The Faculty offers an extensive portfolio of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, taught predominantly at the Chester Campus, but with provision in Public Relations and Policing taught at Warrington. A key feature of work in all four specialist subject areas below is the inter-relationship between social science and issues of everyday concern that have relevance for policy making.

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  • Deception Detection and Truth Detection Are Dependent on Different Cognitive and Emotional Traits: An Investigation of Emotional Intelligence, Theory of Mind, and Attention

    Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Wright, Clea; Atherton, Catherine; University of Chester; Bangor University (Sage, 2018)
    Despite evidence that variation exists between individuals in high-stakes truth and deception detection accuracy rates, little work has investigated what differences in individuals’ cognitive and emotional abilities contribute to this variation. Our study addressed this question by examining the role played by cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM), emotional intelligence (EI), and various aspects of attention (alerting, orienting, executive control) in explaining variation in accuracy rates among 115 individuals [87 women; mean age = 27.04 years (SD = 11.32)] who responded to video clips of truth-tellers and liars in real-world, high-stakes contexts. Faster attentional alerting supported truth detection, and better cognitive ToM and perception of emotion (an aspect of EI) supported deception detection. This evidence indicates that truth and deception detection are distinct constructs supported by different abilities. Future research may address whether interventions targeting these cognitive and emotional traits can also contribute to improving detection skill.
  • Flood risk to commercial property: Training and Education Needs of Built Environment Professionals

    Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; Lamond, Jessica; Chang, Faith; Kreibich, Heidi; Burrell, Montz; Wilkinson, Sara; Proverbs, David (Emerald, 2018)
    Improved management of commercial property at risk from flooding may result from well-targeted advice from built environment professionals, such as surveyors, valuers and project managers. However, research indicates that the role of these professionals in providing such advice is currently limited for a variety of reasons. This research aimed to investigate the (perceived and real) barriers and opportunities for providing such advice in a number of international locations. In particular the research sought greater understanding of the link between regulation and guidance; perceived roles and capacity; and training and education needs. In order to cover different international settings an illustrative case study approach was adopted within the selected countries (Australia, UK, US, China and Germany). This involved a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews of built environment (BE) professionals with experience of advising on commercial properties at risk of flooding. Due to the specific nature of these interviews, a purposive sampling approach was implemented, leading to a sample of 72 interviews across the five international locations. Perceived barriers were linked to regulatory issues, a shortage of suitably experienced professionals, a lack of formal guidance and insurance requirements. BE professionals defined their roles differently in each case study in relation to these factors and stressed the need for closer collaboration among the various disciplines and indeed the other key stakeholders (i.e. insurers, loss adjusters, contractors). A shortage of knowledgeable experts caused by a lack of formal training and education was a common challenge highlighted in all locations. The research is unique in providing an international perspective on issues affecting built environment professionals in providing robust and impartial advice on commercial property at risk of flooding. Whilst acknowledging the existence of local flood conditions, regulatory frameworks and insurance regimes, the results indicate some recurring themes, indicating a lack of general flood risk education and training across all five case study countries. Learning across case studies coupled with appropriate policy development could contribute towards improved skills development and more consistent integration of BE professionals within future flood risk management practice, policy and strategy.
  • The effects of the international economic crisis on Spain’s environmental policy

    Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2018)
    The economic crisis has had a profound effect upon Spanish environmental policy. The government abandoned its once praised support schemes and instead adopted measures that penalise the development of renewable energy. This chapter provides an in-depth investigation of environmental policy implementation since the crisis, focusing on renewables, biodiversity, energy efficiency, and climate change. These four policy areas are compared in order to outline differences in policy approaches and the possibility of differentiated influential factors for policy change. The chapter identifies structural barriers as the main cause of recent policy reversals. Political preferences and decentralisation of the Spanish government system emerge as central explanatory variables for environmental policy implementation and change. The chapter also looks ahead into the possible future development of environmental policy in Spain. Governmental instability may mitigate against future investment, exacerbating existing problems of poor environmental policy integration, and a lack of civil society engagement with the environment.
  • Where do we go from zero?

    Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2018-09)
    When writing about working with suicide risk, the temptation is to focus only on the practical details – contracting, managing confidentiality and so on – as these are often at the forefront of practitioners’ minds. However, in this article I want to explore working with suicide potential from a more relational perspective – once we move beyond the risk assessment tools and questionnaires, where do we go next?
  • ‘Are we losing our way?’ Navigational aids, socio-sensory way-finding and the spatial awareness of young adults

    McCullough, David; Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018)
    Recent advances in the accessibility and reliability of mobile technologies, roaming services and associated data have led to an increased usage of modern navigational devices using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This paper reports on a study which explored concerns about over-reliance upon these navigational technologies, specifically amongst young people in the Global North. Based on an experiment in which participants were asked to navigate a series of different (unfamiliar) routes on foot, using different navigational technologies each time, we argue that routes navigated are more memorable, and the process of way-finding is more enjoyable, when navigational tools/methods enable sensory and social interactions. GNSS aids, though claimed by participants as their preferred navigational aid, were the least enabling in this regard. We conclude that, whilst concerns about young people’s way-finding abilities may be overstated, the importance of sensory and social interactions with(in) environments might usefully be borne in mind in the development of future GNSS aids and locative media.
  • Quantifying system disturbance and recovery from historical mining-derived metal contamination at Brotherswater, northwest England

    Schillereff, Daniel; Chiverrell, Richard; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine; Kings College London, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2016-08-18)
    Metal ore extraction in historical times has left a legacy of severe contamination in aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the UK, there are ongoing nationwide surveys of present-day pollution discharged from abandoned mines but few assessments of the magnitude of contamination and impacts that arose during historical metal mining have been made. We report one of the first multi-centennial records of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) fluxes into a lake (Brotherswater, northwest England) from point-sources in its catchment (Hartsop Hall Mine and Hogget Gill processing plant) and calculate basin-scale inventories of those metals. The pre-mining baseline for metal contamination has been established using sediment cores spanning the past 1,500 years and contemporary material obtained through sediment trapping. These data enabled the impact of 250 years of local, small-scale mining (1696 – 1942) to be quantified and an assessment of the trajectory towards system recovery to be made. The geochemical stratigraphy displayed in twelve sediment cores show strong correspondence to the documented history of metal mining and processing in the catchment. The initial onset in 1696 was detected, peak Pb concentrations (>10,000 µg g-1) and flux (39.4 g m-2 y-1) corresponded to the most intensive mining episode (1863-1871) and 20th century technological enhancements were reflected as a more muted sedimentary imprint. After careful evaluation, we used these markers to augment a Bayesian age-depth model of the independent geochronology obtained using radioisotope dating (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am). Total inventories of Pb, Zn and Cu for the lake basin during the period of active mining were 15,415 kg, 5,897 kg and 363 kg, respectively. The post-mining trajectories for Pb and Zn project a return to pre-mining levels within 54-128 years for Pb and 75-187 years for Zn, although future remobilisation of metal-enriched catchment soils and floodplain sediments could perturb this recovery. We present a transferable paleolimnological approach that highlights flux-based assessments are vital to accurately establish the baseline, impact and trajectory of mining-derived contamination for a lake catchment.
  • Out of the frying pan into the fire. Education, counselling and target-driven culture.

    Egeli, Cemil; University of Chester (PCCS Books, 2018-06)
    I write my review as a conversation between three aspects of my working self - a teacher, lecturer (in counselling skills) and a counsellor, I shall abbreviate these to T L C – I think the world needs more of it.
  • Psychological support for patients with cancer: evidence review and suggestions for future directions

    Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Beatty, Lisa; Dhillon, Haryana M.; University of Chester; Flinders University; University of Sydney (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018)
    Purpose of the review. Psychological distress and mental health comorbidity are common in cancer. Various therapeutic frameworks have been used for interventions to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life in cancer patients with mixed results. This paper reviews contributions to that literature published since January 2017. Recent findings. The majority of new psychological intervention research in cancer has used Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Mindfulness-Based Interventions. Cognitive behavioural Therapy has been considered a gold-standard intervention and recent evidence justifies continuation of this. Recent reviews call into question the validity of evidence for Mindfulness- Based Interventions. A smaller number of trials using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Meta-Cognitive Therapy, Dignity Therapy and Coaching have emerged, and whilst findings are promising, additional fully-powered trials are required. Weaker evidence exists for counselling, support-based, and Narrative Therapy interventions. Summary. Efficacious, timely and acceptable psychological interventions are a necessary component of comprehensive cancer care. There is some way to go before the evidence conclusively points towards which interventions work for which cancer groups and for which specific outcomes. Methodological limitations must be addressed in future trials; at the forefront remains the need for fully-powered, head-to-head comparison trials.
  • Regulating the activities of Multinational Corporations in Nigeria: A Case for the African Union?

    Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (Brill Academic Publishers, 2018)
    Due to the ineffectiveness of the extant regulatory framework (not limited to home country, host country and international law) governing the activities of multinational corporations (MNCs), new regulatory paradigms have been advocated by scholars. Arguably, the African Union (AU) (and its mechanisms) can be the basis of MNC regulation in Africa. However, regulation of the activities of MNCs operating in Africa appears not to be among the major or pressing priorities of the African Union (AU) and its institutions. There is no normative and institutional framework at the AU level regulating the activities of MNCs in Africa. There are, however, moves to design measures to redress this anomaly. This article will focus on the development of recent strategies by the AU and its institutions to “regulate” the activities of MNCs in Africa and its implications in Nigeria.
  • Regulation of Multinational Corporations in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Civil Society as Behaviour Modification Agents

    Ekhator Eghosa Osa; University of Chester (University of Benin, 2018)
    This article focuses on the roles of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in the regulation of oil Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Nigeria. Arguably, the void created in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria by the non-performance of government regulatory bodies and the non-implementation of existing legal enactments is gradually being filled by CSOs. CSOs in Nigeria have proved by their antecedents that they have major roles to play. Thus, CSOs have engaged in information gathering, standard setting and behavior modification activities. However, this paper focuses on behavior modification activities of CSOs in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. This article contends that the regulatory activities of CSOs in Nigeria have led to a somewhat ‘decentred regulatory approach’ in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. In decentred regulation, the state is one of many actors in the regulatory regime or process. Thus, the interactions inherent in decentred regulation are said to strengthen the regulatory process. Arguably, CSOs in Nigeria have engaged in the regulatory process in the oil and gas industry, thereby impacting positively on the regulatory paradigm. The interactions of the CSOS in the oil and gas industry are at the core of this paper.
  • A leftward perceptual asymmetry when judging the attractiveness of visual patterns

    Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Crossley, Becky; Lee, Jennifer; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-15)
    Perceptual judgements concerning the magnitude of a stimulus feature are typically influenced more by the left side of the stimulus than by the right side. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applies to judgements of the attractiveness of abstract visual patterns. Across four experiments participants chose between two versions of a stimulus which either had an attractive left side or an attractive right side. Experiments 1 and 2 presented artworks and experiments 3 and 4 presented wallpaper designs. In each experiment participants showed a significant bias to choose the stimulus with an attractive left side more than the stimulus with an attractive right side. The leftward bias emerged at age 10/11, was not caused by a systematic asymmetry in the perception of colourfulness or complexity, and was stronger when the difference in attractiveness between the left and right sides was larger. The results are relevant to the aesthetics of product and packaging design and show that leftward biases extend to the perceptual judgement of everyday items. Possible causes of the leftward bias for attractiveness judgements are discussed and it is suggested that the size of the bias may not be a measure of the degree of hemispheric specialisation.
  • Landslides in Jamaica: Distribution, Cause, Impact and Management

    Miller, Servel; Shalkowski, Anestoria; Harris, Norman; Richards, Dionne; Brown, Lyndon; University of Chester; University of the West Indies (CRC Press, 2018-03-19)
    Jamaica has one of the highest natural hazard risk exposures in the world, with more than 90% of the population exposed to two or more natural hazards. The island of Jamaica is particularly prone to multiple hazards, including hurricanes, earthquakes and slope instability, due to its geographical position (within the track of Atlantic hurricanes and its location on the Caribbean ‘tectonic’ plate) and its topography and geology (steep slopes with highly weathered material). Of these hazards, slope instability is the most common, affecting not only mountainous areas but also the coastal plains, where submarine landslides have been known to generate tsunamis. One such tsunami contributed to the destruction of the then capital city of Port Royal in 1692. Landslides are predominantly triggered by seismic activities and heavy rainfall associated with hurricanes and tropical depressions. These landslides have caused loss of lives, widespread destruction to the built and natural environment and long-term damage to the socio-economic development of the country. The slope instability problem is compounded by the lack of awareness of the impact by the general public, developers and planners, as well as uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization on marginal lands susceptible to slope failure.
  • The Impact of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on Domestic Law: A Case study of Nigeria

    Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-06-09)
    The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) establishes a system or mechanism for the promotion and protection of human rights in Africa within the framework of the African Union (formerly known as the Organisation of African Unity). The African Charter promotes a range of human rights such as civil and political, socio-economic and cultural, individual and collective rights. The African Charter is the first regional mechanism to incorporate the different classes of human rights in a single document. There have been a plethora of academic postulations indicating that the African Charter has impacted Nigerian Law minimally. This article contends that the African Charter has impacted positively on Nigerian law notwithstanding the academic postulations to the contrary.
  • Overcoming the (non)justiciable Conundrum: The Doctrine of Harmonious Construction and the Interpretation of the Right to a Healthy Environment in Nigeria

    Ako, Rhuks; Stewart, Ngozi; Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Hull; University of Benin; University of Chester (Springer, 2015-12-13)
    The legal framework regulating socio-economic rights in Nigeria is ambiguous. These rights, listed under Section II of the constitution titled Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles, are non-justiciable by virtue of section 6(6)(c) of the constitution. However, Nigeria as a dualist state has adopted (ratified and domesticated) the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (African Charter) in accordance with relevant constitutional provisions. Therefore, the provisions of the African Charter are (arguably) part and parcel of Nigeria’s laws, thus ‘justiciable’. This paper aims to critically examine the status of the socio-economic rights in Nigeria, specifically the right to a healthy environment. With extant literature arguing either for or against the existence of the right to a healthy environment in Nigeria this paper adopts a holistic approach by critically considering both sides of the argument. Premised on the doctrine of harmonious construction, the paper aims suggest a means to end the debate that currently the surrounds the existence and (non)justiciable nature of the ‘right’ to a healthy environment in Nigeria.
  • Conflicting energy policy priorities in EU energy governance

    Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-06-06)
    In the last decade, energy policies across EU member States have shifted, with fears emerging over the feasibility of the decarbonisation targets set up at European level. In many cases, the changes have been triggered by weakened economic conditions linked to the last international economic crisis (2008), but in some others they respond to national political preferences that have been given priority over long term goals related to sustainability. The second half of 2016 was particularly full of events that on one hand, introduced uncertainty over markets, and on the other hand, may condition the progress (both weakening it and leaning it towards the wrong path) towards the Energy Union, the latest attempt to achieve energy markets integration by the EU institutions. This paper will focus on three events to analyse their influence over EU’s energy governance patterns: The first is the Brexit vote and the implications over budget availability for emissions reduction projects. The second is the election of Donald Trump as president of the USA, with his declared disbelief in climate change. Finally yet importantly, is the latest decision by OPEC to cut production in order to increase oil prices. With the exception of Brexit, these events are external to the EU, but all of them will have an impact over EU energy policy decisions. Bearing in mind that goals set up for 2030 are already ‘softer’ than expected compared to the 2020 ones, the question is whether those events could push policymakers more towards European targets concerned with security of supply, conflicting with emissions reduction goals.
  • ADVISING ON FLOOD RISK – OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES ACROSS INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL PROPERTY MARKETS

    Bhattacharya Mis, Namrata; Chan,Faith; Kreibich,Heidi; Montz, Burrell; Lamond, Jessica; Proverbs, David; Wilkinson, Sara; University of Chester, Nottingham university, GHZ Berlin, University of East Carolina, University of West of England, Birmingham City University, UTS Sydney (Royal institution of Chartered Surveyors , London, 2018-04-23)
    There is an increasing body of research which identifies the need for flood risk mitigation advice and the potential for building professionals such as surveyors to be involved. This research explored the potential for surveyors to play a greater role in advising on at-risk commercial properties to better manage risk within the commercial property sector. Through a series of 72 expert interviews of professionals in the field of flood risk management in five international markets (UK, US, Australia, China and Germany), the research developed a picture of the current and potential role surveyors can play in providing professional advice on flood risk affected commercial properties. The interviews revealed that a wide set of opportunity lies in expert surveyors’ technical and local knowledge and understanding of risk mitigation and damage reduction processes, building typology, commercial land use, property valuation, and insurance schemes. However, their ability to offer flood specific advice is constrained by lack of: flood related expertise and training, market demand, client awareness of flood risk and, an willingness to invest in advice and mitigation measures on behalf of clients. The research highlights the need for collaborative practice to enable well informed all round advice on flood risk resilience. The findings also highlight the need for additional flood risk education and training for surveyors to assist them to provide improved risk mitigation advice.
  • Spiritual Abuse in the Christian faith settings: Definition, policy and practice guidance

