• The supervisor conundrum

      Knight, Kate; Leigh, Jacqueline; Whaley, Viki; Matthews, Marie; Doyle, Kate; Rabie, Gay; University of Chester; University of Salford; Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MA Healthcare, 2021-11-11)
      Commentry
    • The potential impact of extensive privatisation in the UK upon the ‘life chances’ of young people in care

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (National Youth Agency, 2021-11-01)
      The article considers the potential impact of extensive privatisation in the UK upon the ‘life chances’ of young people in care
    • Assessment of sodium and iodine intake among university students in Casablanca, Morocco

      Jafri, Ali; Elarbaoui, Maria; Elkardi, Younes; Makhlouki, Houria; Ellahi, Basma; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Université Mohammed VI des Sciences de la Sante; University of Chester; Université Hassan II de Casablanca (Elsevier, 2021-07-08)
      Introduction. – Iodine deficiency is still a matter of public health concern despite salt fortification andespecially with global recommendations to lower salt intake, this is mainly due to dietary habits. Uni-versity students have a diet based on street food high in sodium and low in other micronutrients (i.e.iodine and potassium). In this study, we aim to measure sodium and iodine levels in university studentsto assess their risk of developing complications later in life.Methodology. – A sample of 120 students aged between 18 and 25 years old was recruited and asked tocollect their 24-hours urine samples in special containers containing. Samples were stored then analyzedfor sodium, potassium, iodine and creatinine levels.Results. – The average urinary excretion of sodium was 3066.8 ± 1196.0 mg/day. Overall, 72.6% of par-ticipants consume more than 2 g/day of sodium. Average potassium intake is 1805.9 ± 559.4 mg/day,and all participants consume less than the adequate amount. Daily urinary excretion of iodine is135.6 ± 88.9 mg/day, and 69.2% of participants consume less than the recommended amount. Sodium,potassium and iodine intakes were higher in male participants (P-values = 0.008; 0.044 and 0.003, respec-tively). The lowest average iodine intake was observed in underweight participants (119.4 ± 31.4) with87.5% of underweight participants and 80% of female participants below the recommended intake.Conclusion. – Sodium intake is high while iodine intake is low in this studied population, especially inwomen.
    • This is how it feels: activating lived experience in the penal voluntary sector

      Buck, Gillian; Tomczak, Philippa; Quinn, Kaitlyn; University of Chester; University of Nottingham; University of Toronto (Oxford University Press, 2021-10-21)
      Increasing calls for ‘nothing about us without us’ envision marginalised people as valuable and necessary contributors to policies and practices affecting them. In this paper, we examine what this type of inclusion feels like for criminalised people who share their lived experiences in penal voluntary sector organisations. Focus groups conducted in England and Scotland illustrated how this work was experienced as both safe, inclusionary and rewarding and exclusionary, shame-provoking and precarious. We highlight how these tensions of ‘user involvement’ impact criminalised individuals and compound wider inequalities within this sector. The individual, emotional and structural implications of activating lived experience therefore require careful consideration. We consider how the penal voluntary sector might more meaningfully and supportively engage criminalised individuals in service design and delivery. These considerations are significant for broader criminal justice and social service provision seeking to meaningfully involve those with lived experience.
    • Development of the Compendium of Intellectual Disability Nursing Interventions

      Chapman, Hazel; Mafuba, Kay; Kiernan, Joann; Chester, Rebecca; Kudita, Chiedza; University of Chester (2021-07-06)
      This is a presentation that was delivered at the IASSIDD Europe Congress 6-8 July 2021, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    • Universal credit, lone mothers and poverty: some ethical challenges for social work with children and families

