• The handbook of midwifery research

      Steen, Mary; Roberts, Taniya; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-03-04)
      Part 1 - starts with a chapter on Introduction to Midwifery Research which sets the scene and covers an understanding of the general principles of research, the importance of the research question, the approaches that can be undertaken, the differences between these and the importance of applying evidence to midwifery practice. Chapter 2 - Finding the Evidence, explains in detail how to undertake a literature review, the sources of evidence available, how to use a search strategy and gives useful examples. In addition, midwifery related structured and systematic reviews are described and discussed in an attempt to promote a better understanding of how to undertake these aspects of research. Chapter 3 — Making Sense of the Evidence, covers the critiquing aspects of research evidence, gives an insight into how evidence is graded and clearly differentiates the differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. Part 2 —focuses on how to undertake research and includes four chapters. Data collection techniques cover both qualitative and quantitative methods and are the focus of chapter 4. This chapter gives specific details on how to undertake a research interview and how to design a questionnaire as these will be the most likely data collection tools a midwife or student will make use of. Chapter 5 - ethics and research governance introduces the role of ethics when undertaking research and discusses the importance of research governance. Ethical issues relating to midwifery research are considered and specific details on how to obtain ethical approval is addressed to help midwives and students achieve this successfully. Data analysis is the focus of chapter 6. An introduction to data analysis which is followed by specific sections of both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods is covered and a basic understanding of statistics is also included to help midwives and students link the type of data collected with the appropriate statistical test required to analyse a specific type of data (fit for purpose). Finally, dissemination and the research dissertation/thesis are the focus of chapter 7. Writing skills and how to structure your dissertation/thesis is described and discussed. Guidelines and advice on how to get your work published and presenting a conference paper are given. A specific section on useful resources and becoming a researcher brings the book to a close.
    • Participatory action research: Moving beyond the mental health ‘service user’ identity

      Hutchinson, Andre; Lovell, Andy; Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board ; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012-11-21)
      Contemporary models of involvement within statutory services pay little regard to the identity of individuals beyond the ‘service user’ label and in doing so unwittingly perpetuate and sustain the negative impact of mental illness. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process of a 3-year participatory action research study facilitated by a mental health nurse. It highlights the perspective of those involved as co-researchers, all having experience of accessing statutory mental health services. It identifies both the process and the impact of this type of involvement on them illustrating their move beyond an illness identity. The study involved them undertaking a series of interviews with other service users in relation to their life stories. They subsequently mapped and analysed the transcripts. In order that the people were enabled to undertake these roles the study included a process of interviewing and appointing service user researchers followed by a programme of training workshops, supervision and discussion group/ peer support. The accounts provided reflect the six researchers’ attempts to make sense of their experience and reveal the path of transformation through collaboration.
    • ‘Tolerating violence’: A qualitative study into the experience of professionals working in one UK learning disability service

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013-05-06)
      This article reports on a qualitative follow-up study to a whole-population survey investigating the underreporting of violence within one learning disability service. The survey had identified a pronounced level of under-reporting but suggested an unexpected degree of complexity around the issue, which warranted further study. Design. A qualitative research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 professionals working in learning disability services; data were subsequently transcribed verbatim and subject to stringent thematic analysis. The findings confirmed that the decision to report an incident or not was complicated by professional interpretation of violence. Three themes were produced by the analysis: the reality of violence, change over time and (zero) tolerance. Conclusion. The study indicates that both experience of violence and ways of understanding it in relation to learning disability are shared across professional groups, although nurses are both more inured and generally more accepting of it. The study suggests that the relationship between learning disability nurses and service users with a propensity for violence is complicated by issues of professional background and concerns about the pertinence of zero tolerance. The availability of effective protocols and procedures is important, but services need also to acknowledge the more ambiguous aspects of the therapeutic relationship to fully understand under-reporting of service user violence in the context of learning disability.
    • Violence and under-reporting: Learning disability nursing and the impact of environment, experience and banding

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; Mason, Tom; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-11-23)
      The study explores the implications of a survey into the discrepancy between actual and reported incidents of violence, perpetrated by service users, within the learning disability division of one mental health NHS Trust. Violence within the NHS continues to constitute a significant issue, especially within mental health and learning disability services where incidence remains disproportionately high despite the context of zero tolerance. A whole-population survey of 411 nurses working within a variety of settings within the learning disability division of one mental health NHS Trust. A questionnaire was administered to learning disability nursing staff working in community, respite, residential, assessment and treatment and medium secure settings, yielding a response rate of approximately 40%. There were distinct differences in the levels of violence reported within specific specialist services along with variation between these areas according to clinical environment, years of experience and nursing band. The study does not support previous findings whereby unqualified nurses experienced more incidents of violence than qualified nurses. The situation was less clear, complicated by the interrelationship between years of nursing experience, nursing band and clinical environment. The conclusions suggest that the increased emphasis on reducing violent incidents has been fairly successful with staff reporting adequate preparation for responding to specific incidents and being well supported by colleagues, managers and the organisation. The differences between specific clinical environments, however, constituted a worrying finding with implications for skill mix and staff education. The study raises questions about the relationship between the qualified nurse and the individual with a learning disability in the context of violence and according to specific circumstances of care delivery. The relationship is clearly not a simple one, and this group of nurses’ understanding and expectations of tolerance requires further research; violence is clearly never acceptable, but these nurses appear reluctant to condemn and attribute culpability.