• The Alien Jew in the British Imagination, 1881-1905: Space, Mobility and Territoriality

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-10-15)
      This book explores how fin de siècle Britain and Britons displaced spatially-charged apprehensions about imperial decline, urban decay and unpoliced borders onto Jews from Eastern Europe migrating westwards. The myriad of representations of the ‘alien Jew’ that emerged were the product of, but also a catalyst for, a decisive moment in Britain’s legal history: the fight for the 1905 Aliens Act. Drawing upon a richly diverse collection of social and political commentary, including fiction, political testimony, ethnography, travel writing, journalism and cartography, this volume traces the shifting rhetoric around alien Jews as they journeyed from the Russian Pale of Settlement to London’s East End. By employing a unique and innovative reading of both the aliens debate and racialized discourse concerned with ‘the Jew’, Hannah Ewence demonstrates that ideas about ‘space’ and 'place’ critically informed how migrants were viewed; an argument which remains valid in today’s world.
    • Asher Lev at the Israel Museum: Stereotyping art and craft

      Vincent, Alana M.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013-08-14)
    • The Boy Detective in Early British Children's Literature: Patrolling the Borders between Boyhood and Manhood

      Andrew, Lucy; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-11-08)
      This book maps the development of the boy detective in British children’s literature from the mid-nineteenth to the early-twentieth century. It explores how this liminal figure – a boy operating within a man’s world – addresses adult anxieties about boyhood and the boy’s transition to manhood. It investigates the literary, social and ideological significance of a vast array of popular detective narratives appearing in ‘penny dreadfuls’ and story papers which were aimed primarily at working-class boys. This study charts the relationship between developments in the representation of the fictional boy detective and changing expectations of and attitudes towards real-life British boys during a period where the boy’s role in the future of the Empire was a key concern. It emphasises the value of the early fictional boy detective as an ideological tool to condition boy readers to fulfil adult desires and expectations of what boyhood and, in the future, proper manhood should entail. It will be of particular importance to scholars working in the fields of children’s literature, crime fiction and popular culture.
    • Bridging the Gap between 'War' and 'Peace': The Case of Belgian Refugees in Britain

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Britain’s ‘hospitality’ towards 250,000 Belgian refugees now warrants a mention in most histories of the First World War. Yet the refugees’ rapid repatriation by the British state continues to be treated as little more than a bookend to their story, whilst the trauma of return and the challenges of reintegration for those who fled has been all but ignored. This chapter seeks to correct these oversights by exposing the contradictions of a state-sponsored repatriation scheme; presented as the final act of a ‘generous’ and ‘liberal’ nation but, in reality, one which served the British government’s own interests. Such a mercenary approach to repatriation curtailed state concern for the conditions facing returning Belgians as their nation emerged from four years of war into a fragile ‘peace’.
    • '‘Exspecta Inexspectata’: The Rise of the Supernatural in Hybrid Detective Series for Young Readers'

      Andrew, Lucy; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-08-18)
      This chapter focuses on the rise of the supernatural detective fiction hybrid for young readers, focusing on Justin Richards' Invisible Detective series (2003-2005) and Andrew Hammond's CRYPT series (2011-2014).
    • The final frontier? Religion and posthumanism in film and TV

      Graham, Elaine L.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-09-02)
      This chapter aims to indicate how, in keeping with wider cultural trends, contemporary science fiction film and TV may be exhibiting a shift from a secular to a ‘post-secular’ sensibility. If the modernist paradigm within science fiction is beginning to dissolve, and with it a somewhat one-dimensional narrative of scientific triumph over religious superstition, then recent work on the emergence of post-secular paradigms opens up a range of new potential relationships between science, religion and science fiction. It is reasonable to expect that the resurgence of religion both as a geopolitical force and a source of human understanding would be reflected in contemporary examples of the genre, and that religious and spiritual themes would feature in contemporary science fiction narratives, including representations of the posthuman.
    • From Celebrating Diversity to British Values: The Changing Face of Holocaust Memorial Day in Britain

      Critchell, Kara; University of Chester
      2021 marks the twentieth anniversary of Holocaust Memorial Day (HMD) in Britain. In the two decades since the inaugural ceremony took place successive British government have sought to position themselves at the very forefront of Holocaust remembrance and education on a national, international, and supranational, level. As such, the Holocaust has emerged as a dominant socio-political symbol in twenty-first century Britain even though the event intersects with the British experience in few ways, in part, due to the lack of connections the country has to the sites of deportation or extermination. Though the increase in activities for HMD suggests a growing engagement with the Holocaust in British society this obscures the complex discourses surrounding the day, and inherent tensions that have existed within it since its inception in 1999. This chapter explores some of these by tracing the shift in Holocaust remembrance in Britain since the establishment of HMD in 2001, considering the political tensions surrounding it and the changing politicised messages being promoted by it. It is the position of this chapter that, evermore, HMD is being utilised as a means by which to evoke specific values for the furthering of very particular political agendas.
    • Introduction

