Now showing items 21-40 of 567

    • Nurses' experiences of communicating respect to patients: Influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known about the influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based UK registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and inter-personal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care. Conclusion: Findings stress the need for improved conceptualisations of respect in healthcare settings to formally recognise the complex attitudinal and socially constructed nature of respect and for appropriate professional training to improve its communication
    • Development and delivery of the trainee nursing associate pilot curriculum.

      Roulston, Christina; Davies, Miriam (2019-04-11)
      This article discusses the recently launched curriculum for nursing associates and the authors' involvement in the development of a medicine management module. This required recognition of the challenges in an ever-changing healthcare environment with, in this instance, limited guidance from the Nursing and Midwifery Council and associated professional organisations and with multiple stakeholders to satisfy. Curriculum development therefore required consideration of the concerns of service users and providers regarding the integration of this new, poorly understood role, its potential effect on skill mix and lack of knowledge regarding proposed regulation.
    • Working with family carers

      Gant, Valerie; University of Chester (Critical Publishing, 2018-06-06)
      Care-giving transcends race, gender and age and most people will be a care giver or receiver (often both) at some point in their lives. This book explores the extent of caregiving in the UK and discusses its impact on individuals, groups and communities, as well as health and social care professionals. The book covers ways of identifying carers and providing information and advice and, given the likelihood of practitioners themselves providing care, a discussion regarding maintaining resilience and the extent to which personal experiences guide and inform practitioners response to work with carers is included. Exercises allow the reader to explore ways practitioners can engage with and support carers. The recent legislative changes brought about by the Care Act 2014 is discussed, as well as relevant policies. Caregiving has the potential to transcend disciplines, so this text will appeal to students of a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, and across the professional arena including social work, nursing, occupational and physiotherapy. The author is donating her royalties on this book to Carers UK and Carers Trust
    • An ethnographic study that explores the policy and cultural influences on the continuing professional development of nurses and their utilisation of computer technology in a community hospital in Uganda

      Gidman, Janice; Wilson, Frances R (University of Chester, 2019-03-19)
      Through ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a hospital in rural Uganda, the study explores how continuing professional development (CPD) of nurses is supported through utilisation of information and communications technology (ICT), and how policy and culture can influence this process. The existing research literature raised three questions: what facilitates and restricts learning and using computer technology? What are the nurses’ views and experiences of using ICT? Is nurses’ professional development and how they utilise ICT influenced by policy and culture? The literature, drawn from international sources, is reviewed in chronological order to reflect the development of ICT and its use in health services and CPD. Policies and theories are analysed to gauge their relevance to the research aims and questions. These include Walt’s policy analysis theory; Hofstede et al.’s dimensions of national culture; Rogers’ diffusion of technology theory; Davies’ technology acceptance model; and theories of culture. These theories are synthesised into a model of influence. Early in the research, a macro study of Uganda was undertaken covering the political, economic, sociocultural, technological, legal and environmental (PESTLE) impacts on the ICT infrastructure, health and nursing. Spradley’s (1979, 1980) developmental research sequence (DRS) formed the methodological framework, providing a systematic and comprehensive approach to data collection and analysis. Its twelve steps were applied to participant observation and ethnographic interviews, offering a progressive approach to data analysis through domain, taxonomic and componential analysis. Spradley’s DRS enabled dimensions of contrast to be identified and the discovery of unique cultural themes. Four field visits took place between 2009 and 2012, each lasting two weeks. Participant observation was undertaken on each visit, and interviews and focus groups on the third and fourth visits, facilitating exploration of ICT developments, computer skills training, education and CPD. Informants expressed their views about cultural influences on technology development, and their knowledge of policies and how they impacted on ICT adoption and nurses’ computer skills development. The study makes a unique contribution to knowledge by analysing the influences of culture and policy on nurses’ CPD and utilisation of computer skills. Major findings include the significance of cultural themes amongst factors influencing ICT adoption, CPD and development of nurses’ computer skills. Knowledge of the local culture, as well as the underpinning theories, contributes to the successful construction of teaching strategies for this professional group. The impact of policies has been influential in building the national and local ICT infrastructure, but CPD and nurses’ computer skills have developed in the research location due to local capacity building rather than the direct impact of policies.
    • Effectiveness of nitric oxide agents in preventing the early onset of pre-eclampsia and possible modification of metabolic factors in high-risk pregnancies

