• I can't sit down - easing genital tract trauma

      Steen, Mary; Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, (Mark Allen, 2005-05-01)
      This article discusses the high prevalence of genital tract trauma and its many negative consequences for women, such as being unable to sit down comfortably. Its highlights how suture technique and suture material can significantly contribute to the severity of perineal pain and discomfort and the importance of asking women about their ‘pain experience’. Treatments to alleviate the pain and discomfort are then reviewed. In conclusion, it would appear that a combination of systemic and localised treatments is necessary to achieve adequate pain relief which will meet individual women’s needs.
    • I wanted to feel the way they did: Mimesis as a situational dynamic of peer mentoring by ex-offenders

      Buck, Gillian; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-10)
      Despite growing enthusiasm for peer mentoring as a criminal justice intervention, very little is known about what actually happens within these relationships. Drawing on an ethnographic study of peer mentoring in the North of England this article will foreground the concept of inspiration” in these settings. It will argue that Rene Girard’s theory of mimesis offers a framework with which to analyze role modeling in mentoring relationships and that a Girardian reading also offers interesting insights into the unresolved problem of the origins of personal change.
    • Ice packs and cooling gel pads versus no localised treatment for relief of perineal pain: A randomised controlled trial

      Steen, Mary; Marchant, Paul; Royal College of Midwives/University of Central Lancashire ; Leeds Metropolitan University (TenAlps, 2007-06-01)
      Background: Trauma to the perineum is extremely common during childbirth and the intensity of perineal pain has been reported to vary from being mild to very severe in nature. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of two localised cooling treatments (ice pack and cooling gel pad) compared with a no localised treatment group at relieving perineal pain. Method: A randomised controlled trial conducted in a large maternity unit in the north of England and followed up in women's own homes in which 450 women who had either undergone a normal or instrumental delivery that required suturing of an episiotomy or second-degree tear were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Results: The response rate was 316 out of 450(71%). Perineal pain was most severe when sitting compared to lying down or walking and there was a significant difference between the three groups in estimates of overall pain when sitting on day four (Kruskal-Wallis test,df=2 p=0.01). Estimates of overall pain were lower in the gel pad group, and the difference between the three groups was significant at days five and day ten (Kruskal-Wallis test,df=2 p=0.02, p=0.01). On days two, three and five, significance was measured when making a binary comparison of reported 'moderate' or 'severe' pain with 'none' or 'mild' (chi-square test, p=0.04,p=0.04, p=0.02). Using a summary pain measurement, mothers experienced fewer painful days in the gel pad group but this did not reach statistical significance (Kruskal-Wallis test, df=2 p=0.26). The use of analgesia was reported to be similar in all three groups. Maternal satisfaction with their overall care was rated more highly in the gel pad group when compared to the two other groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, df=2 p>0.001). Conclusions: Cooling treatments can alleviate pain when compared to no localised treatment. Women appeared to find the cooling gel pad to be a more acceptable treatment.
    • Impact & interpretation: Museums and universities in collaboration

      McKay, Ian S. H.; University of Chester (2012-10-03)
      This presentation gives feedback on a conference called "Impact and interpretation: Museums and universities in collaboration" held at the Thackeray Museum in colloboration with the University of Leeds.
    • The impact of prostate cancer on men's everyday life

      Appleton, Lynda; Wyatt, Debbie; Perkins, Elizabeth; Parker, Claire; Crane, Julie; Jones, Audrey; Moorhead, Lynne; Brown, Vanessa; Wall, Christine; Pagett, Marie; et al. (Wiley, 2014-09-10)
      Prostate cancer impacts on the daily lives of men, particularly their physical and emotional health, relationships and social life. This paper highlights how men cope with disease and treatment and the strategies they employ to manage their diagnosis alongside daily life. Twenty seven men were interviewed prior to radiotherapy and 6-8 and 12-18 months post radiotherapy, to explore how they managed their disease at different stages of their treatment pathway. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyse the data. Five main themes emerged: pathway to diagnosis; interpretation of the diagnosis; making sense of cancer in daily life; managing the impact of treatment and living with prostate cancer in the long-term. Prostate cancer was diagnosed using the PSA test, rectal examination and biopsy. Many men did not understand the consequences of a high PSA reading before they undertook the test. Painful investigative biopsies being viewed as the worst part of the disease experience. Radiotherapy was considered less invasive compared to other treatments, however preparatory regimes were often associated with stress and inconvenience. Men used various strategies to accommodate prostate cancer in the long-term, particularly when masculine identity was challenged as a result of bodily changes arising from treatment.
    • The impact of severe haemophilia and the presence of target joints on health-related quality-of-life

