• Assessment of risk and special observations in mental health practice: A comparison of forensic and non-forensic settings

      Whitehead, Elizabeth; Mason, Tom; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2006-12)
      This article discusses research into the use of special observations in both forensic and non-forensic psychiatric settings. A comparative approach was adopted to establish if the perceived risk factors leading to the adoption of special observations were similar in both settings. Three groups of nursing staff were requested to assess 30 patients who were placed on special observations. Before this, nurses were requested to rate the risk factors in terms of their severity on a 7-point Likert scale. The rank-ordering analysis revealed a similarity of identified risk factors and anova (one-way, unrelated) and the Jonckheere Trend Test revealed that there were significant differences between the scores in the forensic and the non-forensic settings.
    • Binary constructs of forensic psychiatric nursing: A pilot study

      Mason, Tom; Dulson, Julie; King, Lisa; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2009-03)
      The aim was to develop an Information Gathering Schedule (IGS) relevant to forensic psychiatric nursing in order to establish the perceived differences in the three levels of security, high, medium and low. Perceived differences in the role constructs of forensic psychiatric nursing is said to exist but the evidence is qualitative or anecdotal. This paper sets out a pilot study beginning in 2004 relating to the development of two rating scales for inclusion into an IGS to acquire data on the role constructs of nurses working in these environments. Following a thematic analysis from the literature two sets of binary frameworks were constructed and a number of questions/statements relating to them were tested. The Thurstone Scaling test was applied to compute medians resulting in a reduction to 48 and 20 items for each respective framework. Two 7-point Likert scales were constructed and test-retest procedures were applied on a sample population of forensic psychiatric nurses. Student's t-test was conducted on the data and the results suggest that the IGS is now suitably for application on a larger study. The IGS was piloted on a small sample of forensic psychiatric nurses. The two scales were validated to coefficient values ranging from 0.7 to 0.9. Amendments were made and the IGS was considered acceptable.
    • Considerations for evaluation of public health nutrition interventions in diverse communities

      Ellahi, Basma; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2017-06-02)
      Key messages Knowledge of ethnic groups and in particular their food habits is critical in evaluation Nutritionists should ensure they are culturally competent to work with diverse communities Evaluation of diverse groups requires consideration of language and cultural specific outcomes and literacy issues Identifying the factors that support successful nutrition interventions in diverse groups is challenging without the appropriate tools and measures
    • Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in cultured smooth muscle cells from rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; Hughes, Gwen A.; Lyles, Geoffrey A.; University of Chester (Roberston) (Blackwell, 2004-09)
    • Forensic nurses' perceptions of labels of mental illness and personality disorder: Clinical versus management issues

      Mason, Tom; Hall, Rebecca; Caulfield, Mike; Melling, Katherine; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2010-02)
      Anecdotally, forensic psychiatric nurses generally have a more negative perception of people diagnosed with a personality disorder and this negativity is focused more towards managing the behaviours rather than on treatment efficacy and clincal outcomes. this study reports on research carried out across the High, Medium and Low secure psychiatric services in the UK. One thousand two hundred questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 34.6%. The results indicated a statistically significant differences across High (z=9.69; P< 0.01), Medium (z=11.06; P< 0.01) and Low (z= 9.57; P=0.01) security with a focus on the management of people with a personality disorder using the Wilcoxon paired samples test. There was also a statistically significant difference in relation to a more clinical/treatment focus for those with a diagnosis of mental illness in Medium (z= 9.69; P=0.01) and Low (z= 9.57; P<0.01) security but not in the High security services. Finally, the results showed significant differences between High, Medium and Low security on each of the four scales of Personality Disorder Clinical - Personality Disorder Management and Mental Illness Clinical - Mental Illness Management. This raises issues of stigma, prejudice and discrimination and suggests a refocus on skills development, acquisition and application for those with a label of personality disorder.
    • Forensic psychiatric nursing: Skills and competencies: I role dimensions

      Mason, Tom; Lovell, Andy; Coyle, David L.; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2008)
      This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic psychiatric nurses from the perspective of three groups (a) forensic psychiatric nurses, (b) non-forensic psychiatric nurses and (c) other disciplines. A national survey of freonsc psychiatric services in the UK was conducted, and information gathered on the perceived skills and competencies in this growing field of psychiatric practice. From 3360 questionnaires, 1172 were returned making a response rate of 35%. The results indicate a small discrepancy between forensic nurses' and non-forensic nurses' perceptions of the role constructs of forensic practice. However, a larger difference was noted between nurses'perceptions and other disciplines' perceptions of the constituent parts to forensic psychiatric nursing. Nurses tend ed to focus on personal qualities both in relation to themselves and th epatients, while the other disciplines focused on organizational structures both in defining the role and in the resolution of perceived deficits. The findings have implications for multidisciplinary working, as well as policy formulation and curriculum development in terms of the skills and competencices of forensic nurse training.
    • Forensic psychiatric nursing: Skills and competencies: II Clinical Aspects

      Mason, Tom; Coyle, David L.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2008)
      This study reports on research undertaken to identify the skills and competencies of forensic psychiatric nurses working in secure psychiatric services in the UK. The rationale for this research is the lack of clarity in the role definition of nurses working in these environments and the specific content that may underscore the curriculum for training forensic nurses. Over 3300 questionnaires were distributed to forensic psychiatric nurses, non-forensic psychiatric nurses and other disciplines and information obtained on (1) the perceived clinical problems that give forensic nurses the most difficulty, (20 the skills best suited to overcome those problems and (3) the priority aspects of clinical nursing care that needs to be developed. A 35% response rate was obtained with 1019 forensic psychiatric nurses, 110 non-forensic psychiatric nurses and 43 other disciplines. The results highlighted a 'top-ten' list of main problems with possible solutions and main areas for development. the conclusions drawn include a focus on skills and competencies regarding the management of personality disorders and the management of violence and aggression.
    • Regulation of corticosteroid receptors in the rat brain: The role of serotonin and stress

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; Beattie, J. E.; Reid, I. C.; Balfour, David J. K.; University of Chester (Roberston) (Blackwell, 2005-03)
    • Special observations in forensic psychiatric practice: Gender issues of the watchers and the watched

      Mason, Tom; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Thomas, Mike; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (Blackwell, 2009)
      Special observations in psychiatric practice may create tensions for both the patient under surveillance and the staff undertaking the procedure. This study reports on special observations undertaken in forensic settings focusing specifically on the gender sensitive issues. The aim of the study was to investigate the specific gender issues relating to special observations in relation to those under the procedure and those engaged in observing. Three medium secure units in the UK formed the sampling frame, and the population studied was eight female and seven male clinical Registered nurses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio tape recorded and transcribed for analysis. The analysis involved a Grounded Theory approach to explicate categories and formulte two overarching themes: (1) the psychosocial fusion; and (2) the private as spectacle. There are implications for practice in relation to policy formulation and the implementation of special observations following risk assessment and individual skill identification. It is concluded that gender issues are extremely important for all concerned in this intrusive practice.