The Faculty offers an extensive portfolio of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, taught predominantly at the Chester Campus, but with provision in Public Relations and Policing taught at Warrington. A key feature of work in all four specialist subject areas below is the inter-relationship between social science and issues of everyday concern that have relevance for policy making.

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  • “The Fruit of Consultation” – Co-production as a solution to the challenges of safeguarding children and young people in International Christian work, findings from an online survey.

    Oakley, Lisa; Lafferty, Moira; McFarlane, Leigh; Thirtyone:eight; University of Chester
    Incidents of child abuse such as the Oxfam case in 2010 of sexual abuse of children by volunteers’ and cases of abuse in orphanages by high risk overseas volunteers have highlighted the need for the development of effective safeguarding in the international context. This is of equal importance for faith-based organisations (FBOs) who, like non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are obligated to create safe spaces for their beneficiaries. This paper reports the findings from an online survey conducted in 2019, which was completed by 72 participants, 39 were representatives from organisations based in the UK which support individuals to engage in International Christian Work (ICW), 33 were individuals who are or have been engaged in ICW in the last three years. The online survey collected qualitative data, which was analysed using reflexive thematic analysis whilst descriptive analytical techniques were employed on the quantitative data. The findings illustrate commitment to safeguarding children and young people in ICW but also the complexities, challenges, and tensions around this. The necessity to work collaboratively with local contexts and co-production was identified as key to developing effective safeguarding practice. These findings have implications beyond faith-based organisations to others working in the international context.
  • Web-based psychological interventions for people living with and beyond cancer: A meta-review of what works and what doesn’t for maximising recruitment, engagement, and efficacy

    Leslie, Monica; Beatty, Lisa; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Pendrous, Rosina; Cartwright, Tim; Jackson, Richard; The Finding My Way UK Trial Steering Group; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J; University of Chester; Flinders University; University of Liverpool
    Background: Despite high levels of psychological distress experienced by many patients with cancer, previous research has identified several barriers to accessing traditional face-to-face psychological support. In response, web-based psychosocial interventions have emerged as a promising alternative. Objective: This meta-review aimed to synthesise evidence on: (1) recruitment challenges and enablers; (2) factors that promote engagement and adherence to web-based intervention content; and (3) factors that promote the efficacy of web-based psychosocial interventions for cancer patients and survivors. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for previous reviews which have investigated the recruitment, engagement, and efficacy of online and app-based psychosocial interventions in adult cancer populations. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library database for relevant literature. Search terms focussed on a combination of topics pertaining to neoplasms and telemedicine. Two independent authors conducted abstract screening, full-text screening, and data extraction for each identified article. Results: Twenty articles met eligibility criteria. There was inconsistency in the reporting of uptake and engagement data; however, anxiety around technology and perceived time burden were identified as two key barriers. Online psychosocial oncology interventions demonstrated efficacy in reducing depression and stress but reported weak to mixed findings for distress, anxiety, quality of life, and wellbeing. While no factors consistently moderated intervention efficacy, preliminary evidence indicated that multi-component interventions and greater communication with a healthcare professional were preferred by participants and associated with superior effects. Conclusions: Several consistently cited barriers to intervention uptake and recruitment emerged, which we recommend future intervention studies address. Preliminary evidence also supports the superior efficacy of multi-component interventions and interventions which facilitate communication with a healthcare professional. However, a greater number of appropriately powered clinical trials, including randomised trials with head-to-head comparisons, are needed to enable more confident conclusions around which online psychosocial oncology interventions work best and for whom.
  • Magazines as contradictory spaces for alcohol messaging: a mixed method content and thematic analysis of UK women’s magazine representations of alcohol and its consumption

