• Common causes of EID sample rejection in Zimbabwe and how to mitigate them

      editor: Torpey, Kwasi; Chiku, Charles; orcid: 0000-0003-3455-598X; email: charleschiku@gmail.com; Zolfo, Maria; Senkoro, Mbazi; Mabhala, Mzwandile; Tweya, Hannock; Musasa, Patience; Shukusho, Fungai D.; Mazarura, Exervia; Mushavi, Angela; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2019-08-08)
      Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV provides an opportunity for early HIV detection and access to appropriate Antiretroviral treatment (ART). Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples are used for EID of exposed infants, born to HIV-positive mothers. However, DBS rejection rates in Zimbabwe have been exceeding the target of less than 2% per month set by the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL), in Harare. The aim of this study was to determine the DBS sample rejection rate, the reasons for rejection and the possible associations between rejection and level of health facility where the samples were collected. This is an analytical cross-sectional study using routine DBS sample data from the NMRL in Harare, Zimbabwe, between January and December 2017.A total of 34 950 DBS samples were received at the NMRL. Of these, 1291(4%) were rejected. Reasons for rejection were insufficient specimen volume (72%), missing request form (11%), missing sample (6%), cross-contamination (6%), mismatch of information (4%) and clotted sample (1%). Samples collected from clinics/rural health facilities were five times more likely to be rejected compared to those from a central hospital. Rejection rates were above the set target of <2%. The reasons for rejection were ‘pre-analytical’ errors including labelling errors, missing or inconsistent data, and insufficient blood collected. Samples collected at primary healthcare facilities had higher rejection rates.
    • Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol

      Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Gaal, Szilvia; Shatwan, Israa M.; Ramya, Kandaswamy; Ellahi, Basma; Surendran, Shelini; Sudha, Vasudevan; Anjana, Mohan R.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Lovegrove, Julie A.; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2017-11-28)
      Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs17782313) and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146) and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT) (n=821) and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=861) recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P=0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors)]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day) (Pinteraction=0.0001) on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), where the ‘T’ allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P=0.008) and those in the highest tertile (P=0.017) had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day) (Pinteraction<0.0001) on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P=0.024) and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P=0.028) than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day) on HDL-C (Pinteraction<0.0001). None of the other interactions between the SNPs and lifestyle factors were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Our findings indicate that the association between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and HDL-C may be modified by dietary fat intake in this Asian Indian population.