• Autonomy

      McCarthy, Jill; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the concept of autonomy within the health care profession, which involves consideration of the moral and legal implications. The chapter also discusses the practicalities of autonomy when it is not always possible for the patient to exercise their autonomy because of an inability to communicate or act independently.
    • Barriers facing social workers undertaking direct work with children and young people with a learning disability who communicate using non-verbal methods

      Prynallt-Jones, Katherine A.; Carey, Malcolm; Doherty, Pauline; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2017-03-03)
      Abstract: This paper analyses data drawn from a small group of qualified social workers’ specialising in work with disabled children who communicate using non-verbal methods. While a number of studies have criticised social services for neglecting disabled children, this paper re-evaluates evidence from the standpoint of a small group of experienced practitioners. Three substantive themes are explored which include: problems faced by practitioner’s communicating with children and young people; barriers to direct work; and positive engagement or use of creative methods. Among other findings, the paper highlights the complexity of communication techniques when seeking to accommodate diverse service user and carer needs, as well as creative responses used by practitioners despite significant barriers that include limited available training, technology and financial resources. Despite policy initiatives and legal requirements emphasising the importance of direct work and participation with disabled children, the conclusion reiterates the narrow focus of current risk-averse social work around disability, as well a need for additional resources and training to improve relationships, communication and meaningful support for children and young people that meet basic legal requirements.
    • Beating the blues with pleasurable activity

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Philip Allan, 2019)
      In this article Chartered Psychologist, Andrew Mitchell explains how behavioural activation (BA) can be used to treat depression
    • Behavioural and neurochemical responses evoked by repeated exposure to an elevated open platform

      Storey, J.; Robertson, Deborah A. F.; Beattie, J. E.; Reid, I. C.; Mitchell, S.; Balfour, David J. K.; University of Chester (Robertson) (Elsevier, 2011-01-18)
      This article investigated the changes in 5-HT release and turnover in the hippocampus evoked by acute and repeated exposure to an inescapable stressor, an elevated open platform, and compared them to the changes evoked in the frontal cortex.
    • Behavioural learning theories

      Lovell, Andy; Unversity of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-29)
      This book chapter discusses the emergence of behaviourism and behaviour learning theory.
    • Being at the Bottom Rung of the Ladder in an Unequal Society: A Qualitative Analysis of Stories of People without a Home

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Yohannes, Asmait; Asmait Skin Care (MDPI, 2019-11-21)
      Background: Homelessness is rising in the United Kingdom, despite investment in measures to eradicate it made by the government and charity organisations. Aim: The aim is to examine the stories of homeless people in order to document their perceptions of their social status, the reasons that led to their homelessness, and propose a conceptual explanation. Method: We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews in three centres for homeless people in Cheshire, North West of England. Results: Three categories—education, employment, and health—emerged from the data and provided a theoretical explanation for the reasons that led to their homelessness. These are vital not only for the successful negotiation of one’s way out of homelessness, but also for achieving other social goods, including social connections, social mobility, and engaging in positive social relationships. Conclusion: Participants catalogued the adverse childhood experiences, which they believe limited their capacity to meaningfully engage with the social institution for social goods, such as education, social services, and institutions of employment. Since not all people who have misfortunes of poor education, poor health, and loss of job end up being homeless, we contend that a combination of these with multiple adverse childhood experiences may have weakened their resilience to traumatic life changes, such as loss of job and poor health.
    • Being at the Bottom Rung of the Ladder in an Unequal Society: A Qualitative Analysis of Stories of People without a Home

      Mabhala, Mzwandile; Yohannes, Asmait; University of Chester; Asmait Skin Care
      Background: Homelessness is rising in the United Kingdom, despite investment in measures to eradicate it made by the government and charity organisations. Aim: The aim is to examine the stories of homeless people in order to document their perceptions of their social status, the reasons that led to their homelessness, and propose a conceptual explanation. Method: We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews in three centres for homeless people in Cheshire, North West of England. Results: Three categories—education, employment, and health—emerged from the data and provided a theoretical explanation for the reasons that led to their homelessness. These are vital not only for the successful negotiation of one’s way out of homelessness, but also for achieving other social goods, including social connections, social mobility, and engaging in positive social relationships. Conclusion: Participants catalogued the adverse childhood experiences, which they believe limited their capacity to meaningfully engage with the social institution for social goods, such as education, social services, and institutions of employment. Since not all people who have misfortunes of poor education, poor health, and loss of job end up being homeless, we contend that a combination of these with multiple adverse childhood experiences may have weakened their resilience to traumatic life changes, such as loss of job and poor health.
    • ‘Being different’: realities of life experiences as constructed by persons with albinism in Nigeria