    Atkinson, Amanda; Meadows, Beth; Ross-Houle, Kim; Smith, Chloe; Sumnall, Harry; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester
    BACKGROUND Women’s magazines provide a space in which gendered norms around alcohol-related practice are (re)-produced. They act as important points of reference for women to draw upon in their own understandings of alcohol use within their identity making. Studying the alcohol-related messages women’s magazines disseminate is therefore an important line of inquiry. METHODS An analysis of textual and visual alcohol depictions, including alcohol advertising, in 70 editions of 20 printed magazines targeted at and read by women, published between August 2020 and January 2021, was conducted using quantitative content and qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS Women’s magazines have the potential to disseminate public health messages about the physical and mental health impacts of alcohol use, alcohol’s role in gender inequalities and the risk of harm from alcohol use by men. However, they do so in ways that reproduce harmful gender norms and expectations, and overlook the structural causes of alcohol-related harms. Associations between alcohol use and violence against women were simplified, in ways that ignored the root causes, produced victim-blaming narratives and deflected responsibility from the perpetrator to the effects of alcohol. Narratives around drinking and sobriety were underpinned by concerns over appearance, which reinforced social expectations of the ideal feminine body. Health narratives were in conflict with the presence of pro-alcohol messages such as consumption suggestions and alcohol advertising, which promoted alcohol use as a normalised aspect of women’s day to day lives. CONCLUSIONS Women receive a number of mixed and contradictory messages on alcohol use through their magazine readership, which places limits on magazines as educational sources of public health messaging.
  • Suicide rates amongst individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Troya, M. Isabela; Spittal, Matthew, J; Pendrous, Rosina; Crowley, Grace; Gorton, Hayley, C; Russell, Kirsten; Byrne, Sadhbh; Musgrove, Rebecca; Hannah-Swain, Stephanie; Kapur, Navneet; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-04-28)
    Background Existing evidence suggests that some individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds are at increased risk of suicide compared to their majority ethnic counterparts, whereas others are at decreased risk. We aimed to estimate the absolute and relative risk of suicide in individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds globally. Methods Databases (Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo) were searched for epidemiological studies between 01/01/2000 and 3/07/2020, which provided data on absolute and relative rates of suicide amongst ethnic minority groups. Studies reporting on clinical or specific populations were excluded. Pairs of reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts. We used random effects meta-analysis to estimate overall, sex, location, migrant status, and ancestral origin, stratified pooled estimates for absolute and rate ratios. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020197940. Findings A total of 128 studies were included with 6,026,103 suicide deaths in individuals from an ethnic minority background across 31 countries. Using data from 42 moderate-high quality studies, we estimated a pooled suicide rate of 12·1 per 100,000 (95% CIs 8·4–17·6) in people from ethnic minority backgrounds with a broad range of estimates (1·2–139·7 per 100,000). There was weak statistical evidence from 51 moderate-high quality studies that individuals from ethnic minority groups were more likely to die by suicide (RR 1·3 95% CIs 0·9–1·7) with again a broad range amongst studies (RR 0·2–18·5). In our sub-group analysis we only found evidence of elevated risk for indigenous populations (RR: 2·8 95% CIs 1·9–4·0; pooled rate: 23·2 per 100,000 95% CIs 14·7–36·6). There was very substantial heterogeneity (I2 > 98%) between studies for all pooled estimates. Interpretation The homogeneous grouping of individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds is inappropriate. To support suicide prevention in marginalised groups, further exploration of important contextual differences in risk is required. It is possible that some ethnic minority groups (for example those from indigenous backgrounds) have higher rates of suicide than majority populations.
  • An exploration of the impact of diversity and culture on the journey of faith and spirituality of the counsellor who is a Christian

    Gubi, Peter; West, William; Barton, Heather D. (University of Chester, 2021-09)
    Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of diversity and culture on the journey of faith and spirituality of the counsellor who is a Christian. This is an under-researched area. Method: The study explored the experiences of eight experienced counsellors who were also Christian. It was conducted by means of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Analysis of data identified five superordinate themes: 1) thoughts on motivations; 2) perspectives on training; 3) experiences in supervision; 4) experiences of faith and spirituality; 5) experiences of diversity and culture. Discussion: The data revealed that participants believed their faith to be a vital part of their desire to become a counsellor. In spite of this, they received little preparation for the diverse clients they were to meet and found little support in the areas of diversity and culture, or faith and spirituality, in training or supervision. They also faced challenges to their own faith and spirituality. This has, however, resulted in what participants believe is a broader and deeper faith. A move to a new stage of faith, which they may not have reached had they not become counsellors, was also identified. Conclusion/Implications: Gaps in training and supervision were highlighted, and areas for further research are identified.
  • Appraisal Self-respect: Scale Validation and Construct Implications