    Oakley, Lisa R.; Kinmond, K.S.; Humphreys, J.; University of Chester; Steps SA; CCPAS (Emerald, 2018)
    Purpose: A previous publication in this journal reported the findings of a 2013 survey into people’s experiences of membership of a Christian church in the UK (author citation removed for the purposes of review). A major finding of this survey was that many people said they had been ‘harmed’ by their experience with some labelling it as ‘Spiritual Abuse’(SA). Respondents in the 2013 study also stressed the importance of developing safeguarding policy and practice in this area. The current paper explores the findings of a more extensive survey conducted in 2017 which aims to identify people’s understanding of SA some four years after the initial work and within a context of some discussion and uncertainty around the term itself. The study also aims to assess the current status of safeguarding policy and practice in SA perpetrated against individuals in the Christian church in the UK. A secondary aim of the study is to ascertain how far understandings, policy and practice have developed since the initial survey was conducted. It is emphasised that the authors do not assert that spiritual abuse is perpetrated solely in the Christian church. However, as this is their personal religious background it is the focus of this work. Design/Methodology/approach: A mixed methods online survey of Christians, Church attendees and members of Christian organisations was conducted in 2017. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, inductive thematic and content analysis. Findings: A clear definition of spiritual abuse is required. There is an ongoing need to develop policy and practice in the area of spiritual abuse in order to respond effectively to those who have these harmful experiences. Research limitations/implications: This work has been conducted within the Christian faith community and thus, represents only this faith context. Accordingly, it is research with a specific group. The work would usefully be expanded to other faith contexts. Practical implications: People are still being harmed by experiences in the Christian church. Safeguarding policy and practice in the area of spiritual abuse needs to be developed in the immediate future. Social implications: Those working in statutory agencies, faith and community contexts need to develop an understanding of spiritual abuse. Originality/value: This is the largest survey conducted on the topic of spiritual abuse in the Christian faith to date in the UK.
  • PUBLIC REGULATION OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA: AN EVALUATION

    Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (Golden Gate University Faculty of Law, 2016)
    Nigeria operates a command and control regulatory framework in the oil and gas sector. This type of regulation was prevalent in the United States and Britain during the 1970s and 1980s. Under this regulatory framework, regulators are deemed to be acting in the public interest. This article focuses on the extant public regulatory regime in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria. Generally, factors, such as red-tape, over-regulation and regulatory capture, amongst others, are some reasons militating against a command and control regulatory regime. This article will contend that unless there is a paradigmatic shift in the state-oriented or public regulatory framework in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria, the fundamental ills or malaise afflicting the industry will not abate.
  • Assessment of metacognitive beliefs in an at risk mental state for psychosis: A validation study of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30

    Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tully, Sarah; Stewart, Suzanne; Wells, Adrian; University of Manchester; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-06-07)
    Aim: The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) has been used to assess metacognitive beliefs in a range of mental health problems. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of the MCQ-30 in people at risk for psychosis. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five participants meeting criteria for an at risk mental state (ARMS) completed the MCQ-30 as part of their involvement in a randomised controlled trial. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to assess factor structure and construct validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the original 5-factor structure of the MCQ-30. Examination of principal component analysis and parallel analysis outputs also suggested a 5-factor structure. Correlation analyses including measures of depression, social anxiety and beliefs about paranoia showed evidence of convergent validity. Discriminant validity was supported using the normalising subscale of the beliefs about paranoia tool. Conclusions: The MCQ-30 demonstrated good fit using the original 5-factor model, acceptable to very good internal consistency of items was evident and clinical usefulness in those at risk for psychosis was demonstrated.
  • THE USE TOPOGRAPHIC DATABASE FOR NON STANDARD PROJECTS

    Miller, Servel; Malgorzata, Leszczynska; University of Chester; University of Warmia (2017-07-05)
    The touristic maps are the one of the most popular and widely used among the society type of map. However the ones are not official map and no government entity of Poland responsible for producing and distributing this types of maps. Therefore they are not free for local governments. Tourist on line maps are an ideal way for cities and region to promote their local business community. Indeed, it is estimated that hundred billion is spent on travel and tourism annually in the Poland. This is why local governments spend a large financial outlay for the creation of online tourist maps. But the tourist maps created base on non-standardized and official source become quickly outdated and update them is expensive. It seems to be good solution use constantly updated topographic databases for produce tourist maps to promote cities. The one is funded with taxes therefore can be usable without fees for public entities and it is national resource not classified for national security reasons. The series of articles about use topographic database for non-standard project topics will present an algorithm and legal and technological limitations appearing during the attempts to use topographic maps to create online tourist maps base on topographic databases. The article is an introduction to this subject.

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