral disengagement among juvenile offenders

      Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Sharratt, Kathryn; Hyland, Philip; Kola-Palmer, Susanna; Manchester Metropolitan University ; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; National College of Ireland ; University of Huddersfield (Emerald, 2014-11-10)
      Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of psychopathy factors and gang membership on moral disengagement while controlling for age, ethnicity, having run away from home, family member and/or friend arrests, substance misuse, parental physical fights, violence exposure (victimization and witnessing), and maternal warmth and hostility. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on data collected from serious juvenile offenders (N = 769) as part of the Pathways to Desistance Study. Findings: Six independent variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model: gang membership, age, gender, violence exposure, and psychopathy Factors 1 and 2. Psychopathy Factor 1 was the strongest predictor of moral disengagement. Originality/value: Results indicate that youth with heightened psychopathic traits make greater use of strategies to rationalize and justify their harmful behaviour against others. Implications in relation to theory and previous studies are discussed.
    • The role of psychopathy and exposure to violence in rape myth acceptance

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Alexandra; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; University of Huddersfield ; Polish Prison Service (SAGE, 2014-10-09)
      The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
    • Validation of the Urdu version of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents

      Shagufta, Sonia; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Kola-Palmer, Derrol; University of Huddersfield; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-06-03)
      Purpose: The aim was to examine the dimensionality, composite reliability, and incremental validity of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI) in a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents (N = 315) following translation of the measure into Urdu. Design/methodology/approach: Four alternative factor models, with uncorrelated measurement error terms, were specified and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor modelling techniques. Findings: Results indicated that a three factor model provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models tested. The reliability of the scale was established using composite reliability. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed that the three MCSI factors were differentially related with external variables, indicating that the MCSI measures substantially different domains. Implications: Implications for theory and future research are discussed. Originality/Value: The results add valuable evidence as to the cross-cultural applicability of the MCSI.
    • Victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics in filicide and filicide-suicide

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2015-01-07)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of most recent studies of parental and stepparental filicide. A detailed review of the literature revealed the importance of certain demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors in the commission of child homicide. Our findings indicate that filicides perpetrated by genetic parents and stepparents differ considerably in terms of underlying motivational factors. Data in the literature suggest that biological parents are more likely to choose methods of killing which produce quick and painless death, whereas stepparents frequently kill their wards by beating. Research results demonstrate the victims of maternal filicides to be significantly younger than the victims of paternal filicides. Additionally, filicide-suicide is most often associated with parental psychopathology. Genetic fathers are at the greatest risk of death by suicide after the commission of familicide. These findings are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks explaining the occurrence of child murder. Further, limitations of reviewed studies and directions for future research are presented.