      Nnate, Daniel; Massey, Alan; Ridgway, Victoria; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2018-11-28)
      Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition which affects at least 2 - 8% of pregnancies and is the major cause of foetal growth restriction, small gestational age and increased rate of preterm birth from induced labour and caesarean section. The rate of early-onset of pre-eclampsia raises serious concern; and the most affected population are nulliparous women, women with chronic hypertension, multiple pregnancies and those with chronic diseases. Increasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelial system through the timely administration of NO agents could minimise the metabolic precursors of pre-eclampsia which may be a cost-effective intervention in preventing the complications related to the ailment. While the effectiveness and safety of suggested interventions for the prevention of pre-eclampsia on maternal and neonatal health is being deliberated, evidence on the role of NO in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is well recognised. Nitric oxide agents have been proven to be effective in preventing complications from pre-eclampsia; however, there is limited evidence on NO agents in preventing its early onset in high risk pregnancies. Previous studies on pre-eclampsia prevention with NO agents lacks the criteria required to achieve optimum effects; and the benefit of administering NO agents before 20 weeks’ gestation is yet to be established.
    • Workshops for community health professionals to enhance knowledge of respiratory infections

      Kamil-Thomas, Zalihe (MA Healthcare, 2018-07)
      This article presents finding from a Knowledge Transfer funded project that was developed in partnership with Western Cheshire Clinical Commissioning Group and NHS Countess Of Chester Hospital Trust to enhance practitioners’ knowledge and understanding of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children. The findings suggest that attendees were aware of the need to improve their knowledge and skills in the assessment and management of deteriorating children with LRTI. Feedback from attendees demonstrated that the workshop was well received and was useful in terms of updating and enhancing professionals’ knowledge and skills. The workshop team received the Journal of Health Visiting 2018 Award for Contribution to Health Visiting Education.
    • The penal voluntary sector: a hybrid sociology

      Tomczak, Philippa; Buck, Gillian; University of Nottingham; University of Chester (Oxford Academic, 2019-01-09)
      The penal voluntary sector (PVS) is an important, complex, under-theorised area. Its non-profit, non-statutory organisations are highly significant in the operation of punishment around the world, yet ill-understood. Burgeoning scholarship has begun to examine specific parts of the sector, particularly individualised service delivery. We offer a five paradigm framework which more fully conceptualises the PVS, including different types of service delivery and important campaigning work. Our hybrid framework applies and extends Burrell and Morgan’s (1979) influential four paradigm model of social theory, which maps the theoretical diversity underpinning varying organisational activities. Our framework i) provides ideal-types which illustrate the range, fluidity and hybridity of PVS programmes and practices, and ii) highlights the (potential) roles of brokers in (re)directing activity.
    • Stigma: the representation of mental health in UK newspaper twitter feeds.

      Bowen, Matt; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-10)
      Background The press’ representation of mental illness often includes images of people as dangerous, and there is evidence that this contributes to stigmatising understandings about mental illness. Little is known about how newspapers portray mental health on their Twitter feeds. Aims To explore the representation of mental health in the UK national press’ Twitter feeds. Method Content analysis was used to code the Tweets produced by UK national press in two time periods, 2014 and 2017. Chi-square analysis was used to identify trends. Results The analysis identified a significant reduction in the proportion of tweets that were characterised as Bad News between 2014 and 2017 (χ2 = 14.476, d.f. = 1, p < .001) and a significant increase in the tweets characterised as Understanding (χ2 = 9.398, d.f. = 1, p = .002). However, in 2017, 24% of the tweets were still characterised as Bad News. Readers did not retweet Bad News stories significantly more frequently than they were produced. Conclusions There is a positive direction of travel in the representations of mental health in the Twitter feeds of the UK press, but the level of Bad News stories remains a concern.
    • The criminal justice voluntary sector: concepts and an agenda for an emerging field

