• Crossing borders in Victorian travel: spaces, nations and empires

      Fegan, Melissa (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-26)
    • 'Every Irishman is an Arab': James Clarence Mangan's Eastern 'Translations'

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Edinburgh University Press, 2013-07)
      This article discusses James Clarence Mangan's ‘Literæ Orientales’, six articles he published in the Dublin University Magazine between 1837 and 1846.
    • 'The Great Famine in Fiction, 1901-2015'

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester
      This chapter considers Irish writers’ continual reimagining of the Great Famine and the way it has shaped understandings of the past and present. In doing so, it addresses novels and short stories from nineteenth-century writers such as William Carleton, Mary Anne Hoare, and Margaret Brew, who sought to explain or reinterpret the catastrophe while it was still a living memory. The return of the Famine in later historical and neo-Victorian fiction by writers such as Liam O’Flaherty, John Banville, and Joseph O’Connor is considered in light of the association between Famine fiction and present-day crises in the post-independence era. The discussion also extends to the resurgence in literary interest in the Famine in the 1990s and early 2000s, which, the chapter suggests, was due not only to the greater exposure of the Famine in public discourse but also to a revival of insecurities that seemed to belong to the past.
    • The Great Famine in literature, 1846-1896

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010-11-12)
      This book chapter examines the representation of the Great Famine in literary texts from 1846-1896, including novels and short stories by William Carleton, Margaret Brew, Louise Field, Emily Fox, Mary Anne Hoare, T. O'Neill Russell, Anthony Trollope and W. G. Wills, and poetry by Jane Francesca Wilde, Thomas D'Arcy McGee and James Clarence Mangan, among others.
    • How the Other Three-Quarters Lived: The Cabin in Famine Literature

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Peter Lang, 2019-01-23)
      In the 1841 census three-quarters of houses in Ireland were placed in the lowest two classes, one-roomed mud cabins and slightly larger mud cottages. What Harriet Martineau describes as ‘Irish cabin life’ was a matter of fascination for visitors to Ireland before and after the Famine, and the cabin became a key site of ethnographic exploration. Curious or philanthropic observers were either shocked by the poverty and wretchedness they saw, or puzzled or even offended by the seeming happiness and healthiness of cabin-dwellers. During the Famine, the cabin was a scene for tragedy and horror: the place from which the people were evicted, from which they emigrated, in which they were quarantined, where they were found dying or dead, where they were buried. The roofless cabin later eloquently attested to their suffering and absence, and has become one of the most significant visual icons in the commemoration of the Famine. This chapter examines the representation of the cabin in literature from the time of the Famine to the present day, in the works of authors such as William Carleton, Anthony Trollope, Margaret Brew, Carol Birch, Anne Enright, and Tana French, considering the ways in which social hierarchy and communal relations are mediated through its space in texts set during the Famine, and its spectral significance in modern and contemporary literature as a concrete or symbolic inheritance, a time-machine, a haunted house, a place to desecrate or take refuge in, and a crime scene.
    • 'Isn't it your own country?': The stranger in nineteenth-century Irish literature

      Fegan, Melissa; University College Chester (Modern Humanities Research Association, 2004-01-01)
      This article discusses the nineteenth-century British obsession with travel in Ireland, and the representation of the stranger in three novels soon after the Union: Owenson's The Wild Irish Girl, Edgeworth's The Absentee, and Banim's The Anglo-Irish of the Nineteenth Century. These Irish writers use the stranger to expose misconception and urge reconciliation, but the stranger undergoes an evolution in their works, from English, to Anglo-Irish, to Irish — from colonizer coming to terms with the actions of his ancestors, to Anglo-Irish landlord taking responsibility for his land and tenants, to Irishman embracing his national identity and forging his own destiny.
    • ‘“Like a wail from the tomb, / But of world-waking power”: James Clarence Mangan’s “A Vision: A. D. 1848”, The Great Famine and the Young Ireland Rising’

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2007-06-01)
      This book chapter discusses the poems of James Clarence Mangan.
    • Literature and the Irish Famine 1845-1919

      Fegan, Melissa; Chester College of Higher Education (Clarendon, 2002-08-08)
      This book discusses the impact of the Irish Famine on literature, including fiction, non-fiction, journalism, travel-narratives, and the Irish novels of Anthony Trollope.
    • The Moral Economy of the Irish Hotel From the Union to the Famine

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-08-29)
      This chapter examines the peculiar characteristics of the Irish hotel in the period between the Act of Union and the Great Famine, when tourism was newly established in Ireland. The ‘moral economy’ of the inn or hotel was perceived as an extrapolation of that of the estate, or of Ireland itself. Viewed by many guests as primitive, lacking the neatness, cleanliness, and order they expected in British hotels, the Irish hotel functioned with double responsibilities: to the comfort of their guests, but also to the weal of the local community, providing work, relief, and begging opportunities for the poorest.
    • “Of every land the guest”: Aubrey de Vere’s travels