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2021-06-22)
      This article critically evaluates and contests the flagship benefit delivery system Universal Credit for lone mothers by focusing on some of the ethical challenges it poses, as well as some key implications it holds for social work with lone mothers and their children. Universal Credit was first introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2008, and echoes conditionality-based welfare policies adopted by neoliberal governments internationally on the assumption that paid employment offers a route out of poverty for citizens. However, research evidence suggests that the risks of conditionality polices for lone parents can often include increased poverty, a deterioration in mental health or even destitution posed by paternalistic sanctions or precarious low-paid employment, which can undermine parenting capacities and children’s well-being. The article also critically appraises and questions challenges posed by an increased reliance upon contractual ethics by governments, alongside the wider behaviour modifying policies of the workfare-orientated state. This includes that working-class lone mothers can erroneously be stigmatised as representing a morally challenged dependent burden through activation policies and risk-averse social work practices.
    • Underlying thinking pattern profiles predict parent-reported distress responses in autism spectrum disorder

      Tollerfield, Isobel; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andrew; Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Springer, 29-05-2021)
      Appreciating autistic neurodiversity is important when supporting autistic people who experience distress. Specifically, use of a profiling model can reveal less visible autistic differences, including strengths and abilities. Binary logistic regressions showed that the likelihood of extreme distress responses could be interpreted based on parent-reported autistic thinking pattern profiles for 140 young people. Perspective-taking (specifically empathy), extreme demand avoidance, and over-sensory sensitivity each contributed to the combined regression models. From the clinical perspective of autism as a multi-dimensional and inter-connected construct, there may be implications for planning support and building positive self-understanding. Individually tailored adjustments and support strategies may be identified more easily after delineating variables found across four core aspects: sensory coherence, flexible thinking, perspective-taking, and regulation. Keywords: Autism; Distress; Profile; Strengths; Thinking patterns.
    • Decision making in the management of adults with malignant colorectal polyps: An exploration of the experiences of patients and clinicians

      Westwood, Clare; Lee, Tom; McSherry, Robert; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Catlow, Jamie; University Hospital North Tees and Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust; North Tyneside General Hospital; University of Chester; Teesside University (Wiley, 2021-05-18)
      Aim: A diagnosis of colorectal polyp cancer presents a treatment dilemma. The decision between segmental resection versus endoscopic surveillance is difficult due to lack of good quality clinical evidence for either option. The aim of this study was to understand the decision-making experiences of both clinicians and patients when faced with such a diagnosis. Methods: Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with ten clinicians involved in the care of patients diagnosed with polyp cancer and five patients who had experience of a diagnosis of polyp cancer. All clinicians and patients were from four hospital Trusts across the North of England. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Analysis of the interview transcripts evidenced the difficulties faced by both groups when faced with treatment decisions following a diagnosis of colorectal polyp cancer. Some of these difficulties were specific to either the clinician or patient group. Themes which were common to both groups included: complexity of risk information; external influences, unexpected diagnosis; and time. In addition, hospital system factors were disclosed which also influenced clinician and patient experiences. Conclusion: This research study has evidenced several factors such as uncertainty, complexity of risk information and influences on decisions which are preventing patients being fully involved in treatment decisions following a diagnosis of colorectal polyp cancer. Recommendations for improvements in practice, including a framework to assist treatment decision making in the future have been highlighted. What does this paper add to the literature? This qualitative study is, to the authors knowledge, the first exploring clinician and patient experiences of treatment decision making following a colorectal polyp cancer diagnosis. Key factors influencing how treatment decisions are made have been identified. As a result, a framework is proposed highlighting critical factors for consideration to deliver patient centred care.
    • Commentary on "Older carers of people with learning disabilities: Their experiences with local authority assessment processes and personnel"

      Gant, Valerie; University of Chester
      Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on "Older carers of people with learning disabilities: their experiences with local authority assessment processes and personnel" written by Rachel Forrester-Jones. Design/methodology/approach - The commentary considers the experiences of older carers in the context of research, legislative and policy changes over the last 30+ years. Findings - The needs of older carers of adults with learning disabilities are well recognised within the (limited) literature. Less attention has been given to practical strategies to identify and support such carers or to their broader family context. Originality/value - This commentary highlights that assessors carrying out carers' needs assessments should consider whether adults with learning disabilities are providing care to their older relative. The recognition of possible mutual or reciprocal care needs to be acknowledged and appropriate support offered.
    • The psychological distress in healthcare workers: Current perspectives and challenges