      Tomczak, Philippa; Buck, Gillian; University of Nottingham; University of Chester (The Howard League and John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2019-09-04)
      Volunteers and voluntary organisations play significant roles pervading criminal justice. They are key actors, with unrecognised potential to shore up criminal justice and/or collaboratively reshape social justice. Unlike public and for-profit agents, criminal justice volunteers and voluntary organisations (CJVVOs) have been neglected by scholars. We call for analyses of diverse CJVVOs, in national and comparative contexts. We provide three categories to highlight distinctive organising auspices, which hold across criminal justice: statutory volunteers, quasi-statutory volunteers and voluntary organisations. The unknown implications of these different forms of non-state, non-profit justice involvement deserve far greater attention from academics, policymakers and practitioners.
    • Defence Committee: Armed Forces and Veterans Mental Health Inquiry. Part Two. The Provision of Care

      Finnegan, Alan; University of Chester; University of Northumbria (Crown, 2018-09-11)
      Executive Summary * Effective Military Mental Health care requires practitioners with extensive knowledge of service provision and structures, and who have the correct clinical competencies that are underpinned by academic qualification/s and experience. * Veterans are a heterogeneous group, differing by factors such as age, gender and length of service. These factors are extremely important during transition, and initiatives to support ex-Service personnel and their families are hindered through a lack of understanding of the veteran community. * NHS Mental Health care provision is extensive and comprehensive, although is areas such as Northern Ireland, it is Combat Stress that provide bespoke veteran care options, funded through charitable contributions. * Many veterans are unaware of their entitlement to priority medical services, or the wider provisions available to them. * Veterans are unwilling to disclose problems associated with their former military life, often believing that civilians, including healthcare professionals, do not appreciate military culture and “cannot understand” their experiences. * Receiving quick, appropriate support requires GPs and other healthcare professionals having sufficient awareness of the NHS and veteran specific services, and on the patients MH condition being correctly identified. * Stressors identified during the transition period are just as likely to negatively impact on the spouse and family. * There is an assumption that the small local veteran charities may be doing harm, although there is limited evidence to substantiate this view, and there is a requirement to understand why some veterans prefer this option
    • Defence Committee: Armed Forces and Veterans Mental Health Inquiry. Part One

      Kiernan, Matthew; Finnegan, Alan; Hill, Mick; University of Northumbria (Crown, 2018-07-12)
      Executive Summary • MoD provides an occupational military mental health service, where clinical decisions are safety critical due to the environment in which armed forces personnel operate. • Statistics provided from defense are accurate, however, trying to contextualise them by comparing them with the wider population is problematic, as the threshold for referral is much lower. • Only 8% of UK veterans were correctly registered at a PHC practice. • Military mental health practice is unique, and to understand the issues facing current service provision, the statistical data needs to be annually supplemented with purposeful qualitative data from those working in defence mental health. • A priority should be afforded to the inclusion of veteran peer researchers within studies to improve sample selection, interpretation and understanding of results. • There needs to be an agenda to broaden methodological expertise and cooperation within the sector and a move away from a predominately one-dimensional research approach. The only way that the questions in this enquiry will be answered, is through a multiple methods and multiple institution collaboration.
    • Working through interpreters in old age psychiatry: a literature review