      Mabhala, Andi; Keeling, June; Buck, Gill; Keen, Adam; Olagunju, Adeolu (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-08)
      In Nigeria, persons with albinism (PWA) continue to face a higher burden of health and social challenges in the society compared with the general population. PWA experience multi-faceted social injustices such as stigma, discrimination and exclusion from education, employment and social participation. These injustices are driven by the Nigerian society because of sociocultural perceptions and stereotypes associated with albinism which can be attributable to the lack of adequate understanding of the condition. This research aimed to understand how the realities of being a PWA in Nigeria could be conceptualised based on their life experiences to develop a substantive theory of their social wellbeing status. By adopting constructivist grounded theory methodology, forty-two in-depth interviews were conducted amongst eleven PWA. Analysis identified three categories each of which embodies the multiple realities of disadvantages and exclusion experienced within the home, schooling, working and social environments at different stages of life. The concept of ‘Being different’ emerged from these categories to offer a theoretical explanation of what it means to be a PWA in Nigeria. The realities of ‘being different’ constitute processual social injustices for PWA because of how the Nigerian society is socio-culturally and institutionally configured to magnify the limitations of albinism above the rights and social liberties of the individual. This research identified albinism as a disability and concluded that PWA are owed a moral and ethical obligation by the Nigerian society for them to be able to access the liberties and support necessary to secure their health and social wellbeing. The sustainable fulfilment of this moral and ethical obligation necessitates an inter-institutional collaboration and vigilance that should address the layers of injustices meted to PWA. This study adds an original contribution to knowledge by offering a theoretical concept to qualify the social status of PWA in Nigeria, and thus, could be useful to inform appropriate health and social care interventions.
    • Being healthy: A Grounded Theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK

      Liu, Z; Beaver, K; Speed, S; Chegdu University China; UCLAN; University of Chester
      Abstract The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world’s population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. ‘‘Being healthy’’ (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders’ concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of nonhelp seeking and ‘‘self’’ rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.
    • Being homeless in an unequal society: A qualitative analysis of stories of homeless people

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018-11-21)
    • Being responsive to the needs of women who are being abused

      Steen, Mary; Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (English National Board for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, 2001-07)
      One midwife's account of her work in setting up a training programme with the aim of raising midwives' awareness of the multi-complex issues relating to domestic violence, increasing their knowledge of possible indicators, and increase their confidence to ask questions, as well as documenting any causes for concern and providing useful information about local support agencies
    • Binary construct analysis of forensic psychiatric nursing in the UK: High, medium and low security services

      Mason, Tom; King, Lisa; Dulson, Julie; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc., 2009-05-06)
      The aim of this study was to idenfity if differences in perceptions of the role of forensic psychiatric nurses exist across the three levels of secure psychiatric provision: high, medium and low. Any differences may reflect the type of clinical conditions found in different levels of security provision. An information gathering schedule containing a validated 7-point Likert scale was distributed to 1200 forensic psychiatric nurses across the UK in 2005. A response rate of 34.6 was achieved, with 122 from high-security, 159 from medium-securitya nd 135 from low-security services. Differences in perceptions regarding role constructs were found across all three levels, with numerous differences being statistically significant using analysis of variance. The implications are in relation to the development of skills and competencies, which should target specific clinical conditions in relation to effective interventions, the development of a specialist education and training curriculum focused on treatment outcomes and the need for further research to draw together theory and practice. Finally, creative policy initiatives should be developmed to cross-fertilize the levels of security provision in order that staff may acquire and deliver experiences in high, medium and low security psychiatric services.
    • Binary constructs of forensic psychiatric nursing: A pilot study

      Mason, Tom; Dulson, Julie; King, Lisa; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2009-02-06)
      The aim was to develop an Information Gathering Schedule (IGS) relevant to forensic psychiatric nursing in order to establish the perceived differences in the three levels of security, high, medium and low. Perceived differences in the role constructs of forensic psychiatric nursing is said to exist but the evidence is qualitative or anecdotal. This paper sets out a pilot study beginning in 2004 relating to the development of two rating scales for inclusion into an IGS to acquire data on the role constructs of nurses working in these environments. Following a thematic analysis from the literature two sets of binary frameworks were constructed and a number of questions/statements relating to them were tested. The Thurstone Scaling test was applied to compute medians resulting in a reduction to 48 and 20 items for each respective framework. Two 7-point Likert scales were constructed and test-retest procedures were applied on a sample population of forensic psychiatric nurses. Student's t-test was conducted on the data and the results suggest that the IGS is now suitably for application on a larger study. The IGS was piloted on a small sample of forensic psychiatric nurses. The two scales were validated to coefficient values ranging from 0.7 to 0.9. Amendments were made and the IGS was considered acceptable.
    • Biological determinants of need