      Mitchell, Andrew E.P.; University of Chester
      Aims and objectives. The review presents evidenced-based literature on psychological distress amongst health care professionals; the work is not a systematic review but covers a wide selection of contemporary literature and covers the COVID-19 pandemic. The review discusses several reasons why psychological distress within health care professionals requires separate consideration and strategies to support resilience and access to support. Background. Health care workers report high workplace stress levels, burnout, psychological distress, and an increased risk of mental health problems. This is when the World Health Organisation recommends supporting health care professionals’ mental health and social aspects. It is also accepted that the physical and mental ill-health in health care workers can impact operational effectiveness and delivery of patient outcomes. Literature review. The integrative review utilized keywords to undertake a search of the literature. The following key terms ‘healthcare worker,’ ‘health professional,’ ‘mental health,’ ‘resilience,’ ‘support,’ ‘social risk factors,’ ‘physical risk factors’ and ‘Intervention.’ The PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase and the Cochrane library were searched to find contemporary research articles. Conclusions. The review has collated the available evidence and recommendations for supporting healthcare workers. It is recognized that stressors can increase the prevalence of psychological distress and lead to recruitment and retention issues. Stressors for psychological distress in health care professionals are the impact of patient-specific situations, interprofessional working relationships and perceived workload burden.
    • Does integrated health and care in the community deliver its vision? A workforce perspective

      Wain, Linda Marie; University of Chester
      Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to explore and capture workforce perceptions, experiences and insights of the phenomena of integrated care (IC) in a community health and care NHS trust in England; including whether there are any associated factors that are enablers, barriers, benefits or challenges; and the level of workforce engagement in the process of integrated health and care. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative design based on an interpretivist research paradigm was used with a purposive sampling technique. Five in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with community nursing, social workers and allied health professionals. Colaizzi’s (1978) descriptive phenomenological seven-step method was applied to analyse data, with the emergence of 170 significant statements, 170 formulated meanings and 8 thematic clustering of themes to reveal 4 emergent themes and 1 fundamental structure capturing the essential aspects of the structure of the phenomenon IC. Findings – This study revealed four interdependent emergent themes: (1) Insight of IC and collaboration: affording the opportunity for collaboration, shared goals, vision, dovetailing knowledge, skills and expertise. Professional aspirations of person-centred and strength-based care to improve outcomes. (2) Awareness of culture and professionalism: embracing inter-professional working whilst appreciating the fear of losing professional identity and values. Working relationships based on trust, respect and understanding of professional roles to improve outcomes. (3) Impact of workforce engagement: participants felt strongly about their differing engagement experience in terms of restructuring and redesigning services. (4) Impact of organisational structure: information technology (IT) highlighted a barrier to IC as differing IT platforms prevent interoperability with one system to one patient. Shared positivity of IC, embracing new ways of working. Originality/value – This study proposes considerations for future practice, policy and research from a local, national and global platform, highlighting the need for any IC strategy or policy to incorporate the uniqueness of the “voice of the workforce” as a key enabler to integration developments, only then can IC be a fully collaborative approach.
    • Critical analysis of the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust Aged Veterans Fund

