• The Sacred Alternative

      Owen, Suzanne; University of Chester/Leeds Trinity University (Routledge, 2016-02-29)
      The term ‘sacred’ broadens research to include groups and activities that cut across boundaries maintained by the WRP. Also, while some reject the term ‘religion’ to describe what they do, they still regard certain things and places as ‘sacred’. The limitations of Durkheim’s and Eliade’s ‘sacred’ and ‘profane’ binary as an analytical framework become apparent when applied to cases where ‘religion’ is ambiguous, as an example from a Pagan festival shows. Despite this, a focus on ‘making sacred’ as a human activity that highlights a group’s interests is a useful alternative to the World Religions approach in Religious Studies.
    • Sacred chemicals: Psychedelic drugs and mystical experience

      Partridge, Christopher; University College Chester (Paternoster Press, 2003-06-01)
      This book chapter discusses the use of hallucinogens in inducing mystical experiences.
    • Said Nursi’s Notion of ‘Sacred Science’: Its Function and Application in Hizmet High School Education

      Tee, Caroline; Shankland, David; University of Chester (Brill, 2014-04-30)
      This paper explores the teaching of natural science subjects in high schools associated with the Gülen-Hizmet movement in Turkey. It focuses on the apparent reconciliation of scientific learning in a pervasive, albeit unofficial, Sunni Islamic religious culture. The framework for such an accommodation is found in the teachings of Fethullah Gülen and his predecessor, Said Nursi. Following Nursi, Gülen encourages scientific pursuit, and intellectual knowledge in general, as a pious and spiritually meritorious act. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at two Hizmet-affiliated high schools in Turkey, this article explores the “sanctification” of science and learning in the Gülen Movement by highlighting the principle of fedakarlık (self-sacrifice), as the primary motivation of the teaching staff. Focusing also on the schools’ highly disciplined and competitive learning environments (as exemplified in preparations for the prestigious International Science Olympiads), the article suggests that although teacher commitment and prestigious competitive awards bolster the Hizmet schools’ market competitiveness, they fail in actually producing students who pursue careers in natural science fields. By contrast, this article concludes that the movement’s engagement with science, at least at present, is less interested in furthering scientific inquiry than it is in equipping what Gülen has called a ‘Golden Generation’ with the tools it needs to compete with secularist rivals in Turkey.
    • Salvation as Praxis

      Morris, Wayne; University of Chester (Bloomsbury Academic, 2014-01-02)
      Will people of other faiths be 'saved' and to what extent should the response to this question shape Christian engagements with people of other faiths? Historically, the predominant answer to these questions has been that the person of another faith will not be saved and is therefore in need of conversion to Christianity for their salvation to be possible. Consequently, it has been understood to be the obligation of Christian persons to convert people of other faiths. More recent theologies of religions for the past half century and more have sought to reconsider these approaches to soteriology. This has sometimes led to a reaffirmation of the status quo and at other times to an alternative soteriological understanding. In seeking to articulate soteriologies that make logical and doctrinal sense, too often these new approaches to salvation and people of other faiths have paid little attention to questions of practice. Drawing on alternative understandings of soteriology as deification, healing, and liberation, each perspective having ancient roots in the Christian tradition, it is argued that salvation can be understood as form of concrete earthly practice. Understood in this way, this book considers how these alternative theologies of salvation might shape Christian practices in a way that departs from a history in which the person of another faith has been perceived as a threat to Christianity and therefore in need of conversion. Further it asks how the complex multi-faith world of the twenty-first century might better inform and shape the way in which Christian theologies frame soteriological understandings.
    • Le sapeur - Un dandy postcolonial?