    Clucas, Claudine; Corr, Philip; Wilkinson, Heather; Schepman, Astrid; University of Chester; University of London (Springer, 2022-04-26)
    Despite the widely accepted recognition of the notion of self-respect and its importance for emotional well-being, it has received scant attention in the psychological literature. We report on the development and validation of a scale to measure trait (character-based) appraisal self-respect (ASR), conceptualised as a disposition to perceive or appraise oneself as being a respectworthy honourable person. We tested the factor structure, reliability, convergent, discriminant and criterion validity of the ASR scale in samples of adult individuals (combined N = 1910 across samples). The resulting ASR scale was found to be essentially unidimensional and showed good internal and acceptable test-retest reliability. Trait ASR was correlated with (yet distinct from) theoretically related measures of global self-esteem, moral self and principledness, and was distinct from other self-esteem facets not based on honourable character traits. Importantly, it related to well-being and prosocial behaviour over-and-above self-esteem. The validation work served to consolidate the theoretical boundaries and utility of this important concept.
  • Developing creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the youth offending services during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Wilkinson, Dean; Price, Jayne; Crossley, Charlene; University of Chester (Emerald, 2022-04-12)
    Purpose The COVID-19 lockdowns (2020–2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functioning of the criminal justice system, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic has affected individuals across the wider society, this includes a negative impact on the social circumstances of children and young people involved within youth offending services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population frequently represents those from marginalised circumstances and are rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of the young people serving orders with the YOS during Covid19 lockdowns and requirements. Design/methodology/approach This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the COVID-19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using a lyric artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to create lyrics about their experiences of the YOS during this time. Findings The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on familiarity with, and passion for, music. He promoted their strengths, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young people’s social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. Practical implications This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Who are we protecting? Exploring counsellors' understanding and experience of boundaries

    Blundell, Peter; Oakley, Lisa; Kinmond, Kathryn; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (European Journal of Qualitative Research in Psychotherapy, 2022-04-07)
    The concept of boundary is a term often used within counselling and psychotherapy literature. However, there is a paucity of research exploring how useful and meaningful boundaries are for therapy practice. This study explored how counsellors understand and experience boundaries within their counselling practice. Seven participants, who were all qualified and practising counsellors, were interviewed about their understanding and experience of boundaries. These interviews were transcribed and then analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Analysis identified one significant overarching theme entitled “Protection and Safety” which distinguished between the protection of self and other. This paper focuses solely on the Protection of Self theme because of the theme’s rich and vivid data and the theme’s overarching dominance across the accounts. Two subthemes were identified: Establishing the Self and Defending the Self. Findings indicate that there was a lack of awareness around boundaries, with some participants describing defensive responses to some boundary issues. However, participants also described using boundaries to restrict, limit and defend themselves when working with clients, and they identified this as necessary for their own safety and security. This study recommends that therapists should engage reflexively with boundaries, towards developing a more relational and/or client-focused approach.
  • Creels and Catenary wires: Creating Community through Winter Lights Displays

    Bennett, Julia; University of Chester (Sage, 2022-03-22)
    Lighting up darkness is a material practice shared across many cultures. Lighting up winter darkness is a particular concern in urban areas in order to make urban spaces feel safer and more welcoming. Temporary lights, often characterized as ‘Christmas’ or ‘Winter’ lights, are installed over the darkest period of the year (December in the northern hemisphere) in town and city centres to attract shoppers and tourists. This paper examines the lights displays installed over the Christmas / New Year period in two British towns. In each case the lights are installed by volunteers, who also arrange a ‘switch on’ community celebration. The research argues that the architecture of the lights signifies and reinforces the identities of the communities involved. In particular, the paper examines: the importance of infrastructure for the ongoing creation of community; the creative potential of these temporary structures for community identity; and the essential materiality of community.
  • Enhancing community weight loss groups in a low socioeconomic status area: Application of the COM-B model and Behaviour Change Wheel

