• The effect of a short course in cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) on knowledge acquisition in non-specialist CBT practitioners

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2017-01-01)
      In this study, we investigate the effects of training on knowledge acquisition in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Knowledge acquisition is assessed through the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Knowledge Questionnaire (CBT-KQ; Myles, Latham, Ricketts, 2002). The CBT-KQ contains 26 multiple-choice questions from five conceptual topics: general CBT issues, theoretical underpinnings of behavioural approaches, theoretical underpinnings of cognitive approaches, practice of behavioural therapy, and practice of cognitive therapy. Thirty eight students attended weekly 3 hour sessions and were tested at weeks 1 and 15 in a before and after study. Improvements in the CBT-KQ were modest but showed significant changes in three conceptual topics; general CBT issues, theoretical underpinnings of cognitive approaches and practice of cognitive therapy. These findings may have important implications for structuring CBT training, so that both the cognitive and behavioural components are shown in the knowledge acquisition and practice applications. Recent evidence suggests that the behavioural components of treatment for some conditions, such as depression, may be more important than the cognitive components. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the behavioural components might be more suitable for delivery by non-specialist CBT practitioners.
    • The psychological distress in healthcare workers: Current perspectives and challenges

      Mitchell, Andrew E.P.; University of Chester
      Aims and objectives. The review presents evidenced-based literature on psychological distress amongst health care professionals; the work is not a systematic review but covers a wide selection of contemporary literature and covers the COVID-19 pandemic. The review discusses several reasons why psychological distress within health care professionals requires separate consideration and strategies to support resilience and access to support. Background. Health care workers report high workplace stress levels, burnout, psychological distress, and an increased risk of mental health problems. This is when the World Health Organisation recommends supporting health care professionals’ mental health and social aspects. It is also accepted that the physical and mental ill-health in health care workers can impact operational effectiveness and delivery of patient outcomes. Literature review. The integrative review utilized keywords to undertake a search of the literature. The following key terms ‘healthcare worker,’ ‘health professional,’ ‘mental health,’ ‘resilience,’ ‘support,’ ‘social risk factors,’ ‘physical risk factors’ and ‘Intervention.’ The PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase and the Cochrane library were searched to find contemporary research articles. Conclusions. The review has collated the available evidence and recommendations for supporting healthcare workers. It is recognized that stressors can increase the prevalence of psychological distress and lead to recruitment and retention issues. Stressors for psychological distress in health care professionals are the impact of patient-specific situations, interprofessional working relationships and perceived workload burden.
    • The responsiveness of negative cognitive content to an induced negative mood state in those with and without a previous history of depression in a student sample

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2015-03-31)
      This study investigates the responsiveness of cognitions to an induced negative mood state in those with and without a previous history of depression in a non-clinical student sample (n = 101). The Automatic Thought Questionnaire (ATQ-30) was used to observe the negative cognitive content. The negative mood state was induced in small groups utilising the Velten Negative Mood Induction Procedure (VNMIP). Self-reported mood was measured using the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology (UWIST) Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL) before and after VNMIP. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre or post negative mood induction) on cognitive content was shown in a 2 x 2 ANOVA with time (pre-test vs. post-test) as a within subjects factor and history of depression (with a history of depression vs. without a history of depression) as a between subjects factor. The results indicate no significant interaction between time and group in their effects on negative cognitive content. Also, there was no significant main effect for time on negative cognitive content. However, there was a significant main effect for previous history of depression on negative cognitive content. Findings are discussed on the basis of the literature and possible applications for practice.
    • The Teaching of Psychological Theory in the Undergraduate Pre-Registration Nurse Training Curriculum: Systematic, Integrative Literature Review

      Mitchell, Andrew E P; University of Chester
      Aims and objectives. To establish how best to integrate psychology education into the pre-registration nurse training curriculum to enhance clinical practice. Background. Educational psychology focuses on applications of science to understand and improve how students learn and how they are taught. A key challenge for academics is integrating psychological theory within teaching sessions and clinical practice. Didactic teaching methods have had limited success as students do not see the direct relevance of psychological theory for clinical practice. Problem-based learning and simulation sessions may enhance the perceived importance for clinical practice. Design. Systematic, integrative literature review. Methods. A systematic search of the literature using multiple databases and search engines between the years 2010-2020 was undertaken using keywords and PICO algorithm. For this study, the following keywords were utilised; student nurse, pre-registration, education, problem-based learning, practice skills, simulation, psychology and learning theory. PICO identifiers were (Participants) pre-registration students, (Intervention) – psychology and psychological learning theory, (Comparison) – didactic taught sessions with problem-based and simulation, (Outcome) - improvement in theory or practice-based assessment. Results. Eleven studies were included. Evidence for traditional didactic teaching is limited. There is evidence that problem and simulation-based learning has shown success in demonstrating clinical practice implications. Conclusions. The findings reveal that psychology education is considered a central aspect of nurse training. Observational research is required to understand better the link between psychological knowledge and clinical practice. Relevance to clinical practice. There should be a strategic focus on the development and implementation of a coherent psychological theory in the pre-registration nurse training curriculum. Coherent and applied psychology curricula may have clear benefits for nurse education and clinical practice.