      Obergöker, Timo; University of Chester (Peter Lang, 2017-11-09)
      The Sape, a sartorial colourful movement of exuberance, developed in the colonial Congos under the colonial regimes. The origins are uncertain and surrounded by numerous mysteries, it is undeniable though that the movement is linked to second-hand clothes imported to the Congos from Paris and Brussels. The text presents the different myths around the origins of the SAPE and shows how it reflects in contemporary French-speaking literature. Postcolonial thinkers have often considered the movement as “homosocial” in the sense that Eve Sedgwick gave to the term. We are going to challenge this perspective by arguing that it is the marginal position of the Sapeur plus his desire to be perceived as a dandy which create this “homosocial” impression. His lack of capital is the major difference from the historical dandy.
    • Save the name: Mysticism and modern French though

      Bradley, Arthur; University College Chester (Paternoster Press, 2003-06-01)
      This book chapter discusses the relationship between mysticism and continental philosophy, particularly current critical thinking on Christian mysticism and modern French thought.
    • Saxon obsequies: The early medieval archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Ubiquity Press, 2013-04-04)
      This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.
    • Scales of analysis: evidence of fish and fish processing at Star Carr.

      Robson, Harry K.; Little, Aimee; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Matthews, Ian; Palmer, Adrian; Schreve, Danielle; Tong, Emma; Pomstra, Diederik; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-02-17)
      This contribution directly relates to the paper published by Wheeler in 1978 entitled ‘Why were there no fish remains at Star Carr?’. Star Carr is arguably the richest, most studied and re-interpreted Mesolithic site in Europe but the lack of fish remains has continued to vex scholars. Judging from other materials, the preservation conditions at the site in the late 1940s/early 1950s should have been good enough to permit the survival of fish remains, and particularly dentaries of the northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) as found on other European sites of this age. The lack of evidence has therefore been attributed to a paucity of fish in the lake. However, new research has provided multiple lines of evidence, which not only demonstrate the presence of fish, but also provide evidence for the species present, data on how and where fish were being processed on site, and interpretations for the fishing methods that might have been used. This study demonstrates that an integrated approach using a range of methods at landscape, site and microscopic scales of analysis can elucidate such questions. In addition, it demonstrates that in future studies, even in cases where physical remains are lacking, forensic techniques hold significant potential.
    • The Scarecrow Christ: The Murder of Matthew Shepard and the Making of an American Culture Wars Martyr

      Middleton, Paul; University of Chester (Amsterdam University Press, 2020-01-31)
      In this essay, I examine the popular martyr-making process in respect of Matthew Shepard, arguing that both the making of the martyr and the reaction it provoked reflects American ‘culture wars’. Martyrology is conflict literature. However, as I have argued before, the most significant conflict in a martyrdom story is not necessarily between the martyr and the agents of execution, but the story-tellers and their opponents.9 Yet, martyrological narratives are difficult to control, as I will demonstrate from the contested nature of Shepard’s secular canonisation process. For at least some in the LGBT community, the dominant hagiography of Matthew Shepard, the gay martyr, is seen as unhelpful. Ironically, both LGBT activists and right-wing religious groups have in some ways sought to undermine Shepard’s martyr status, by focusing on his life rather than his death. Nonetheless, I argue, such efforts continue to have limited effect because in martyrologies any interest in the lives of their heroes is incidental, merely setting the scene for a significant death.
    • Scenes of ‘incredible outrage’: Dickens, Ireland, and A tale of two cities

      Wynne, Deborah; University College Chester (AMS Press, 2006-10)
    • Scenes of “Incredible Outrage”: Dickens, Ireland and A Tale of Two Cities

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (AMS Press, 2006-11-30)
      This article examines Dickens's A Tale of Two Cities in relation to its serialisation in All The Year Round (1859-60). It draws connections between the novel, the magazines journalism and events happening in Ireland in 1858-9. Dickens's witnessing of a wave of religious revivals on his tour of Ireland, this article argues, fed into his descriptions of revolutionary France in A Tale of Two Cities.
    • Schisms

      Chantler, Ashley; University of Chester (2016-02)
      Flash fiction.
    • Scholarly and Popular Reception

