• Art therapy with refugee children: a qualitative study explored through the lens of art therapists and their experiences

      Akthar, Zahra; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-09)
      This article sets out to explore the use of art therapy with refugee children, from the perspective of art therapists and their experiences. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain insights by capturing experiences and stories. Using thematic analysis, five themes were identified: (1) giving voice; (2) rebuilding trust, opening wounds; (3) sharing stories, healing pain; (4) exploring identity, discovering new-self; and (5) understanding art therapy. Upon reflection, two key aspects of art therapy were established, these were identified as: (1) providing refugee children with a safe space to heal and discover new-self, and (2) giving refugee children a voice to express and share stories. Despite the last of the five themes (understanding art therapy) being established as a factor that limits the use of art therapy, this has created an avenue for further research. From the findings, it was concluded that art therapy can be a useful form of psychotherapy for refugee children. Art therapy can provide these children with a safe space to heal, and give them a voice to be heard.
    • Attachment Theory: Developments, Debates and Recent Applications in Social Work, Social Care and Education

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester
      Attachment theory may be considered controversial given that some of its foundational principles are contested. Not only this, it is currently being developed by insights from neuroscience, another perspective that academics have subjected to critique. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the twenty-first century in England and the United Kingdom in general, there has been a renewed interest in its explanation of child development, as well as its application in schools, social care settings and the practice of professionals such as social workers and teachers. This paper outlines the core principles of attachment theory, acknowledges some of the criticisms, then traces the ways in which the theory has been developed over time. The theory is then illustrated with a description of the ways in which it is being applied in the training of foster carers, the provision of support to adoptive parents and in the school environment.
    • Guest Editorial

      Harlow, Elizabeth; Izod, Karen; University of Chester; University of the West of England (Taylor and Francis, 2015-06-01)
      This guest editorial introduces the special edition on the supervision of social work practice
    • Household and market survey on availability of adequately iodized salt in the Volta region, Ghana

      Agbozo, Faith; Der, Joyce B.; Glover, Nutifafa J.; Ellahi, Basma; University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana; Volta Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-27)
      Consumption of adequately iodized salt (AIS) ≥15ppm is one of the criteria for measuring progress towards universal salt iodization (USI) and sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. After series of health promotion activities, this survey was conducted to evaluate the extent to which USI was achieved. Cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1,961 households and 350 markets to estimate the iodine levels of salt consumed or sold. Three degrees of iodization were estimated from fine, coarse and granular texture salt using MBI rapid field test kits. Differences in iodization levels were determined using Bonferroni test in STATA. Determinants for household utilization of AIS were identified using regression analysis and reported as odds ratio (OR). Availability of AIS in households (24.5%) and markets (30.9%) was far below the 90% recommendation. No differences where observed in urban (26.8%) and rural (24.1%) households. Households that used fine-texture salt (OR: 40.13; CI: 30.1-53.4) or stored salt in original packs (OR: 8.02; CI: 6.01-10.70) were more likely to consume AIS. Across districts, highest household availability of AIS was 51.7% while the least was 7.5%. The district with the highest market availability of AIS was 85.7% while the least was 8.3%. Almost 32% of the traders were aware that selling non-iodized salt was unauthorized but out of this, only 12% sold AIS. Public education should emphasis appropriate handling and storage of salt throughout the supply chain. To ensure adequate salt fortification with iodine, improved surveillance of factories and mining sites is recommended.
    • Psychiatric morbidity in medically ill patients using Spanish version of GMHAT/PC

      Tejada, Paola A.; Jaramillo, Luís Eduardo; Polo, Gilberto; Sharma, Vimal; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-14)
      The study aimed to assess psychiatric morbidity in medically ill patients and to examine the use of GMHAT/PC Spanish version in a general health setting. We recruited patients who were hospitalized at the services of Internal Medicine, Surgery and G/O during a period of 1 month for each service. The diagnosis of a medical illness was supported by specialists in each service. A trained GP conducted a psychiatric assessment of all the participants using GMHAT/PC. The interview was carried out at patients’ bedside. Of 455 medically ill patients, 4.8% had a mental illness identified by GMHAT/PC interview. Anxiety, depression and organic disorders were the most frequently identified mental disorders in internal medicine and surgery. Cancer had a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid mental illness. In this study the proportion of medically ill with mental disorders was less compared to other studies. The GMHAT/PC is more close to identifying clinical cases of mental illness and also patients who need help. The GMHAT is more a diagnostic instrument than a screening instrument. Physicians and practitioners can be trained to identify mental illness using computer-assisted tools such as GMHAT/PC. A holistic approach of providing care to such patients may improve their overall outcome and quality of life.
    • Social Work Students’ Perceptions of Ageing