      O’Hara, Jamie; Walsh, Shaun; Camp, Charlotte; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carroll, Liz; Hoxer, Christina; Wilkinson, Lars; University of Chester; HCD Economics; University College London; The Haemophilia Society; Novo Nordisk (BioMed Central, 2018-05-02)
      Background: Joint damage remains a major complication associated with haemophilia and is widely accepted as one of the most debilitating symptoms for persons with severe haemophilia. The aim of this study is to describe how complications of haemophilia such as target joints influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Data on hemophilia patients without inhibitors were drawn from the ‘Cost of Haemophilia across Europe – a Socioeconomic Survey’ (CHESS) study, a cost-of-illness assessment in severe haemophilia A and B across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK). Physicians provided clinical and sociodemographic information for 1285 adult patients, 551 of whom completed corresponding questionnaires, including EQ-5D. A generalised linear model was developed to investigate the relationship between EQ-5D index score and target joint status (defined in the CHESS study as areas of chronic synovitis), adjusted for patient covariates including socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities. Results: Five hundred and fifteen patients (42% of the sample) provided an EQ-5D response; a total of 692 target joints were recorded across the sample. Mean EQ-5D index score for patients with no target joints was 0.875 (standard deviation [SD] 0.179); for patients with one or more target joints, mean index score was 0.731 (SD 0.285). Compared to having no target joints, having one or more target joints was associated with lower index scores (average marginal effect (AME) -0.120; SD 0.0262; p < 0.000). Conclusions: This study found that the presence of chronic synovitis has a significant negative impact on HRQOL for adults with severe haemophilia. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of target joints should be an important consideration for clinicians and patients when managing haemophilia.
    • Impact of type of child growth intervention program on caregivers’ child feeding knowledge and practices: A comparative study in Ga West Municipality, Ghana

      Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma; University of Ghana; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-12-02)
      Community-Based Growth Promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional Growth Monitoring and Promotion (GMP) programme delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n=124) and GMP (n=108) programmes. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants’ food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (p<0.05; 95% CI). Mean IYCF knowledge scores were similar (CBGP:10.84±1.69 vs. GMP:10.23±1.38, p=0.062). However, more CBGP caregivers (17%) were highly knowledgeable than their GMP counterparts (5%) (p=0.011). Early breastfeeding initiation (CBGP:54% vs. GMP:28%, p<0.0001), exclusive breastfeeding (CBGP:73% vs. GMP:56%, p=0.001) and timely complementary feeding (CBGP:72% vs. GMP:49%, p=0.014) were reportedly higher among CBGP caregivers. Underweight was 11% (CBGP:8% vs. GMP:14%, p=0.154. Mean dietary diversity scores (10 food groups) were similar (CBGP:4.49±1.89 vs. GMP:3.87±1.89, p=0.057) but more CBGP caregivers (77%) achieved minimum dietary diversity than their GMP counterparts (61%) (p=0.035). Few caregivers achieved minimum meal frequency (CBGP:31% vs. GMP:29%, p=0.486) and minimum acceptable diet (CBGP:23% vs. GMP:21%, p=0.464) indicators. Number of children under 5 years owned by caregiver (AOR: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, p=0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, p=0.040) and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, p=0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding. Nutrition education on optimum complementary feeding and birth spacing strategies should intensify.
    • Impact on Practice

      Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (EMAP, 2018-02-01)
      An article discussing the difficulties that professionals, particularly nurses, have when undertaking doctoral studies, because of managerial perceptions of how their work might have an impact on practice and the tension this sometimes creates.
    • Inadequate dried blood spot samples for Early Infant Diagnosis, how common and what are the reasons for rejection in Zimbabwe?