      Di Lemma, Lisa C G; orcid: 0000-0001-9161-1779; Finnegan, A; orcid: 0000-0002-2189-4926; Howe, S (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-30)
      Background: Relatively little research is available regarding the specific needs of older military veterans and the services introduced to support them. In 2016, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust launched the Aged Veterans Fund (AVF), to understand the impact that military service may have on ageing, and to support initiatives targeting their health and well-being. This fund was financed for 5 years and included 19 UK portfolio projects. Method: The paper presents a retrospective evaluation on the processes and impact of the AVF, with the intent of informing policy, educational services, service providers and stakeholders of the lessons learnt. The inclusion criteria was veterans and their families aged 65 years of age or over. In 2019, data were drawn from documentary evidence related to the programmes. Qualitative analysis were performed on 78 eligible sources and 10 themes were identified. Results: Programmes were rolled out via collaborative partnerships referrals, focusing on person-centred or skill-exchange approaches. Challenges were encountered, such as capacity and timelines issues. A limited amount of associated cost-savings was observed, even if examples of sustainability and high satisfaction were reported. Evidence was found of programmes boosting health and well-being outcomes, in raising awareness, and in positively impacting on clinical practice, such as re-admission rates. Conclusion: The AVF programmes were successful in their intent to provide support to older veterans and their families. The findings provide indicators of the next steps required for the support of ageing veterans. Further investigation of the cost-effectiveness of age-friendly veterans’ services is needed.
    • Employing with conviction: The experiences of employers who actively recruit criminalised people

      Atherton, Peter; Buck, Gillian; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-03)
      In England and Wales, criminal reoffending costs £18 billion annually. Securing employment can support desistance from crime, but only 17% of ex-prisoners are employed a year after release. Understanding the motivations of employers who do recruit criminalised people therefore represents an important area of inquiry. This article draws upon qualitative interviews with twelve business leaders in England who proactively employ criminalised people. Findings reveal that inclusive recruitment can be (indirectly) encouraged by planning policies aimed to improve social and environmental well-being and that employers often work creatively to meet employees’ additional needs, resulting in commercial benefits and (re)settlement opportunities.
    • Achieving the unimaginable: Health equity in haemophilia

      Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; Nugent, Diane; Wilton, Pam; O’Mahony, Brian; Dolan, Gerry; O’Hara, Jamie; Berntorp, Erik; orcid: 0000-0002-1337-7195 (Wiley, 2019-11-13)
    • The Teaching of Psychological Theory in the Undergraduate Pre-Registration Nurse Training Curriculum: Systematic, Integrative Literature Review

      Mitchell, Andrew E P; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2021-03-30)
      Aims and objectives. To establish how best to integrate psychology education into the pre-registration nurse training curriculum to enhance clinical practice. Background. Educational psychology focuses on applications of science to understand and improve how students learn and how they are taught. A key challenge for academics is integrating psychological theory within teaching sessions and clinical practice. Didactic teaching methods have had limited success as students do not see the direct relevance of psychological theory for clinical practice. Problem-based learning and simulation sessions may enhance the perceived importance for clinical practice. Design. Systematic, integrative literature review. Methods. A systematic search of the literature using multiple databases and search engines between the years 2010-2020 was undertaken using keywords and PICO algorithm. For this study, the following keywords were utilised; student nurse, pre-registration, education, problem-based learning, practice skills, simulation, psychology and learning theory. PICO identifiers were (Participants) pre-registration students, (Intervention) – psychology and psychological learning theory, (Comparison) – didactic taught sessions with problem-based and simulation, (Outcome) - improvement in theory or practice-based assessment. Results. Eleven studies were included. Evidence for traditional didactic teaching is limited. There is evidence that problem and simulation-based learning has shown success in demonstrating clinical practice implications. Conclusions. The findings reveal that psychology education is considered a central aspect of nurse training. Observational research is required to understand better the link between psychological knowledge and clinical practice. Relevance to clinical practice. There should be a strategic focus on the development and implementation of a coherent psychological theory in the pre-registration nurse training curriculum. Coherent and applied psychology curricula may have clear benefits for nurse education and clinical practice.
    • Being at the Bottom Rung of the Ladder in an Unequal Society: A Qualitative Analysis of Stories of People without a Home