    Coupe, Nia; Cotterill, Sarah; Peters, Sarah; University of Chester; Lancaster University; University of Manchester (Wiley Open Access, 2021-08-04)
    Background Obesity rates are higher among people of lower socioeconomic status. While numerous health behaviour interventions targeting obesity exist, they are more successful at engaging higher socioeconomic status populations, leaving those in less affluent circumstances with poorer outcomes. This highlights a need for more tailored interventions. The aim of this study was to enhance an existing weight loss course for adults living in low socioeconomic communities. Methods The Behaviour Change Wheel approach was followed to design an add-on intervention to an existing local authority-run weight loss group, informed by mixed-methods research and stakeholder engagement. Results The COM-B analysis of qualitative data revealed that changes were required to psychological capability, physical and social opportunity and reflective motivation to enable dietary goal-setting behaviours. The resulting SMART-C booklet included 6 weeks of dietary goal setting, with weekly behavioural contract and review. Conclusion This paper details the development of the theory- and evidence-informed SMART-C intervention. This is the first report of the Behaviour Change Wheel being used to design an add-on tool to enhance existing weight loss services. The process benefitted from a further checking stage with stakeholders.
  • Criminological Research, Policy and PracticeDeveloping creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the Youth Offending Services during the Covid19 pandemic

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Price, Jayne; Crossley, Charlene; University of Chester
    The Covid19 lockdowns (2020-2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functions of the Criminal Justice System, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic affected individuals across the wider society, this includes the social circumstances of young people involved within Youth Offending Services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population is frequently drawn from marginalised circumstances and rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of the young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the Covid19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using an artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to devise lyrics which captured their perceptions and experiences of the YOS during this time. The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on, familiarity with and passion for, music. He promoted their strength, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young peoples social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic.
  • Does sexual identity and religious practice have implications for individual’s subjective health and wellbeing? Secondary data analysis of the Community Life Survey

    Wilkinson, Dean John; University of Chester
    The health and wellbeing of LGB individual’s has gained attention in recent years, with increased recognition of the unique stressors associated with physical and psychological health concerns. Religious status and psychological health have been explored in the general population, however, few studies have explored sexual identity and religious status for implications on mental health and wellbeing. A secondary data analysis was performed on the Community Life Survey (Department for Culture, Media & Sport, 2019). A multivariate interaction was found between age, religious practice and sexual identity when considering four scores for wellbeing. An ANOVA of the Combined wellbeing scores revealed significant difference between sexual identity groups with the LGB group scoring lowest for combined wellbeing score and highlighted a significant interaction between religion and sexual identity. General health scores revealed significant difference between groups for religious practice. The implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed, emphasising the importance of understanding and challenging cultural norms in service settings. There is a need to understand LGB individuals’ experiences and access to services to support mental health and wellbeing as key groups, such as LGB, are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing and increase levels of dissatisfaction.
  • An International Validation of the Bolton Unistride Scale (BUSS) of Tenacity

    Kannangara, Chathurika; Allen, Rosie; Hochard, Kevin; Carson, Jerome; University of Bolton; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2022-03-11)
    Academic success at University is increasingly believed to be a combination of personal characteristics like grit, resilience, strength-use, self-control, mind-set and wellbeing. The authors have developed a short 12-item measure of academic tenacity, the Bolton Uni-Stride Scale (BUSS) which incorporates these elements. Previous work in the UK had established the reliability and validity of the BUSS. The present paper reports the findings of an International validation of BUSS across 30 countries (n = 1043). Participants completed the BUSS alongside other recognised scales. Factor analysis revealed an almost identical two-factor solution to previous work and the reliability and validity of the scale were supported using an international sample. The authors recommend however that the scale be used as a single score combining all 12 items. In the light of this, the authors suggest that the BUSS will be a useful measure to incorporate in studies of academic attainment.
  • A pilot evaluation study of pastoral supervision provision in the Moravian Church (British Province)

    Mwenisongole, Tuntufye Anangisye; Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester; Teofilo Kisanji University
    This pilot study is an evaluation of pastoral supervision within the Moravian Church (British Province). The findings indicate that pastoral supervision is considered sufficiently beneficial, with 94% having found pastoral supervision to be of help to them, to be worth continuing with, and to be worth continuing to be funded by the denomination; thereby adding a contribution to the discussion on the value of pastoral supervision for clergy.
  • An exploration of how trainee counsellors, who have a Christian faith, experience the impact of person-centred counsellor training on their faith