      Collins, Matthew A.; University of Chester (Bloomsbury / T&T Clark, 2018-09-20)
      For more than two-thirds of a century, the Dead Sea Scrolls have left a trail of intrigue and controversy in their wake. They have had an immeasurable impact, not only within the realms of academia and scholarship, but also upon the wider world, thanks to the widespread permeation of the scrolls into popular culture. On the one hand, they have provided scholars with a previously unimaginable wealth of textual material from the Second Temple period (shedding light, for instance, on the literature and social, political and religious world of the intertestamental era, as well as the transmission history of the scriptural texts), while on the other, the infamy resulting from years of restricted access and the consequent perceived secrecy surrounding their content has made them attractive to a fascinated public, for whom ‘the Dead Sea Scrolls’ constitutes ‘a cultural “buzz-phrase” signifying mystery, conspiracy, and ancient or hidden knowledge’ (Collins, 2011, p. 227). How have the Dead Sea Scrolls come to occupy this conceptual space in the public consciousness, and how might we begin to examine and explain the impact they continue to have upon both the academic and popular spheres?
    • The school of night

      Wall, Alan; Chester College of Higher Education (Vintage, 2001)
      Questions have been raised over the last two centuries about the authenticity of William Shakespeare's claim to have authored the works attributed to him. One intriguing line of argument has always been the Marlovian one. Marlowe is thought to have been a member of a mysterious group, the School of Night, whose centre was that mercurial figure Walter Raleigh. The novel explores the authorship question through the focus of the School of Night, 1590s science and belief, the conflict between Ptolemaic and Copernican science, and the nature of authorship itself.
    • Scoring ecstasy: MDMA, consumerism and spirituality in the early fiction of Irvine Welsh

      Stephenson, William; Chester College of Higher Education (Taylor & Francis, 2003-04)
      This article discusses how Irvine Welsh, explores ecstasy's ability to enhance communication and offer people a version of religious ritual which means that the drug has the potential, at least, to modify subjectivity and intersubjective relationships in his work. The article focuses mainly on Welsh's novel Marabou Stork Nightmares, the novella 'The Undefeated' (from the collection Ecstasy) and the title story of the collection The Acid House.
    • Screening Dissent: The Uprising of 17 June 1953 in East German Film

      Millington, Richard; University of Chester
      An analysis of how the politically sensitive subject of the anti-regime uprising of 17 June 1953 was portrayed in East German film productions.
    • Scriptural reasoning

      Greggs, Tom; University of Chester (2008-11)
    • Sculpture and Place: a biographical approach to recontextualising Cheshire’s early medieval stone sculpture

      Gondek, Meggen; Williams, Howard; Kirton, Joanne (University of Chester, 2016-02)
      Researching early medieval stone sculpture has long been enabled and constrained by approaches devised and subsequently honed over the last century focusing on form and ornamentation. These approaches largely prioritise the physical appearance of sculptural fragments, often distancing them from the physical and cognitive contexts in which they operated from their creation to the present. This thesis brings together popular strands of research from other areas of archaeology - landscape, biography, materiality and monumentality - to explore how early medieval stone sculpture operated in place and time, from their construction through processes of use and reuse. The study recognises that sculpture did not function independent of physical location or the socio-political context with which it was connected and that many sculptures have life-histories which can be charted through individual monuments, assemblages of sculpture, and regional patterns. Using a tenth-/eleventh-century assemblage from Cheshire, the biographies of the county’s early medieval monuments and architectural fragments are explored in relation to their physical location and the local historical frameworks with which they are connected. Through this original and distinctive approach, Cheshire's corpus of early medieval stone sculpture is both revisited and reinterpreted to emphasis the power of place and the biographies of stone sculpture.
    • Sea Change: Peter Adams’s “Ovum d’Aphrodite”

      Rees, Emma L. E.; University of Chester (2016-03-31)
      A short essay contextualising and exploring the sculptor Peter Adams's piece 'Ovum d'Aphrodite'.
    • Secularization and its discontents

      Warner, Rob; University of Chester (Continuum, 2010-10-21)
      This book discusses classical secularisation theory and modified versions that allow for difference between national and social context, within the context of changing pattersn of religious practice in the West over the past 150 years.