• The application of micro-Raman for the analysis of ochre artefacts from Mesolithic palaeo-lake Flixton

      Needham, Andy; Croft, Shannon; Kröger, Roland; Robson, Harry K.; Rowley, Charlotte C. A.; Taylor, Barry; Gray Jones, Amy; Conneller, Chantal; University of York; University of Chester; University of Manchester (Elsevier, 2017-12-20)
      Ochre is an important mineral pigment used by prehistoric hunter-gatherers across the globe, and its use in the Mesolithic is no exception. Using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy with micrometre spatial resolution (micro-Raman), we present evidence that confirms unambiguously the use of ochre by hunter-gatherers at Mesolithic sites surrounding Palaeo-Lake Flixton, Vale of Pickering, North Yorkshire, UK. Our results suggest that people collected ochre and processed it in different ways, likely for diverse purposes. The quality and specificity of chemical characterisation possible with micro-Raman facilitates new avenues for further research on ochreous materials in Britain, including provenancing through chemical ‘fingerprinting’.
    • Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental investigations at Star Carr

      Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Milner, Nicky; University of Chester; University of Manchester; University of York (Quarternary Research Association, 2017-09-30)
      This chapter outlines the results of recent archaeological and palaeo-environmental research at Star Carr
    • Assembling Animals

      Knight, Becky; Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Elliott, Ben; Conneller, Chantal; O'Connor, Terry; University of York, University of York, University of Chester, University of York, University of Manchester, University of York, (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Spatial analysis of the Star Carr faunal assemblage
    • Climate, Environment and Lake Flixton

      Taylor, Barry; Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Langdon, Pete; Palmer, Ian; Bayliss, Alex; Milner, Nicky; University of Chester; Royal Holloway (University of London); University of Southampton; Historic England; University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Climatic and Environmental history of Lake Flixton
    • Conclusions

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Conclusions arising from the Star Carr project
    • Dating the Archaeology and Environment of the Star Carr Embayment

      Bayliss, Alex; Taylor, Barry; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dunbar, Elaine; Kromer, Bernd; Bamforth, Michael; Conneller, Chantal; Elliott, Ben; Knight, Becky; Milner, Nicky; et al. (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Radiocarbon dating the Star Carr archaeological and palaeoenvironmental record
    • Degradation of the wetland sediment archive at Star Carr: an assessment of current palynological preservation

      Albert, Bruce; Innes, Jim; Blackford, Jeff; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Milner, Nicky; Czech Life Sciences University; Durham University; University of Hull; University of Chester; University of Manchester; University of York (Elsevier, 2016-03-28)
      This paper presents the results of an investigation into the preservation status of pollen and other microfossils in the organic sediments at the wetland Mesolithic site of Star Carr. This study assesses the degradation of the pollen record in a profile at the edge of the archaeological site, adjacent to previous pollen work carried out from 1989 to 1991 and using it as a benchmark for comparison. There has been a severe degradation of pollen grains since the earlier work, with the upper peat devoid of pollen and the lower part of the organic profile badly affected. Only the very basal sediments retain well preserved pollen. Comparisons with hydrological and geo-chemical data obtained by other workers during the assessment of the Star Carr site suggest that oxidation caused by drainage and dessication of the organic sediments, perhaps originating in fissures in the drying peat, is a primary cause of the observed severe deterioration of the pollen record. Non-pollen palynomorphs (primarily fungal and algal spores) appear to be better preserved than pollen in the present bio-stratigraphic record, showing little surface degeneration, but are not recorded in the earlier work. The pollen archive in organic sediments at the Star Carr site is now badly damaged. Any further pollen work there should be undertaken urgently but is probably not justifiable.
    • Dryland Structures

      Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky; Conneller, Chantal; University of Chester, University of York, University of Manchester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The dryland structures
    • Early Holocene wetland succession at Lake Flixton (UK) and its implications for Mesolithic settlement

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2019-02-28)
      This paper reports on new research into the timing and nature of post-glacial environmental change at Lake Flixton (North Yorkshire, UK). Previous investigations indicate a succession of wetland environments during the early Holocene, ultimately infilling the basin by ca 7,000 cal BP. The expansion of wetland environments, along with early Holocene woodland development, has been linked to changes in the human occupation of this landscape during the Mesolithic (ca 11,300-6,000 cal BP). However, our understanding of the timing and nature of environmental change within the palaeolake is poor, making it difficult to correlate to known patterns of Mesolithic activity. This paper provides a new record for both the chronology and character of environmental change within Lake Flixton, and discusses the implications for the Mesolithic occupation of the surrounding landscape.
    • Early Holocene wetland succession in Lake Flixton.

