• Accelerated Times: British Literature in Transition, 1980-2000

      Pollard, Eileen J.; Schoene, Berthold; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University (Cambridge University Press, 2018-12-20)
      The central premise underpinning our volume is simple: the final two decades of the twentieth century no longer constitute an integral part of what we call the contemporary. We now view the late twentieth century through a complex historicising lens darkened by the events of 9/11, the ensuing ‘clash of civilisations’ and ‘war on terror’, the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, ongoing austerity and – most recently – the rise of populist politics. An additional impediment to immediate access and perfect recall is the impact effected by technological advances on everyday life in the twenty-first century: how reliably can we ‘supermoderns’ (to adopt Marc Augé’s term ) be expected to recollect and relate to a now bygone world that did not have the internet, email, social networking, wifi or the mobile phone? Even those of us who lived through the 1980s and 1990s will be finding this increasingly difficult. Superseded and defamiliarised by previously unimaginable technologically-modified ways of everyday living, the late twentieth century is beginning to look more and more like history. One prominent theme informing the tone of this introduction is how the final two decades of the twentieth century were marked by the speed of accelerated change in society’s attitudes to class, subnational devolution, religion, sexuality and the Black and Asian Minority Ethnic experience, as well as how these complex and mutually imbricated discourses helped produce a notable sense of motion sickness in the literature of the period.
    • Anthropologists in Conversation

      Griffiths, Claire H.; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2017-11-03)
      Review of and discussion of Marianne Lemaire's Lettres de Sanga 2016
    • Choices over time: Methodological issues in investigating current change

      Aarts, Bas; Close, Joanne; Wallis, Sean; University College London ; University College London ; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2013-02-16)
      This book chapter explores the diachrinic corpus of present-day spoken English, focusing on true alternation: the progressive. The chapter includes a case study on the alteration - shall versus will.
    • ‘Clumsy and Illogical’? Reconsidering the West Kirby Hogback

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2016-11-02)
      This paper presents a fresh reading of a significant early medieval recumbent stone monument from West Kirby, Merseyside (formerly Cheshire). Rather than being a single-phased hogback, later subject to damage, it is argued that West Kirby 4 might have been carved in successive phases, possibly by different hands. It is suggested that the carvers had different abilities and/or adapted their work in response to the time pressures of a funeral or a shift in the location or function of the stone. While a single explanation for the character of the West Kirby monument remains elusive, the article proposes that, rather than ‘clumsy and illogical’, the stone was more likely a coherent but experimental, distinctive and asymmetrical, multi-phased and/or multi-authored creation. Through a review of the monument’s historiography and a detailed reappraisal of the details and parallels of its form, ornament and material composition, the paper reconsiders the commemorative significance of this recumbent stone monument for the locality, region and understanding of Viking Age sculpture across the British Isles. As a result, West Kirby’s importance as an ecclesiastical locale in the Viking Age is reappraised.
    • The correspondence of Henry Cromwell, 1655–1659

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2008-07-10)
      This edited volume of Henry Cromwell's correspondence includes an introductory chapter which outlines his life and career, explores his handling of Ireland, and highlights the principal and varied Irish and English issues covered within his correspondence. The majority of the letters cover the period between the summer of 1655 to spring 1659 when he governed Ireland for the Lord Protector, his father Oliver Cromwell, and his elder brother, Richard Cromwell.
    • “Crime has no chance”: the discourse of everyday criminality in the Neue Berliner Illustrierte, 1961-1989

      Millington, Richard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2017-03-31)
      This article examines how the East German regime communicated and explained the existence and persistence of everyday criminality to its citizens. According to the tenets of the Party, crime should have ceased to exist after the construction of a socialist society in East Germany. It did not. The article analyses the regime’s account of everyday criminality as it appeared in reports and commentaries in the pages of the NBI, 1961-1989. First published in 1945, the NBI quickly became the most popular weekly magazine in the GDR.
    • Death and memory on the Home Front: Second World War commemoration in the South Hams, Devon

      Walls, Samuel; Williams, Howard; University of Exeter ; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2010-01-27)
      This article discusses two World War II monuments - the Slapton Sands Evacuation Memorial and the Torcross Tank Memorial - as commemorations of events and as a method of defining the identities of local people.
    • Depicting the dead: Commemoration through cists, cairns and symbols in early medieval Britain

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2007-06-01)
      This article argues that early medieval cairns and mounds served to commemorate concepts of gender and geneology. Excavations at Lundin Links in Fife are used as exemplar.
    • Genetics and Christian ethics

