• Bark and Hz scaled F2 Locus equations: Sex differences and individual differences

      Herrmann, Frank; Cunningham, Stuart P.; Whiteside, Sandra P.; University of Chester, University of Sheffield (International Phonetic Association, 2015-08)
      This study investigated speaker sex differences in F2 Locus equations (F2 LEs) based on linearly (Hz) and tonotopically (Bark) scaled formant measurements. F2 data based on English monosyllabic words produced by thirteen women and eleven men were tonotopically scaled and F2 LEs were derived for both the linear and tonotopically scaled formant values. Although the overall sex difference in the F2 LE slope values for women and men was significant for both sets of F2 measures, the magnitude of this difference decreased for the Bark (.047) compared to the Hz (.063) scale. The individual data revealed a significant correlation between the slope values of the Hz and Bark scale [r = .974; p<.0001] suggesting a lawful relationship between the two metrics. Further probing revealed that the F2 LE data from women were affected more by the Bark conversion than the data from men.
    • Speaker sex effects on temporal and spectro-temporal measures of speech

      Herrmann, Frank; Cunningham, Stuart P.; Whiteside, Sandra P.; University of Chester ; University of Sheffield ; University of Sheffield (Cambridge University Press, 2014-04-01)
      This study investigated speaker sex differences in the temporal and spectro-temporal parameters of English monosyllabic words spoken by thirteen women and eleven men. Vowel and utterance duration were investigated. A number of formant frequency parameters were also analysed to assess the spectro-temporal dynamic structures of the monosyllabic words as a function of speaker sex. Absolute frequency changes were measured for the first (F1), second (F2), and third (F3) formant frequencies (ΔF1, ΔF2, and ΔF3, respectively). Rates of these absolute formant frequency changes were also measured and calculated to yield measurements for rF1, rF2, and rF3. Normalised frequency changes (normΔF1, normΔF2, and normΔF3), and normalised rates of change (normrF1, normrF2, and normrF3) were also calculated. F2 locus equations were then derived from the F2 measurements taken at the onset and temporal mid points of the vowels. Results indicated that there were significant sex differences in the spectro-temporal parameters associated with F2: ΔF2, normΔF2, rF2, and F2 locus equation slopes; women displayed significantly higher values for ΔF2, normΔF2 and rF2, and significantly shallower F2 locus equation slopes. Collectively, these results suggested lower levels of coarticulation in the speech samples of the women speakers, and corroborate evidence reported in earlier studies.