      Farooq, Saeed; Kingston, Paul; Regan, Jemma; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Emerald, 2015)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to systematically appraise the effect of use of interpreters for mental health problems in old age. The primary objective of the review is to assess the impact of a language barrier for assessment and management in relation to mental health problems in the old age. The secondary objectives are to assess the effect of the use of interpreters on patient satisfaction and quality of care, identify good practice and make recommendations for research and practice in the old age mental health. Design/methodology/approach – The following data sources were searched for publications between 1966 and 2011: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. The authors found in previous reviews that a substantial number of papers from developing and non-English speaking countries are published in journals not indexed in mainstream databases, and devised a search strategy using Google which identified a number of papers, which could not be found when the search was limited to scientific data bases only (Farooq et al., 2009). The strategy was considered especially important for this review which focuses on communication across many different languages. Thus, the authors conducted a search of the World Wide Web using Google Scholar, employing the search term Medical Interpreters and Mental Health. The search included literature in all languages. The authors also searched the reference lists of included and excluded studies for additional relevant papers. Bibliographies of systematic review articles published in the last five years were also examined to identify pertinent studies. Findings – Only four publications related specifically to “old age” and 33 addressed “interpreting” and “psychiatry” generally. Four articles presented original research (Parnes and Westfall, 2003; Hasset and George, 2002; Sadavoy et al., 2004; Van de Mieroop et al., 2012). One article (Shah, 1997) reports an “anecdotal descriptive account” of interviewing elderly people from ethnic backgrounds in a psychogeriatric service in Melbourne and does not report any data. Therefore, only four papers met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and present original research in the field of “old age”, “psychiatry” and “interpreting”. None of these papers present UK-based research. One is a quantitative study from Australia (Hasset and George, 2002), the second is a qualitative study from Canada (Sadavoy et al., 2004), in the third paper Van de Mieroop et al. (2012) describe community interpreting in a Belgian old home and the final paper is an American case study (Parnes and Westfall, 2003). Practical implications – Interviewing older patients for constructs like cognitive function and decision-making capacity through interpreters can pose significant clinical and legal problems. There is urgent need for training mental health professionals for developing skills to overcome the language barrier and for interpreters to be trained for work in psychogeriatrics. Social implications – The literature on working through interpreters is limited to a few empirical studies. This has serious consequences for service users such as lack of trust in services, clinical errors and neglect of human rights. Further studies are needed to understand the extent of problem and how effective interpreting and translating services can be provided in the routine clinical practice. It is also essential to develop a standard of translation services in mental health that can be measured for their quality and also efficiency. At present such a quality standard is not available in the UK, unlike Sweden (see www.regeringen.se/sb/d/3288/a/19564). This omission is disturbing – especially when decisions on human rights are being considered as part of the Mental Health Act. Such a standard can best be achieved by collaboration between medical profession and linguists’ professional associations (Cambridge et al., 2012). Originality/value – Whilst translation/interpretation has been addressed more generally in mental health: specific considerations related to old age psychiatry are almost absent. This needs urgent rectification given that a large proportion of older people from BME communities will require translation and interpretation services.
    • Some ethical limitations of privatising and marketizing social care and social work pro-vision in England for children and young people

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-03-01)
      This article analyses the negative ethical impact of privatisation, alongside the ongoing mar-ketisation of social care and social work provision for children and young people in England. It critically appraises the implications of a market-based formal social care system, which in-cludes the risk-averse and often detached role of social workers within ever more fragmented sectors of care. Analysis begins with a discussion of background policy and context. The ten-dency towards ‘service user’ objectification and commodification are then detailed, followed by a discussion of the limiting of choice for service users. Service and social fragmentation, and the often severely restricted ‘life chances’ of many children and young people in care, are then deliberated. The concluding discussion reiterates the moral implications of marketisation in relation to ethical frameworks, including those associated with autonomy, informed choice, social exclusion and social justice. The tendency towards children increasingly being utilised as a means to an end within business-orientated sectors of care is highlighted, alongside ethi-cal questions asked about the State’s purpose in providing a community of support.
    • Workplace Health and Well-Being

      Massey, Alan; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2019-09-06)
      The problems related to the process of industrialisation such as biodiversity depletion, climate change and a worsening of health and living conditions, especially but not only in developing countries, intensify. This chapter looks at the role of workplaces in the drive for global sustainability through the World Health Organisations healthy workplace framework
    • Social Work Students’ Perceptions of Ageing