      Deane-Drummond, Celia; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2005-11-24)
      This book discusses ethical issues arising from developments in human genetics. It focuses on theological principles, eugenics, genetic testing and screening, genetic counselling, gene therapies, gene patenting, environmental ethics, and feminist concerns in relation to genetics.
    • How to respect other animals: lessons for theology from Peter Singer, and vice versa

      Clough, David; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2016-10-31)
      This chapter argues that Peter Singer's critiques of Christian attitudes towards animals need correction, that Christianity has something to learn from his utilitarian approach to animal ethics, but that a Christian understanding of animals addresses some deficiencies in a utilitarian animal ethics.
    • Is equal marriage an Anglican ideal?

      Henwood, Gillian; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2014-12-01)
      A critical conversation between the Church of England's response to the Government's consultation on Equal Civil Marriage 2012, questions arising from professional parish practice as a priest, and literature in this area of research. The article explores the theological significance of 'equal marriage' (equal access to marriage and equality within marriage) as a Christian possibility within the Church of England, with contemporary approaches to gender and sexuality.
    • ‘Jesus is victor’: Passing the impasse of Barth on universalism

      Greggs, Tom; University of Cambridge (Cambridge University Press, 2007-04-20)
      This article examines the question of Karl Barth's stance on universalism.
    • Landscapes of Internment: British Prisoner of War Camps and the Memory of the First World War

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2019-07-26)
      During the First World War, all the belligerent powers interned both civilian and military prisoners. In Britain alone, over 100,000 people were held behind barbed wire. Despite the scale of this enterprise, interment barely features in Britain's First World War memory culture. By exploring the place of prisoner of war camps within the "militarized environment" of the home front, this article demonstrates the centrality of internment to local wartime experiences. Being forced to share the same environment meant that both British civilians and German prisoners clashed over access to resources, roads and the surrounding landscape. As the article contends, it was only when the British started to employ the prisoners on environmental improvement measures, such as land drainage or river clearance projects, that relations gradually improved. With the end of the war and closure of the camps, however, these deep entanglements were quickly forgotten. Instead of commemorating the complexities of the conflict, Britain's memory culture focused on more comfortable narratives; British military "sacrifice" on the Western Front quickly replaced any discussion of the internment of the "enemy" at home.
    • Martyrdom

      Middleton, Paul; University of Wales, Trinity Saint David (Cambridge University Press, 2014-03-06)
      Dictionary article on martyrdom in Christianity
    • Monument and material reuse at the National Memorial Arboretum

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2014-05-16)
      Exploring the relocation and reuse of fragments and whole artefacts, materials and monuments in contemporary commemorative memorials in the United Kingdom (UK), this paper focuses on the National Memorial Arboretum (Alrewas, Staffordshire, hereafter NMA). Within this unique assemblage of memorial gardens, reuse constitutes a distinctive range of material commemoration. Through a detailed investigation of the NMA’s gardens, this paper shows how monument and material reuse, while used in very different memorial forms, tends to be reserved to commemorate specific historical subjects and themes. Monument and material reuse is identified as a form of commemorative rehabilitation for displaced memorials and provides powerful and direct mnemonic and emotional connections between past and present in the commemoration through peace memorials, of military disasters and defensive actions, the sufferings of prisoners of war, and atrocities inflicted upon civilian populations. In exploring monument and material reuse to create specific emotive and mnemonic fields and triggers, this paper engages with a hitherto neglected aspect of late 20th- and early 21st-century commemorative culture.
    • No Such Thing as Society: The Novel under Neoliberalism