      Mabhala, Mzwandile; Yohannes, Asmait; University of Chester; Asmait Skin Care
      Background: Homelessness is rising in the United Kingdom, despite investment in measures to eradicate it made by the government and charity organisations. Aim: The aim is to examine the stories of homeless people in order to document their perceptions of their social status, the reasons that led to their homelessness, and propose a conceptual explanation. Method: We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews in three centres for homeless people in Cheshire, North West of England. Results: Three categories—education, employment, and health—emerged from the data and provided a theoretical explanation for the reasons that led to their homelessness. These are vital not only for the successful negotiation of one’s way out of homelessness, but also for achieving other social goods, including social connections, social mobility, and engaging in positive social relationships. Conclusion: Participants catalogued the adverse childhood experiences, which they believe limited their capacity to meaningfully engage with the social institution for social goods, such as education, social services, and institutions of employment. Since not all people who have misfortunes of poor education, poor health, and loss of job end up being homeless, we contend that a combination of these with multiple adverse childhood experiences may have weakened their resilience to traumatic life changes, such as loss of job and poor health.
    • Homelessness Is Socially Created: Cluster Analysis of Social Determinants of Homelessness (SODH) in North West England in 2020

      Mabhala, Mzwandile; Esealuka, Winifred Adaobi; Nwufo, Amanda Nkolika; Enyinna, Chinwe; Mabhala, Chelsea Nonkosi; Udechukwu, Treasure; Reid, John; Yohannes, Asmait; University of Chester; University of East Anglia; École des Hautes Études en Santé Publique; Asmait Skincare and Design
      Abstract: Poverty creates social conditions that increase the likelihood of homelessness. These include exposure to traumatic life experiences; social disadvantages such as poor educational experiences; being raised in a broken family, care homes or foster care; physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; and neglect at an early age. These conditions reduce people’s ability to negotiate through life challenges. This cross-sectional study documents the clustering and frequency of adverse social conditions among 152 homeless people from four cities in North West England between January and August 2020. Two-step cluster analysis showed that having parents with a criminal record, care history, and child neglect/abuse history was predictive of homelessness. The cluster of indicator variables among homeless people included sexual abuse (χ2 (N = 152) = 220.684, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.7), inappropriate sexual behaviour (χ2 (N = 152) = 207.737, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.7), emotional neglect (χ2 (N = 152) = 181.671, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.7), physical abuse by step-parent (χ2 (N = 152) = 195.882, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.8), and physical neglect (χ2 (N = 152) = 205.632, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.8). Poverty and homelessness are intertwined because of the high prevalence of poverty among the homeless. Poverty sets up a chain of interactions between social conditions that increase the likelihood of unfavourable outcomes: homelessness is at the end of the interaction chain. Interventions supporting families to rise out of poverty may also reduce entry into homelessness.
    • Social Work Students sharing practice learning experiences: Critical reflection as process and method.

      Walker, Jane; Gant, Valerie; University of Chester
      This paper offers a commentary regarding the centrality of critical reflection in social work before discussing a research project drawing on a sample of ten social work students as they approached the end of their social work training in one English university. The original intention of the research was to focus solely on students’ perceptions of critical reflection, but when using a more reflexive approach, we identified that participants utilised the focus groups as an opportunity to discuss their practice learning experiences per se before considering and discussing critical reflection. Most students were placed in child protection social work teams and discussed how they felt unprepared for such a fast-paced and stressful environment. Participants felt that the expectations some practitioners had of students were unrealistic, and not always commensurate with the Professional Capabilities Framework. Students highlighted the use of practice scenarios in developing their knowledge and skills particularly when considering their application of critical reflection. This study highlights the significance of adequate preparation for practice and argues for a more focused agenda for future research exploring the culture of learning, including those factors that inhibit students sharing their concerns as well as the training needs of educators
    • Final Report of the Evaluation of the Self-Directed Support Pilot

      Eost-Telling, Charlotte; University of Chester
      In recent years personalisation and the individualisation of health and social care have become key drivers of change. The process was initiated by the previous Labour government, and the new Coalition government has sought to accelerate the shift through policy documents, continued consultation and practical guides [1-7]. Personalisation in learning and physical disability services is becoming well established, however mental health services have been slow to take up the agenda and offer Personal Budgets to service users. Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council (SMBC), together with Pennine Health Care NHS Trust, are working to address this and implemented a pilot study to explore the possibilities for self directed support and Personal Budgets within Stockport mental health services.