      Ridgway, Victoria; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-23)
      Little is understood about social work students or social workers’ perceptions of ageing in the UK. This paper presents a small-scale study of 20 master social work students’ perceptions of ageing during the first year of their programme. A mixed method approach was employed over a two-staged research project, in both stages the social work students were asked to complete Kogan’s (1961) Attitudes Towards Older People Scale (KATOPS) and draw a person aged 75. Results demonstrated that most students had neutral to positive attitudes towards older people at the beginning of the programme and these improved in stage two; all had positive attitudes. The drawings provided a visual narrative of their perceptions of older people, visual signifiers included physical signs of ageing. Fulfilment, emotion, family, individuality and appearance were emergent themes. Whilst the programme enhanced the students’ perceptions more work is needed to dispel the myths and stereotypes about ageing
    • Understanding Blogging Motivations in Palliative Care Using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

      Ngwenya, Nothando; Kingston, Paul; Mills, Stella; Africa Health Research Institute, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Inderscience, 2018-09-24)
      The pervasive use and potential of weblogs has increased the field of social health informatics and is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore. The prevalence of these technologies for narrative use brings about the fusion of diverse schools of thought on motivation. One proven model is that of Maslow, whose theory of needs has an intuitive appeal in understanding bloggers’ needs and motivations. This paper considers theoretical and practical blogging experiences for palliative care users through the embracement of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Palliative care patients, carers and clinicians were interviewed about their weblogs and data qualitatively analysed. The results indicate that the experience of maintaining a weblog is therapeutic for individuals and fulfils needs hierarchically from the lowest to the highest as outlined in Maslow’s theory.
    • Stigma: a linguistic analysis of the UK red-top tabloids press’s representation of schizophrenia

      Bowen, Matt; Kinderman, Peter; Cooke, Anne; University of Chester; Liverpool University; Canterbury University (SAGE publications, 2019-05-10)
      Aims. Media representations of mental health problems may influence readers’ understanding of, and attitude towards, people who have received psychiatric diagnoses. Negative beliefs and attitudes may then lead to discriminatory behaviour, which is understood as stigma. This study explored the language used in popular national newspapers when writing about schizophrenia and considered how this may have contributed to the processes of stigmatisation towards people with this diagnosis. Methods. Using corpus linguistic methods, a sample of newspaper articles over a 24 month period that mentioned the word ‘schizophrenia’ was compared with a similar sample of articles about diabetes. This enabled a theory-driven exploration of linguistic characteristics to explore stigmatising messages, whilst supported by statistical tests (Log-Likelihood) to compare the data sets and identify words with a high relative frequency. Results. Analysis of the ‘schizophrenia’ data set identified that overtly stigmatising language (e.g. “schizo”) was relatively infrequent, but that there was frequent use of linguistic signatures of violence. Articles frequently used graphic language referring to: acts of violence, descriptions of violent acts, implements used in violence, identity labels and exemplars of well-known individuals who had committed violent acts. The word ‘schizophrenic’ was used with a high frequency (n=108) and most commonly to name individuals who had committed acts of violence. Discussion. The study suggests that whilst the press have largely avoided the use of words that press guidance has steered them away from (e.g. “schizo” and “psycho”) that they still use a range of graphic language to present people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia as frighteningly ‘other’ and as prone to violence. This repetition of negative stereotypical messages may well contribute to the processes of stigmatisation many people who experience psychosis have to contend.
    • Registered nurses’ experiences of communicating respect to patients: influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known on influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based United Kingdom registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and interpersonal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care.
    • The emergence of accelerated resolution therapy for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: A review and new subgroup analyses

      Kip, Kevin; Berumen, Jessica; Zeidan, Amina R.; Hernandez, Diego; Finnegan, Alan (Wiley, 2019-01-25)
    • Issues of Ageing, Social Class, and Poverty

      Carey, Malcolm (Routledge, 2019-01-18)
      This chapter examines some ethical and political challenges generated by the increasingly complex needs of an ageing society upon social work. It concentrates on the UK as a case study and critically evaluates related age-graded policies and practices relating to social work and care. The chapter includes a discussion of the on-going ethical tensions between social diversity within an ageing society and the shrinking of formal care provision.