      Ridgway, Victoria; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-23)
      Little is understood about social work students or social workers’ perceptions of ageing in the UK. This paper presents a small-scale study of 20 master social work students’ perceptions of ageing during the first year of their programme. A mixed method approach was employed over a two-staged research project, in both stages the social work students were asked to complete Kogan’s (1961) Attitudes Towards Older People Scale (KATOPS) and draw a person aged 75. Results demonstrated that most students had neutral to positive attitudes towards older people at the beginning of the programme and these improved in stage two; all had positive attitudes. The drawings provided a visual narrative of their perceptions of older people, visual signifiers included physical signs of ageing. Fulfilment, emotion, family, individuality and appearance were emergent themes. Whilst the programme enhanced the students’ perceptions more work is needed to dispel the myths and stereotypes about ageing
    • Some ethical limitations of privatising and marketizing social care and social work pro-vision in England for children and young people

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-03-01)
      This article analyses the negative ethical impact of privatisation, alongside the ongoing mar-ketisation of social care and social work provision for children and young people in England. It critically appraises the implications of a market-based formal social care system, which in-cludes the risk-averse and often detached role of social workers within ever more fragmented sectors of care. Analysis begins with a discussion of background policy and context. The ten-dency towards ‘service user’ objectification and commodification are then detailed, followed by a discussion of the limiting of choice for service users. Service and social fragmentation, and the often severely restricted ‘life chances’ of many children and young people in care, are then deliberated. The concluding discussion reiterates the moral implications of marketisation in relation to ethical frameworks, including those associated with autonomy, informed choice, social exclusion and social justice. The tendency towards children increasingly being utilised as a means to an end within business-orientated sectors of care is highlighted, alongside ethi-cal questions asked about the State’s purpose in providing a community of support.
    • Stigma: the representation of anorexia nervosa in UK newspaper Twitter feeds.

      Bowen, Matt; Lovell, Andrew; Waller, Rhian; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2020-07-15)
      Background There is evidence that the representation of mental health in newspapers has an influence on readers’ attitudes, however, relatively little is known about how the industry presents accounts of anorexia nervosa. Further, the industry increasingly uses Twitter as a medium for reaching readers and this remains an under-examined area of research. Aims To explore the representation of anorexia nervosa in the UK national press’ Twitter feeds. Method Frame analysis was used to examine the manner in which anorexia nervosa was represented in the Twitter feeds of all national UK newspapers between 2009-2019 (n=332). This qualitative approach used Braun and Clarke’s stages of thematic analysis, while drawing on Van Gorp’s use of a frame matrix to support the definition of the news frames. Results The analysis identified four news frames: social model, illness model, stress-recovery model and clickbait model. Conclusions The newspapers drew on a range of perspectives in their representation of anorexia nervosa, which typically were not stigmatising in their accounts. However, there was a pattern of using sensationalistic images in some of the tweets, which may encourage readers to view people with anorexia nervosa as Other, and as a consequence contribute to stigmatisation.
    • Trapped in discourse? Obstacles to meaningful social work education, research and practice within the neoliberal university

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester
      This article appraises the role of the neoliberal university in regulating social work education, research and practice. The dominance of governments and employers in determining social work education is highlighted, alongside the ascendancy of skills-based and vocational training. Moreover, it is proposed that research, associated learning, and practice are now more often moulded around essentialist science-based, behavioural or functionalist paradigms, which fit conveniently with free market, politically conservative and authoritarian agendas. The neoliberal university is increasingly able to rationally prepare social workers to fulfil narrow ideological objectives, which includes priority given to attempts to empower, pathologise, and scientifically manage structurally disadvantaged populations from minority groups. Reductive paradigms, nevertheless, can struggle to cope with social fragmentation and diversity, with social work students often ill prepared for many of the complex challenges which they later face as qualified practitioners. Analysis for the article draws from critical theory, and it is concluded that market-based discourses and related professional paradigms - and the symbolically constituted and hyperreal fantasies which they help to maintain - can prove difficult to escape. Social work continues to face a precarious future within university settings in which free market narratives, associated norms, targets, and labour insecurity prevail.