      Dunn, Jonathan; Joziasse, Heleen; Patta, Raj Bharat; University of Chester; University of Manchester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-08-24)
      This introduction explores how the volume addresses the challenges of living together after empire in many post-colonial cities. It explains how the first section focuses on efforts by people of multiple faiths to live together within their contexts, including such efforts within a neighbourhood in urban Manchester; the array of attempts at creating multi-faith spaces for worship across the globe; and initiatives to commemorate divisive conflict together in Northern Ireland. It outlines how the second section of the volume utilizes particular postcolonial methods to illuminate pressing issues within specific contexts—including women’s leadership in an indigenous denomination in the variegated African landscape, and baptism and discipleship among Dalit communities in India. In the context of growing multiculturalism in the West, this volume offers a postcolonial theological resource, challenging the epistemologies in the Western academy.
    • Introduction

      Hay, Jonathan; Bonsall, Amy; Ashton, Bodie A.; University of Chester; University of Manchester; University of Adelaide
      Bodies occupy a paradoxical space in modern society. On the one hand, the body is the most obvious and visible medium used to represent and express ourselves and our identities. On the other hand, this importance also leaves the body open to being controlled, regulated and interpreted. The result of this uncomfortable balance is that body diversity remains at once embraced and vulnerable, and the expression of that diversity is encouraged by some, while also being the subject of the prejudice of others. This chapter acts as an introduction for nine interdisciplinary, international essays, each engaging with the theme of “the body”, broadly defined. It thus lays the groundwork for a volume in which the body not only speaks but is heard and listened to.
    • Introduction. Minority History: From War to Peace

      Grady, Tim; Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Against the backdrop of the First World War centenary, the introduction considers the place of minority groups in Europe’s commemorative plans. It argues that the governments of Britain, France and Germany have largely stuck to conventional narratives of the conflict, which have for the most part ignored diversity. Within local communities, however, far more innovative work has taken place; some of which has uncovered the variety of spaces that minority soldiers and civilians occupied during the First World War. The introduction concludes by considering historical writing on minorities in conflict and by outlining the agenda for this current volume.
    • The Limits of Anglo-American Cooperation in Cuba, 1945–1959

      Hull, Christopher; University of Chester
      Before the 1959 Cuban Revolution, British governments and diplomats in Havana sought to protect their interests in Cuba, always sensitive to reactions from Washington – a vital transatlantic ally with a significant political and economic stake in the Caribbean island. After the Second World War, the allies continued their wartime cooperation over sugar supplies, with Cuba’s mainstay export still important to Britain’s refining industry and ongoing food rationing. Following two democratically-elected but highly corrupt Cuban governments, both the US State Department and the British Foreign Office came to recognise the benefits of strongman Fulgencio Batista’s abrupt return to Cuba’s political scene in 1952. Everything changed, however, when the Fidel Castro-led anti-Batista insurgency gained strength between late 1956 and 1958, and London and Washington became increasingly concerned about a political upheaval beyond US control. The issue of arms sales to Cuba became a touchstone not only of US and British policy toward Batista’s regime, but also of Anglo-American cooperation. When it came, Castro’s revolutionary triumph questioned the strength of US hegemony in its hemisphere.
    • 'Losing face among the natives': Something about tattooing and tabooing in Herman Melville's Typee

      Atkin, Graham; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-12-07)
      Herman Melville’s first novel Typee, published in 1846, is an intriguing South Sea adventure based on the author’s own experiences and narrated by ‘Tommo’, who, with his companion Toby, jumps ship and wanders into the valley of Typee, home to a tribe of suspected cannibals. This essay concentrates on a chapter in which Tommo describes his encounter with a Typeean tattooist before discussing ‘the mysterious “Taboo”’. Tommo becomes fearful that he will be ‘disfigured in such a manner as never more to have the face to return’ to civilisation. The threat of non-consensual body modification confronts narrator and reader with unsettling issues of personal and cultural identity in crisis. The analysis draws on a range of material from the fields of anthropology, psychology, literary criticism, sociology and linguistics.
    • Minorities and the First World War: From War to Peace

      Grady, Tim; Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-09-05)
      This book examines the particular experience of ethnic, religious and national minorities who participated in the First World War as members of the main belligerent powers: Britain, France, Germany and Russia. Individual chapters explore themes including contested loyalties, internment, refugees, racial violence, genocide and disputed memories from 1914 through into the interwar years to explore how minorities made the transition from war to peace at the end of the First World War. The first section discusses so-called 'friendly minorities', considering the way in which Jews, Muslims and refugees lived through the war and its aftermath. Section two looks at fears of 'enemy aliens', which prompted not only widespread internment, but also violence and genocide. The third section considers how the wartime experience of minorities played out in interwar Europe, exploring debates over political representation and remembrance, thereby bridging the gap between war and peace.
    • None is Still Too Many: Holocaust Commemoration and Historical Anesthetization

      Vincent, Alana M.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-02-05)
      This chapter highlights the tension between political engagement with Holocaust commemoration and responses to the current refugee crisis. Through an examination of historical sources, it makes the case that in spite of the rhetoric of “Never Again!” deployed in connection to the Holocaust, responses to the reality of refugees have changed very little since the 1930’s.
    • Nonsense and Wonder: An Exploration of the Prose Poems of Jeremy Over