      Pollard, Eileen J.; Schoene, Berthold; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University (Cambridge University Press, 2018-12-20)
      Because literature always depends on evoking a sense of community between writers and their readers, there can be no flourishing of literature without society. Indicative of this axiomatic is the novel’s contribution to how any specific ‘social imaginary’ or ‘structure of feeling’ comes to crystallize in the first place. Complementing Raymond Williams’ influential encapsulation of ‘structure of feeling’ as each new generation’s response to ‘the unique world it is inheriting, taking up many continuities [...] yet feeling its whole life in certain ways differently’, Manfred Steger defines social imaginaries as the ways in which ‘“we” – the members of a particular community – fit together, how things go on between us, the expectations we have of each other, and the deeper normative notions and images that underlie those expectations’. The final two decades of the twentieth century are no exception in this regard, as they too constitute a singular slice of history with its own particular set of common understandings, expressions and practices of culture and community. Importantly, the perceived distinctiveness and newness of the period was the result not so much of a gentle generational shift as a wholescale political revolution, the enormity of which would jolt society into a hitherto inconceivable direction of socio-economic change and cultural transmutation. As Colin Hutchinson puts it, the inception of Thatcherite neoliberalism in Britain is best understood as a violent ‘assault […] on the public realm [leading to] the erosion of civic sensibilities and collective allegiances’. Another point of interest for us is the formative implication of ‘The Individual’ in the symbiosis of society and the novel. Nancy Armstrong describes individualism as ‘the ideological core’ of the novel; in her view, ‘novels think like individuals about the difficulties of fulfilling oneself […] under specific cultural historical conditions’. Armstrong’s proposition assumes special significance in the light of Margaret Thatcher’s announcement in 1987 that ‘there is no such thing [as society]! There are individual men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first.’ Thatcher’s eradication of society and her hyperbolic championing of the individual instigated a fundamental ideological recasting of late twentieth-century Britain’s social imaginary, which in turn significantly influenced the development of the British novel.
    • Patterns of Ministry of clergy married to clergy in the Church of England

      Collingridge, Susie; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2014-11-04)
      This article argues that for good practice, wellbeing and fruitful ministry, decisions by and about clergy married to clergy (CMC) in the Church of England require a clear quantitative picture of their ministry, and offers such a picture in early 2013 drawn primarily from published data, compared with national Church of England statistics. Over 26% more clergy dyads were found than previously thought, with many active in ministry. A wide variety of ministry patterns were identified, including a higher than normal percentage in non-parochial roles, supporting previous research noting high levels of boundary enmeshment and absorptiveness. Considerable gender inequality prevailed in shared parochial settings in spite of women having been ordained priest for nearly 20 years, with very few wives holding more senior positions than their husbands, while female CMC are more likely to be dignitaries than other ordained women.
    • Restoration and reform, 1153-1165: Recovery from Civil War in England

      White, Graeme J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Cambridge University Press, 2000-04-06)
      This book discusses the processes by which effective royal government was restored in England following the Civil War during the reign of King Stephen.
    • Speaker sex effects on temporal and spectro-temporal measures of speech

      Herrmann, Frank; Cunningham, Stuart P.; Whiteside, Sandra P.; University of Chester ; University of Sheffield ; University of Sheffield (Cambridge University Press, 2014-04-01)
      This study investigated speaker sex differences in the temporal and spectro-temporal parameters of English monosyllabic words spoken by thirteen women and eleven men. Vowel and utterance duration were investigated. A number of formant frequency parameters were also analysed to assess the spectro-temporal dynamic structures of the monosyllabic words as a function of speaker sex. Absolute frequency changes were measured for the first (F1), second (F2), and third (F3) formant frequencies (ΔF1, ΔF2, and ΔF3, respectively). Rates of these absolute formant frequency changes were also measured and calculated to yield measurements for rF1, rF2, and rF3. Normalised frequency changes (normΔF1, normΔF2, and normΔF3), and normalised rates of change (normrF1, normrF2, and normrF3) were also calculated. F2 locus equations were then derived from the F2 measurements taken at the onset and temporal mid points of the vowels. Results indicated that there were significant sex differences in the spectro-temporal parameters associated with F2: ΔF2, normΔF2, rF2, and F2 locus equation slopes; women displayed significantly higher values for ΔF2, normΔF2 and rF2, and significantly shallower F2 locus equation slopes. Collectively, these results suggested lower levels of coarticulation in the speech samples of the women speakers, and corroborate evidence reported in earlier studies.
    • St Pientia and the Château de la Roche-Guyon: Relic Translations and Sacred History in Seventeenth-Century France

      Hillman, Jennifer; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2017-05-26)
      This article seeks to explore the connections between the translation of an early Christian relic to the Château de la Roche-Guyon in the mid-seventeenth century and the writing of local sacred histories by the priest and prior Nicolas Davanne. It finds that the translation of a finger bone of St Pientia was the culmination of efforts by a local scholar to revive the sacred history of the Vexin and to celebrate the regional liturgical traditions associated with its early Christian martyrs. In doing so, it finds support for the recent historiography on local, sacred histories which emerged during the Counter-Reformation in response to liturgical standardization. The article also discusses the unstable nature of relics as material objects and explores the ways in which relics were continually reinvested with meaning. It is shown that Pientia’s relic was not only part of a defence of a local spiritual heritage in response to Trent, but also part of a claim to an early Christian spiritual heritage for a deviant and heretical movement within the Church.