      Woodhouse, Jan; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the concept of biological determinates of need; consideration is given to many factors that impact on the human. The chapter argues that there is need for issues to be examined holistically. This would allow for all the different factors which may affect an individual to be considered, rather then being condensed into specialised areas, and would lead the way to understanding disease, its treatment and prevention.
    • 'Biomedical nemesis? Critical deliberations with regard health and social care integration for social work with older people’

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-06-28)
      This paper questions ongoing moves towards integration into health care for social work with older people in the UK. Whilst potentially constructing clearer pathways to support integration risks reducing welfare provisions for a traditional low priority user group, while further extending privatisation. Integration models also understate the ideological impact of biomedical perspectives within health and social care domains, conflate roles and undermine the potential positive role of ‘holistic’ multi-agency care. Constructive social work for older people is likely to further dilute within aggressive integrated models of welfare: which will be detrimental for meeting many of the complex needs of ageing populations.
    • The biopsychosocial benefits and shortfalls for armed forces veterans engaged in archaeological activities

      Finnegan, Alan; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-03-19)
      Background Organised outdoor activates are advocated as promoting multiple benefits for a veteran's wellbeing, of whom up to 50% have suffered either/both physical and mental health (MH) problems. This has resulted in significant investment in a growing number of outdoor events, one of which is the Defence Archaeology Group (DAG) which utilise the technical and social aspects of field archaeology in the recovery and skill development of injured veterans. Objective To advance knowledge within veterans MH and wellbeing through an understanding of the potential long term psychological benefits and shortfalls for veterans undertaking DAG activities. Design A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to enable identification of the issues from the participant veteran's perspective. Setting: DAG archaeological excavations in April and August 2015. Method Semi-structured interviews with 14 veterans. Results The qualitative coding resulted in the indication of 18 categories subsumed within four clusters: motivation and access; mental health; veteran and teamwork; therapeutic environment and leadership. Discussion The psychological benefits were improved self-esteem, confidence, a reduction in stigma and motivation to seek help. The reduction in situational stressors associated with difficult life conditions also appeared to improve mood, and there was a clear benefit in being in a caring environment where other people actively paid an interest. There were extended social benefits associated with being accepted as part of a team within a familiar military environment, which presented an opportunity to establish friendships and utilise military skill sets. Conclusion Organised outdoor activities offer multi-factorial hope for veterans searching for ways to ease the transition to civilian life and recover from military stress and trauma. The relaxing and reflective environment within a military setting appears to construct a sense of personal safety and thereby offers therapeutic value.
    • Birkenhead School of Nursing badge

      Birkenhead School of Nursing (Birkenhead School of Nursing, 2015-04-10)
    • Book review of Social work management and leadership: Managing complexity with creativity

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (British Association of Social Workers, 2011-01)
    • Book review of The casework relationship

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (British Association of Social Workers, 2013-03-27)
    • Breech birth: Reviewing the evidence for external cephalic version and moxibustion

      Steen, Mary; Kingdon, Carol; University of Chester ; University of Central Lancashire (T G Scott, 2008-12-01)
      Background: Breech presentation, where a baby is buttocks or feet rather than head occurs in about 3 to 4% of singleton pregnancies at term. Worldwide, the majority of babies identified as breech are now delivered by planned caesarean section. Aim: This paper is the second of two that reviews evidence concerning breech presentation and birth mode. This review focuses specifically on women's preferences for birth mode, experiences of breech presentation and the use of external cephalic version (ECV) and moxibustion, which may be used in the third trimester of pregnancy to turn a breech baby to a cephalic presentation. Method: A structured literature review was undertaken using the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and AMED. Different permutations of 'breech' ('frank' or 'complete' or 'extended' or 'flexed') and 'alternative' or 'complementary therapies' or 'external cephalic version' or 'ECV' or 'moxibustion' and 'before term' and 'term' and 'singleton' in the title, key words or abstracts were used. Results: There is evidence that the majority of women would prefer a vaginal birth. There is substantial evidence that ECV can reduce the caesarean section rate by turning breech presentation to cephalic. Further research is needed to confirm or refute the clinical effectiveness and women's views of moxibustion therapy. Conclusions: As rates of caesarean section for breech presentation continue to rise, it is important that midwives and women have up-to-date evidence-based information about the alternative to proceeding straight to planned caesarean section when a breech presentation is identified.