      Chiku, Charles; Zolfo, Maria; Senkoro, Mbazi; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Tweya, Hannock; Musasa, Patience; Shukusho, Fungai D.; Mazarura, Exervia; Mushavi, Angela; Mangwanya, Douglas; et al. (PLoS, 2019-08-31)
      Background Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV in infants provides an opportunity for early detection of the infection and early access to Antiretroviral treatment (ART). Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples are used for EID of HIV-exposed infants, born from HIV positive mothers. However, DBS rejection rates have been exceeding in Zimbabwe the target of less than 2% per month set by the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL). The aim of this study was to determine the DBS samples rejection rate, the reasons for rejection and the possible associations between rejection and level of health facility where the sample was collected. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study using routine DBS samples data from the NMRL in Harare, Zimbabwe, between January and December 2017. Results A total of 34.950 DBS samples were received at the NMRL. Of these, 1291(4%) were rejected and reasons for rejections were: insufficient specimen volume (72%), missing request form (11%), missing sample (6%), cross contamination (6%), mismatch information (4%) and clotted sample (1%). Samples collected from clinics/rural health facilities had five times likelihood to be rejected compared to those from a central hospital. Conclusion Rejection rates were above the set target of 2%. The reasons for rejection were ‘pre-analytical’ errors including labeling errors, sample damage, missing or inconsistent data, and insufficient volume. Samples collected at primary healthcare facilities had higher rejection rates.
    • Including public health considerations in trade and investment agreements

      Thow, A; Garde, A; Mabhala, M; Smith, R; Kingston, P; Manning, P; Hunter, D; Winters, L A; Lincoln, P; Parish, R (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-09-30)
      Abstract There is widespread recognition that trade and investment agreements (TIAs) can affect health services, access to medicines, NCD prevention (particularly related to tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food) and health systems structures. In addition, these binding international economic agreements can constrain the policy space available for innovative, evidence-based health policymaking. Although TIAs can have positive outcomes for employment and economic growth, these benefits are only likely to accrue when governments are pro-active in implementing complementary policies to mitigate impacts on other sectors and to address potential inequalities arising. The aim of this panel session is to examine the ways in which TIAs can be designed to achieve economic goals while also protecting public health, and identify complementary policy measures that may be needed as well as strategies for strategic policy engagement. This panel will be hosted by the UK-PRP PETRA Network (Prevention of noncommunicable disease using trade agreements). The UK will be negotiating a range of new TIAs over the coming years, representing a window of opportunity for strategic engagement with policymakers regarding how public health can be protected and promoted within these agreements. There is an emerging global body of evidence regarding how consideration of health can be integrated into TIAs, both textually and through strategic engagement with policymakers before and during the negotiation phase. Experience to date indicates common global challenges and opportunities for health and trade, as well as significant potential for cross country learning regarding trade and health. The panel discussion will use the UK experience as a springboard to address these global issues.
    • Incontinence after childbirth and the effect on female sexuality and quality of life

      Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Doyle, Mark; Bryceland, Linda (University of Liverpool (University of Chester)Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2007-08)
      Objectives To determine obstetric, maternal and fetal variables that increase the risk of postnatal urinary and anal incontinence. To establish how anal and urinary incontinence impact on Quality of Life (QoL) with particular reference to sexual psychology. Finally, to ascertain the extent of disclosure of incontinence problems to partners and health professionals. Design A longitudinal, prospective, repeated measures, cohort study using five data sources. Data was collected in the last trimester of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postnatal, 6 months postnatal and finally at one year postnatal. Setting Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Participants Primiparous women with no pre-existing disease (N=516). Participants were recruited after a normal 20 week obstetric ultrasound scan. Results Stress incontinence was reported by 39.7% antenatally, 28.2% at 6 weeks postnatal, 31% at 6 months and 26.5% at one year postnatal. Urge incontinence was reported by 23.5% antenatally, 21.2% at 6 weeks, 21.4% at 6 months and 16.4% at one year postnatal. Anal incontinence at one year postnatal was reported by 9.39%. Those participants under the age of 20yrs had higher rates of postnatal urge incontinence (p<.001) possibly associated with increased rates of infection in this group. BMI>30 was associated with higher rates of antenatal stress incontinence but was not significant in the postnatal period. BMI<20 was associated with an increase in postnatal urge incontinence. Prolonged periods of time in labour without bladder emptying was associated with increased rates of both urinary incontinence (OR 2.36) and anal incontinence (p=.026). Forceps delivery was associated with postnatal stress incontinence (OR 2.41). Although caesarean section appeared protective against urinary incontinence initially, long-term data show a progressive increase in reported rates of urinary incontinence even after elective caesarean section. Elective caesarean section was protective for anal incontinence. Faecal incontinence was significantly higher (OR 3.26) in the group who had their labour induced (12.1%) compared to those who had a spontaneous labour (4.6%). Perineal trauma was not associated with anal incontinence. However, it was associated with urinary incontinence throughout the postnatal year with anal sphincter disruption having the highest rates of stress incontinence (p<.005). Birth weight, duration of labour, feeding method, epidural anaesthesia and smoking were not significant. Overall, urinary incontinence appears to be a regressive condition, although the impact on QoL is cumulative and seems to increase over time. Some participants had a progressive, deteriorating condition which appears to be associated with a higher BMI or >6 hours from bladder emptying to delivery of the baby. Urinary and anal incontinence had a detrimental effect on all QoL domains. Those reporting nocturnal enuresis, pain, intercourse incontinence and urge incontinence were effected the most. The greatest impact is on the emotion domain. Only 8.7% with urinary incontinence and 9.7% with anal incontinence discussed their symptoms with a health professional. Discussion with a partner was 32.8% and 21.4% respectively. The most common reasons for non-disclosure were embarrassment, fear of not being taken seriously and not wanting to waste the time of the health professional. Those participants who did disclose tended to have multiple symptoms. Pregnancy and childbirth appear to have a detrimental impact on sexual psychology, irrespective of continence status. Those who reported incontinence appear to have less sexual depression than the continent group suggesting the adoption of defense mechanisms to preserve the sexual Self. Conclusion Generally, urinary incontinence is a regressive condition. Risk factors for a progressive condition have been identified. Younger pregnant women appear to be more prone to infection which can sensitise the bladder and result in long term urinary incontinence. Prolonged periods of time in labour without voiding increases the risk of urinary and anal incontinence and is associated with a deterioration of symptoms over time. Whilst for all other modes of delivery the rate of UI decreased over time, in the elective CS group, the rate of UI increased steadily throughout the postnatal year. These findings support previous studies and suggest a degree of under-recognition or under-reporting of anal sphincter trauma leading to dysfunction. The impact of incontinence on quality of life domains shows clear evidence that the condition has a detrimental impact on many aspects of an individuals well being. Those women reporting intercourse incontinence had the greatest impact on QoL domains. Few women seek help for their condition and a number of personal and organisational factors have been highlighted which contribute to keeping incontinence both secret and taboo. It is clear that what incontinent women think is affecting the way they feel and ultimately their behaviour. Psychological defence mechanisms are employed to justify their inaction.
    • Inhibitor clinical burden of disease: a comparative analysis of the CHESS data.