    Abbey, Paula; Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2022-02-07)
    This study explores how trainee counselors, who have a Christian faith, experience the impact of person-centered counselor training on their faith. The research question was: ‘How do trainee counsellors who have a Christian faith experience the impact of person-centred counsellor training on their faith?’ The aims were: to explore the possible impact of person-centered counselor training on Christian faith; to explore trainees’ level of comfort at exploring issues of faith on the course; and to understand how counselor trainees who have a Christian faith perceive their faith ‘fits’ with person-centered theory. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and ana lyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Findings point to the centrality of God within the process of becoming a person-centered counselor, from the decision to train, to interpre tation of theory. All participants reported no, or limited, input from tutors on religious and spiritual issues. Differing levels of comfort were felt in the disclosure and exploration of their religious faith whilst training, citing supervisors of Christian faith or church members as the main sources of support with religious or spiritual issues. All participants experienced changes to their religious beliefs and practices, which occurred during and after the course of study.
  • Falling into an abyss: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the lived experiences of the parents of autistic daughters in the UK

    Reeves, Andrew; Chollier, Marie; Chantrey, Lucy (University of Chester, 2021-11)
    Whilst research increasingly focuses on autism in girls, there is a dearth of literature around the experience of parenting an autistic daughter in the UK, with the few studies that do focusing only on mothers. The data was gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews that explored the lived experience of parenting an autistic daughter for six mothers and two fathers, from their first concerns, through to the diagnosis, with life in-between and beyond. Their daughters were aged between eleven and seventeen at diagnosis and were diagnosed within the UK. IPA was used to analyse the data. Five superordinate themes were identified: Journey to diagnosis; Negotiating systems; Psychological impact; Living with an autistic daughter; and Reflections. The research demonstrates that the parents of autistic daughters find themselves seeking professional advice and support for a pervasive condition that, whilst better known for its familiar male presentation, appears invisible in its female form to all but those in their close family. The impact of the ensuing struggle to have their concerns believed and to obtain her autism diagnosis often has profoundly negative consequences, leaving families in crisis, chaos in daily life, and parents’ mental and physical health compromised. The subsequent delay in diagnosis means that their daughter remains unsupported in her education and social life, with the adverse ramifications of this reverberating throughout her family. The findings of this study have implications for parents, professionals, and the field of research in terms of the need for a better recognition and understanding of female autism, an apposite educational setting, and a holistic approach to family support.
  • Measuring and Exploring LGBTQ+ Stigma Reduction from a Contextual Behavioural Science Perspective

    Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; Mattison, Michelle; Carol, Janine; Norwood, Sabrina (University of Chester, 2022-02)
    This thesis is comprised of five empirical studies which were designed to measure and explore lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning+ (LGBTQ+) stigma reduction, through a Contextual Behavioural Science (CBS) lens. This thesis offered unique contributions to the field via its introduction of a novel stigma measure, its empirical testing of the euphemism treadmill effect, and its introduction of a novel form of perspective-taking. The thesis begins with a literature review chapter, followed by the first phase of experimentation. This involved the creation of a new psychometric scale to measure others’ stigmatising attitudes. Data were collected from a total of 429 participants, measuring attitudes toward two different populations. Exploratory factor analysis and item-reduction was undertaken using data from one sub-set of participants resulting in a unidimensional scale. Parallel forms were created using an odd-even split. The resultant factor was compared against the second sub-set of participants using a confirmatory factor analysis. The one factor, 24-item structure was confirmed and retained. The second phase of experimentation involved exploring a previously employed reduction technique (i.e., language and the euphemism treadmill effect) using both a methodologically robust approach and ecologically valid approach, across two studies. The first study used a technique familiar to CBS, match-to-sample, while the second used a more ecologically valid approach, a vignette. Both contained the same three hypotheses. Results from the first study indicated some significant correlation between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores, but no significant effect within the gay condition specifically. Results also showed that word valence was a significant moderator between pre- and post-intervention scores. Results from the second study indicated no significant change in scores from pre- to post-intervention labels, with pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores showing a strong positive correlation. Word valence was not a significant moderator between pre- and post- scores. The third phase of experimentation involved exploring both a previously utilised perspective-taking intervention, and the creation of a novel form of perspective-taking, across two studies. For the first study, 280 participants were randomly assigned to one of six different conditions varying in requirements expected and type of perspective-taking. Each ix condition also varied in participant burden, across three levels ranging from least burdensome to most burdensome. The second study utilised 235 participants who were randomly assigned to one of three different perspective-taking conditions. Attitudes toward gay people were measured pre- and post-intervention as well as after a two-week follow-up period and compared both within and between subjects. Results from the first study showed no significant effect of change scores nor of type of intervention, as well as level of participant burden, on two of the three measures utilised. Results for the second study found no significant effect of condition on change scores. However, attitudes were shown to have significantly changed from pre-intervention to post-intervention on all three measures, and this significant change remained between pre-intervention to follow-up on two of the three measures utilised. The general discussion chapter gives an overview of the key findings that emerged from this thesis as well as a discussion of implications, limitations, and future directions as a whole and complete work.
  • Understanding Inequality: The Experiences and Perceptions of Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion of those Working or Studying within Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Morris, Robert; Pattinson, Emily; Lafferty, Moira; Brown, Daniel; Emeka, Lloyd; Williams, Jodine; Byrne, Louise; Shanmuganathan-Felton, Vaithehy; Kiemle-Gabbay, Laura; University of Stirling; Newcastle University; University of Chester; University of Portsmouth; St. Mary's University; Watford FC CSE; LB Performance Psychology; University of Roehampton; Liverpool John Moores University
    Discrimination and inequality are ever present in today’s society, with athletes facing racial abuse and LGBTQ+ individuals fearing for their safety at international events. Due to these additional stressors, the role of sport psychologists becomes increasingly important when supporting athletes from minority groups. An online questionnaire was developed to gain greater understanding of the equality, diversity, and inclusion (ED&I) knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of those working, studying or researching in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The findings of the current study highlight the ongoing experiences of sexism, racism, homo/transphobia, and ableism experienced by participants, as well as the need for more suitable, in-depth training around ED&I subjects and guidance on meaningful action to combat inequality and discrimination in the field. The involvement of individuals from minority groups in the development, delivery and evaluation of training and research is necessary to move towards true inclusion.
  • Situational factors shape moral judgments in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern, and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample

    Bago, Bence; Kovacs, Marton; Protzko, John; Nagy, Tamas; Kekecs, Zoltan; Palfi, Bence; Adamkovič, Matúš; Adamus, Sylwia; Albalooshi, Sumaya; Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; et al. (Nature Research, 2022-04-14)
    The study of moral judgements often centers on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (i.e., emphasizing rules, individual rights, and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (i.e., following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychological and situational factors (e.g., the intent of the agent or the presence of physical contact between the agent and the victim) can play an important role in moral dilemma judgements (e.g., trolley problem). Our knowledge is limited concerning both the universality of these effects outside the United States and the impact of culture on the situational and psychological factors of moral judgements. Thus, we empirically tested the universality of the effects of intent and personal force on moral dilemma judgements by replicating the experiments of Greene et al. in 45 countries from all inhabited continents. We found that personal force and its interaction with intention, exert influence on moral judgements in the US and Western cultural clusters, replicating and expanding the original findings. Moreover, the personal force effect was present in all cultural clusters, suggesting it is culturally universal. The evidence for the cultural universality of the interaction effect was inconclusive in the Eastern and Southern cultural clusters (depending on exclusion criteria). We found no strong association between collectivism/individualism and moral dilemma judgements.
  • Reforms to improve reproducibility and quality must be coordinated across the research ecosystem: The view from the UKRN Local Network Leads

    Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Pennington, Charlotte R.; da Silva, Goncalo R.; Ballou, Nick; Butler, Jessica; Dienes, Zoltan; Jay, Caroline; Rossit, Stephanie; Samara, Anna; University of Chester; Aston University; Queen’s University Belfast; Queen Mary University of London; University of Aberdeen; University of Sussex; University of Manchester; University of East Anglia; University of Greenwich (BMC, 2022-02-15)
    Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, which has precipitated much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices. Promoting a more positive incentive culture for all ecosystem members is also paramount. In this commentary, we - the Local Network Leads of the UK Reproducibility Network - outline our response to the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s inquiry on research integrity and reproducibility. We argue that coordinated change is needed to create (1) a positive research culture, (2) a unified stance on improving research quality, (3) common foundations for open and transparent research practice, and (4) the routinisation of this practice. For each of these areas, we outline the roles that individuals, institutions, funders, publishers, and Government can play in shaping the research ecosystem. Working together, these constituent members must also partner with sectoral and coordinating organisations to produce effective and long-lasting reforms that are fit-for-purpose and future-proof. These efforts will strengthen research quality and create research capable of generating far-reaching applications with a sustained impact on society.

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