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Quarternary Research Association, 2017-09-30)
      This chapter discusses the evidence for wetland succession during the early Holocene in lake Flixton
    • Excavations at Flixton Island

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; University of York; University of Chester; University of Manchester (Quarternary Research Association, 2017-09-30)
      This chapter outlines the results of fieldwork at Flixton Island
    • Fieldwork

      Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky; Conneller, Chantal; Schadla-Hall, Tim; University of Chester, University of York, University of Manchester, University College London (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Chapter 2, a summary of the fieldwork carried out 2006-2015
    • A History of the Site

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Schadla-Hall, Tim; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester, University College London (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Chapter 2, a history of fieldwork at Star Carr
    • Human Lifeways

      Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Milner, Nicky; Elliott, Ben; Little, Aimee; Knight, Becky; Bamforth, Michael; University of Chester, University of Manchester, University of York, University of York, University of York, University of York, University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Forms of human practice at Star Carr
    • Humans in the Environment: Plants, Animals and Landscapes in Mesolithic Britain and Ireland

      Overton, Nick J.; Taylor, Barry; University of Manchester; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-05-29)
      Environmental archaeology has historically been central to Mesolithic studies in Britain and Ireland. Whilst processual archaeology was concerned with the economic significance of the environment, post-processual archaeology later rejected economically driven narratives, resulting in a turn away from plant and animal remains. Post-processual narratives focused instead on enigmatic ‘ritual’ items that economic accounts struggled to suitably explain. Processual accounts of landscapes, grounded in economic determinism, were also rejected in favour of explorations of their sociocultural aspects. However, in moving away from plant and animal remains, such accounts lacked the ability to rigorously explore the specificities of particular landscapes and humans actions within them. This paper will bridge this gap by considering how palaeoecological and zooarchaeological analyses can be used to explore human interactions with plants and animals, which were key in developing understandings and relationships that ultimately structured landscapes, influenced past human actions and shaped archaeological assemblages.
    • Interpretative narrative of the history of occupation

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Bayliss, Alex; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester, Historic England (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-16)
      A chronological narrative of the early Mesolithic occupation at Star Carr
    • Introduction

      Milner, Nicky; Conneller, Chantal; Taylor, Barry; University of York, University of Manchester, University of Chester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Introduction to Star Carr Vol 1
    • Methods, Aims and Objectives

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Allen, Steve; Bamforth, Michael; Conneller, Chantal; Croft, Shannon; French, Charlie; Hadley, Patrick; Knight, Becky; Little, Aimee; et al. (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The aims, objects and methods of the Star Carr project
    • Palaeoenvironmental Investigations

      Taylor, Barry; Allison, Enid; University of Chester, Canterbury Archaeological Trust (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The results of the palaeoenvironmental analyses
    • Plants as persons: perceptions of the natural world in the North European Mesolithic

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2020-09-08)
      Amongst many hunter-gatherer communities, plants, animals and other aspects of the ‘natural’ environment, are bound up in, and gain significance and meaning from, specific cultural traditions. These traditions intricately bind the natural world into broader ontological understandings, which include concepts of animacy, the origins of the world, its structure and composition, and the behaviour of supernatural beings. Through these traditions, elements of the environment are imbued with an ontological significance that informs the way people perceive them, and how they interact with them through economic or ritual practice. There is a growing body of evidence that comparable traditions also structured the ways that hunter-gatherers interacted with their environment during the European Mesolithic. Much of the research has focused on the significance of animals, but this paper argues that plants were perceived in a similar way. Through a series of case studies from the North European Mesolithic, it shows how trees in particular were understood as powerful forces, playing active roles in people’s lives, and how interactions with them were mediated through prescribed forms of social practice