      Seed, Ian; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-07-16)
      This essay reveals the delights of the prose poems of Jeremy Over. Setting his work within the tradition of nonsense literature in its ability to reconcile the seemingly irreconcilable, this essay argues that Over goes beyond merely creating clever surprises in order to arouse authentic wonder. Connections are made between Over’s work and that of the Dadaists, Surrealists, Gertrude Stein and such New York poets as John Ashbery. Making the case that nonsense literature can be seen as a way to authenticity and freedom in its resistance to common sense and also to tragic heroism, the essay demonstrates how Over’s prose poems show reality in different possible lights and empower marginalized voices. Finally, Over’s work is set in the context of recent British prose poetry.
    • The Oratory of Jimmy Carter

      Jackson, Donna; Lehrman, Robert; University of Chester; American University, Washington DC (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-01-06)
      Successful rhetoric, it has been argued, comes from an effective fusion of ethos, pathos and logos, combined with style and delivery (Foss: 2012). While Jimmy Carter may be respected for his post-presidential career, he is not renowned as a great president and this chapter will consider the extent to which his perceived failures can be attributed to his rhetorical style. In particular, we will focus upon three major speeches delivered by Carter during his administration: his inaugural address of January 1977, the Crisis of Confidence speech of 1979, and the State of the Union Address in 1980. Although the content of each speech accurately reflected the relevant context, the response of the American public was markedly different due to rhetoric. The pathos apparent in Carter's inaugural address, delivered with his genuine, personal and informal style, resonated with a nation traumatised by the tragedies and scandals associated with Vietnam and Watergate. However, as the context changed, Carter's informality and personal appeal no longer captivated public attention in the way that it once had. The content of Carter's speeches reflected the tougher approach to both the economy and foreign policy that the public demanded, but he was unable to deliver his message convincingly. Unable to adapt his style and delivery to the changing times, Carter's pathos appeared inappropriate and ethos and logos ineffective by the final year of his administration. Ultimately, Carter proved that successful rhetoric requires a combination of context, content and style, and his inability to consistently produce that fusion contributed to subsequent negative evaluations of his presidency.
    • Reading, Feminism, Spirituality: Troubling the Waves

      Llewellyn, Dawn; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-09-30)
      Through original interviews and research, Llewellyn uses spirituality to uncover new commonalities between the second and third feminist waves, and sacred and secular experiences. Her lively approach highlights the importance of reading cultures in feminist studies, connecting women's voices across generations, literary practices, and religions.
    • Remembering together: Commemoration in Northern Ireland

      Dunn, Jonathan; University of Chester; University of Manchester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-08-24)
      This chapter addresses the challenge of remembering conflict together in the context of a society still divided by “legacy issues”. Its focus is on the particular challenges presented by efforts to commemorate the conflict in the author’s native Northern Ireland. In light of this series’ theme of ‘living together after empire’, the task of commemoration is re-imagined as ‘co-memoration’; a public remembering which has the potential at least to include all elements within society. The author explores the possibilities and challenges posed by re-imagining commemoration as co-memoration, drawing on the insights of public theology and his own experience of Christian ministry in the context to do so. Objections and motivations which have hitherto represented barriers to co-memoration are reconsidered in light of historian Michael Ignatieff’s concept of ‘keeping faith with dead’. In doing so the author suggests that these deep-seated commitments, which have long been viewed in terms of assumed allegiances to national identities, must be understood as primarily personal loyalties owed to family, friends and community. The chapter then moves to assess the possibilities for co-memoration within Protestant places of worship in Northern Ireland, by considering issues which arise from the interaction of the personal and communal loyalties with physical symbols and liturgical practices. The conclusion considers the possibilities and challenges ahead and suggests the shape of the further research which is required in this area.
    • Selective Remembering: Minorities and the Remembrance of the First World War in Britain and Germany

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Remembering the war dead, so historical writing suggests, was considerably easier for the victors than for the vanquished. Yet, as this essay suggests, this strict dichotomy was not quite as rigid as the historiography implies. In both Britain and Germany, ethnic, religious and national minorities did play some role in nascent memory cultures. However, while some groups were remembered, other minorities, such as Britain’s African troops or Germany’s Polish soldiers, were all too often missing from the commemorative landscape. The absence of minorities from the remembrance process, then, had less to do with the outcome of the war, but was rather contingent on place, time and the minority group in question.
    • The Sensation Novel and the Victorian Family Magazine

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001-09-22)
      Victorian sensation novels, with their compulsive plots of crime, transgression and mystery, were bestsellers. Deborah Wynne analyses the fascinating relationships between sensation novels and the magazines in which they were serialized. Drawing upon the work of Wilkie Collins, Mary Braddon, Charles Dickens, Ellen Wood, and Charles Reade, and such popular family journals as All The Year Round, The Cornhill, and Once a Week, Wynne highlights how novels and magazines worked together to engage in the major cultural and social debates of the period.