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-06-01)
      The experience of travel, the figure of the traveller, the relationship between landscape and nationality, and a complex attitude towards colonization are extremely important in the poetry and prose of Aubrey de Vere. Alongside ideas of emigration and exile in the Irish context, the wider intellectual and spiritual significance of travel is explored in poems such as ‘A Farewell to Naples’, ‘Lines Written Under Delphi’, or ‘A Wanderer’s Musings at Rome’, and in de Vere’s travel book Picturesque Sketches of Greece and Turkey (1850). De Vere’s ideal traveller must be hardy, embracing “an emancipation from the bondage of comforts”, and reining in his exuberant Romantic sensibility with careful “management of the mind” and “moral temperance”. This is very far removed from “that universal nuisance”, the Philistine Englishman abroad, of whom he is reminded all too frequently, particularly in Greece and in the Ionian islands, a British protectorate. But de Vere’s self-definition against the English traveller begins to unravel in Constantinople, where he embraces a new national identity as a Frank among an alien people. His experiences in the East also redefine his understanding of Ireland as “an Eastern nation in the West”.
    • 'Something so utterly unprecedented in the annals of human life': William Carleton and the Famine

      Fegan, Melissa; Chester College of Higher Education (Four Courts Press, 2003-11-01)
      This book chapter discusses how the Great Famine is reflected in the work of William Carleton.
    • 'That heartbroken island of incestuous hatred': Famine and family in Joseph O'Connor's Star of the Sea

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Rodopi, 2011-11-10)
      Joseph O’Connor’s Star of the Sea (2002), uses an extended family – the Merridiths, Duanes and Mulveys – crossing class, religious, cultural, ethnic and political divides, to explore the failure of personal, local, national and international networks to save vulnerable individuals during the Great Famine of 1845-52.
    • 'This most humane commerce': Lace-making during the Famine

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Liverpool University Press, 2018-11-30)
      Fintan O’Toole includes a lace collar from Youghal, Co. Cork in his A History of Ireland in 100 Objects, noting it ‘epitomises one of the more remarkable achievements of Irish women in the second half of the nineteenth century – the creation from scratch of a world-class craft industry’. It was an industry largely founded in response to the Famine, by philanthropic upper- and middle-class Irish women who recognised the failure of famine relief measures for women and girls in particular; the Youghal lace collar is a legacy of the lace school founded there by a nun during the Famine. Lace-making offered rescue not just for them, but their families; in 1852, among fishing families in Blackrock, ‘the strong and powerful father’ and ‘the vigorous son’ were now ‘protected from hunger and misery by the fingers of the feeble child, and saved from the workhouse by her cheerful and untiring toil’. This chapter will examine the representation of textile and lace making during the Famine in texts such as Mary Anne Hoare’s ‘The Knitted Collar’, Susanna Meredith’s The Lacemakers, and Brother James’s Eva O’Beirne, or the Little Lacemaker, as narratives of self-help, critiques of inadequate state intervention, calls for support of the trade and charitable donations, and an impetus to emigration. It will also consider the relationship between depictions of mid-nineteenth-century Irish textile workers and the representation of seamstresses in Victorian literature more widely.
    • 'The Tottering, Fluttering, Palpitating Mass': Power and Hunger in Nineteenth-Century Literary Responses to the Great Famine

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Routledge, 2015-11-29)
      This chapter examines representations of power and powerlessness in nineteenth-century literary responses to the Great Famine, arguing that many of these - largely middle-class authors - transcend the values and prejudices of their class in the attempt to engage honestly and imaginatively with the sufferings of Famine victims.
    • The traveller's experience of famine Ireland

      Fegan, Melissa (Carfax Publishing, 2001-12)
    • Waking the bones: The return of the famine dead in contemporary Irish literature

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Peter Lang, 2014-12-22)
    • William Carleton, Folklore, the Famine, and the Irish Supernatural

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Supernatural Studies Association, 2015-09-31)
      This article examines the significance of the supernatural in the works of the nineteenth-century Irish author William Carleton, and in particular the ways in which his grounding in folklore and his reflection of the Great Famine are important in his work.
    • Wuthering Heights: Character studies

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Continuum, 2008-02-21)
      This book discusses the characters of Mr Lockwood, Nelly Dean, Mr and Mrs Earnshaw, Mr and Mrs Linton, Joseph, Hindley Earnshaw, Edgar Linton, Isabella Linton, Heathcliff, Catherine Earnshaw, Hareton Earnshaw, Linton Heathcliff, and Catherine Linton.
    • Young Ireland and Beyond

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2020-02-28)
      This chapter examines the ideology, aspirations, and political and literary legacy of the Young Ireland group.