      Oladapo, Abiola; Lu, Mei; Walsh, Shaun; O'Hara, Jamie; Kauf, Teresa L. (2018-11-09)
      BACKGROUND:Patients with hemophilia and inhibitors generally face greater disease burden compared to patients without inhibitors. While raising awareness of relative burden may improve the standard of care for patients with inhibitors, comparative data are sparse. Analyzing data drawn from the Cost of Haemophilia across Europe - a Socioeconomic Survey (CHESS) study, the aim of this study was to compare the clinical burden of disease in patients with severe hemophilia with and without inhibitors. Hemophilia specialists (N = 139) across five European countries completed an online survey between January-April 2015, providing demographic, clinical and 12-month ambulatory/secondary care activity data for 1285 patients. Patients with hemophilia who currently presented with inhibitors and those who never had inhibitors were matched on baseline characteristics via propensity score matching. Outcomes were compared between the two cohorts using a paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank or McNemar's test. RESULTS:The proportion of patients who currently presented with inhibitors was 4.5% (58/1285). Compared to PS-matched patients without inhibitors, patients with inhibitors experienced more than twice the mean annual number of bleeds (mean ± standard deviation, 8.29 ± 9.18 vs 3.72 ± 3.95; p < .0001) and joint bleeds (2.17 ± 1.90 vs 0.98 ± 1.15; p < .0001), and required more hemophilia-related (mean ± standard deviation, 1.79 ± 1.83 vs 0.64 ± 1.13) and bleed-related hospitalizations (1.86 ± 1.88 vs 0.81 ± 1.26), hemophilia-related consultations (9.30 ± 4.99 vs 6.77 ± 4.47), and outpatient visits (22.09 ± 17.77 vs 11.48 ± 16.00) (all, p < .001). More than one-half (53.5%) experienced moderate/severe pain necessitating medication compared to one-third (32.8%) of patients without inhibitors (p = .01). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with hemophilia and inhibitors exhibited greater clinical burden and higher resource utilization compared to their peers without inhibitors. Strategies for improving the standard of care may alleviate burden in this population.
    • Intellectual disability and autism: A life history approach to understanding self-injury

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (NOVA Publishers, 2012-07-25)
      This chapter relates to a qualitative research study into the lives of a number of individuals with intellectual disabilities and a propensity for self-injury.
    • Intellectual disability and violence: Conclusions from a trilogy of projects

      Skellern, Joanne; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Kavanah, 2011-10)
      This conference paper discusses a series of studies undertaken between 2007 and 2011 exploring different dimensions of the relationship between intellectual disability and violence.
    • Interaction between Metabolic Genetic Risk Score and Dietary Fatty Acid Intake on Central Obesity in a Ghanaian Population

      Alsulami, Sooad; Nyakotey, David; Dudek, Kamila; Bawah, Abdul-Malik; Lovegrove, Julie; Annan, Reggie; Ellahi, Basma; Karani, Santhanakrishnan Vimaleswaran; University of Reading, University of Chester and Kumasi University (MDPI, 2020-07-27)
      Obesity is a multifactorial condition arising from the interaction between genetic and lifestyle factors. We aimed to assess the impact of lifestyle and genetic factors on obesity-related traits in 302 healthy Ghanaian adults. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using a 3 day repeated 24 h dietary recall and global physical activity questionnaire, respectively. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to construct 4-SNP, 8-SNP and 12-SNP genetic risk scores (GRSs). The 4-SNP GRS showed significant interactions with dietary fat intakes on waist circumference (WC) (Total fat, Pinteraction = 0.01; saturated fatty acids (SFA), Pinteraction = 0.02; polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Pinteraction = 0.01 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), Pinteraction = 0.01). Among individuals with higher intakes of total fat (>47 g/d), SFA (>14 g/d), PUFA (>16 g/d) and MUFA (>16 g/d), individuals with ≥3 risk alleles had a significantly higher WC compared to those with <3 risk alleles. This is the first study of its kind in this population, suggesting that a higher consumption of dietary fatty acid may have the potential to increase the genetic susceptibility of becoming centrally obese. These results support the general dietary recommendations to decrease the intakes of total fat and SFA, to reduce the risk of obesity, particularly in individuals with a higher genetic predisposition to central obesity.
    • Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol

      Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Gaal, Szilvia; Shatwan, Israa M.; Ramya, Kandaswamy; Ellahi, Basma; Surendran, Shelini; Sudha, Vasudevan; Anjana, Mohan R.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Lovegrove, Julie A.; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2017-11-28)
      Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs17782313) and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146) and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT) (n=821) and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=861) recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P=0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors)]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day) (Pinteraction=0.0001) on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), where the ‘T’ allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P=0.008) and those in the highest tertile (P=0.017) had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day) (Pinteraction<0.0001) on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P=0.024) and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P=0.028) than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day) on HDL-C (Pinteraction<0.0001). None of the other interactions between the SNPs and lifestyle factors were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Our findings indicate that the association between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and HDL-C may be modified by dietary fat intake in this Asian Indian population.
    • Internal representation in nurse education: Imagery and identity

      Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; Smith, Dave; Wheeler, Timothy J.; Parry, Clare E. (University of Chester, 2010-10)
      The main aim of this thesis was to examine internal representation in the context of nurse education using two main output variables - namely imagery and identity. The initial basic argument for the thesis was that procedures to facilitate the acquisition of psychomotor skills that have been developed in sports science could fruitfully be applied to the development of skills in other areas, such as nurse education. Study one approached this through the use of an imagery training programme - PETTIER (Holmes & Collins, 2001) on an undergraduate nursing curriculum. PETTIER served as the independent variable with the dependent variable - performance - being measured through Obje&tive Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Unexpected results revealed no significant differences between the control and experimental groups, with the control group actually performing better overall. Given this, the explicit choice was made to pursue investigation into the other plausible factors affecting behaviour, in order to explicate and underpin the results obtained. Study two investigated students' perceptions of and preparation for the OSCEs using a skills training questionnaire. Results revealed common concerns, specifically related to skills practice. Furthermore these concerned the amount of practice time provided; the practice environment; and the amount of support and training during teaching. In light of these findings, study three pursued a contrasting and comparative investigation from the professionals' perspective on the curriculum. This specifically examined perceptions of the assessment structure and expectations within the curriculum; the content of the curriculum; levels of support and provision for training; and the application of theory and practice. This aimed to identify any coherent or conflicting views between the students' receiving the curriculum and the staff delivering the curriculum. Results revealed coherency in the professional view that theory and practice were equally as important for nurse education. However, students commonly perceived practice as the most important aspect. Also, some students often struggled to apply theory to practice and vice versa. In light of this it became apparent that students may in fact identify differently with the content of the curriculum. Therefore, appraisal of the content may have different significance for students and affect behaviour differently both internally and/or externally. Study four investigated this using Identity Structure Analysis (ISA)/lpseus (Weinreich & Saunderson, 2003).This explored how students applied themselves to the various aspects of nursing in the contexts of healthcare and broader affiliations, and how these fitted into students' broader sense of identity. It also looked at typologies within nursing and whether identity fitted into three distinct categories depending on construals. Study five followed this up using two individual case studies. The purpose of this was to encapsulate meaning behind individual construals and typologies and explicate the findings of ISA/lpseus and the implications for nurse education. Results found that construals are grounded in experiences which can affect development, behaviour and identity towards nursing and the broader affiliations in individuals' lives. In conclusion identity in nursing should be investigated further in order to provide stronger evidence in regards to typologies and how these may be influencing students' behaviour and development in nurse education. Such research could have important implications for the future of nurse education and be a positive step towards future curriculum revisions.
    • Introduction

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Whiting & Birch, 2011-08-05)
    • Introduction - "How to write well: for students of health and social care"

      Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      The aim of this book is to demystify academic writing for undergraduate students in health and social care education. You are probably required to submit several assignments throughout your programme of study, which may take different formats such as a written essay, a poster or a dissertation. The allocation of marks for your assignments will be primarily dependent upon two factors: content and academic writing. This book focuses on the many aspects that impact on the quality of academic writing and will help you to develop the essential skills required for your undergraduate level study and to achieve success. Academic writing is a skill that develops with practice and therefore the book takes you through a step-by-step guide of how to improve your academic writing, thereby enabling you to improve your own writing skills.
    • Introduction to Pharmacodynamics

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd, 2017-04-16)
      In this second article in the series of ‘bite sized’ pharmacology we will start to look at the principles of pharmacodynamics. It is important that prescribers are aware of the actions their drugs have in the body after administration. They should know the SITE of action (where the drug works), the MODE of action (how the drug works) and the time to ONSET and DURATION of action (when the drug starts to work and how long for). This helps prescribers decide on drug choice, drug dose and the dose schedule as well as the length of time the drug needs to be prescribed for. This knowledge can also assist the prescriber in prediction and prevention (or minimising) of adverse drug reactions and to help educate their patients on possible side effects. In this article we will look at SITEs of action; receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and transport systems. We will also introduce the concepts of agonism and antagonism and their relationship to MODE of action.