• Some ethical limitations of privatisation within social work and social care in England for children and young people

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-04-01)
      The article considers some of the ethical impications of the ongoing privatisation of social care and social work services.
    • Diversity in ageing, reductive welfare and potential new ways of utilising ethics in social work with Older People

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-11-30)
      This chapter examines some ethical and political challenges generated by the increasingly complex needs of an ageing society upon social work. It concentrates on the UK as a case study and critically evaluates related age-graded policies and practices relating to social work and care. The chapter includes a discussion of the on-going tensions between social diversity within an ageing society and the shrinking of formal care provision, alongside the impact of professional codes of ethics.
    • Exploring Preceptorship Programmes: Implications for Future Design

      Taylor, Louise M; Eost-Telling, Charlotte L; Ellerton, Annie; University of Chester (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2018-11-15)
      • Aims and objectives: To review and analyse current preceptorship programmes within NHS trusts in the North West of England. To evaluate the pedagogic rigour of the programme and suggest recommendations to inform the future design of preceptorship programmes. • Background: Enhancing the retention of newly qualified staff is of particular importance given that the journey from a new registrant to a competent healthcare professional poses a number of challenges, for both the individual staff member and organisations. • Design: A mixed methods evaluative approach was employed, using online questionnaires and content analysis of preceptorship documentation. • Methods: Forty-one NHS trusts across the North West region employing newly qualified nurses were invited to participate in the completion of an online questionnaire. In addition, preceptorship programme documentation was requested for inclusion in the content analysis. This study utilised the SQUIRE (Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence) guidelines. • Results: The response rate for the questionnaire was 56.1% (n=23). Eighteen trusts (43.9%) forwarded their programme documentation. Findings highlighted the wide variation in preceptorship programmes across the geographical footprint. • Conclusions: There were instances of outstanding preceptorship and preceptorship programmes where there was a clear link between the strategic vision, i.e., trust policy, and its delivery, i.e. preceptorship offering. There was no one framework that would universally meet the needs of all trusts, yet there are key components which should be included in all preceptorship programmes. Therefore, we would encourage innovation and creativity in preceptorship programmes, cognisant of local context. Relevance to clinical practice: The significant shortage of nursing staff in England is an ongoing issue. Recruitment and retention are key to ameliorating the shortfall, and formal support mechanisms like preceptorship, can improve the retention of newly qualified staff. Understanding current preceptorship programmes is an important first step in establishing the fundamental building blocks of successful preceptorship programmes and enabling the sharing of exemplary good practice across organisations.
    • Knowledge translation and the power of the nursing academic conference

      Finnegan, Alan; McGhee, Stephen; Roxburgh, Michelle; Kent, Bridie; University of Chester; University of South Florida; University of Highlands and Islands; University of Plymouth (Elsevier, 2018-11-08)
      The national and international conference experiences present a unique learning opportunity. There are differing events that reflect the full nursing employment spectrum from clinical delivery, organizational and policy development and academia in education and research. Many conferences provide a platform for academics with differing levels of experience to come together and welcome contributions from students and all grades of post-registration nurses, educationalists, administrators, and researchers. In selecting the programme, the conference organisers will often circulate a calling notice and potential presenters will submit their abstracts to be blind peer reviewed. Therefore, conferences showcase the best of the best and provide the current perspective of areas of growth within the nursing sector. Conferences have a plethora of delivery routes ranging from posters, oral presentations (both short and long), panel discussions, key notes, seminars, exhibitions and workshops. These present an exceptional chance to listen, present, network and discuss nursing innovation and academic research.
    • Nutrition Knowledge, Dietary Patterns and Anthropometric Indices of Older Persons in Four Peri-urban Communities in Ga West Municipality, Ghana

      Faith Agbozo; Joyce Amardi-Mfoafo,; Helen Dwase; Basma Ellahi; Department of Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana; Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra ; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, Chester, CH1 4BJ, UK. (African Health Sciences, 2018-09-30)
      ABSTRACT Background: Older adults are vulnerable to malnutrition due to sociologic, physiologic and anatomical effects of ageing. Objective: To investigate the influence of nutrition knowledge and dietary patterns on nutritional status of community-dwelling ambulatory older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved 120 elderly aged 60-70 years purposively selected from four peri-urban communities in Ga West municipality, Ghana. Nutrition knowledge was assessed using a structured questionnaire and dietary intakes obtained using a standardized food frequency questionnaire. BMI from weight/height measurements was proxy for nutritional status. Data was analyzed descriptively in SPSS. Associations were tested using correlation analyses (-1
    • Promoting a healthy diet in young adults: The role of nutrition labelling

      Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Ayaz, Aylin; Dedebayrakta, Damla; Inan-Eroglu, Elif; Ellahi, Basma; Besler, Halit Tanju; Hacettepe University; University of Chester; Eastern Mediterranean University (MDPI, 2018-09-20)
      The use of the nutrition facts label has been associated with healthy eating behaviours for adults. However, the relationship between nutrition facts label use and overall diet quality is not well known in young adults, a vulnerable group that acquire lifelong eating behaviours during this period of life. This study aimed to assess if the use of information on the nutrition facts label is associated with a higher diet quality in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, 958 university students, aged 18-34 years were recruited. Nutrition facts label use was recorded. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour dietary recall. Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores were calculated. HEI-2005 score was significantly associated with using nutrition facts label (P < 0.001). The mean total HEI-2005 score was 60.7±10.11, 62.4±11.43 and 67.1±12.23 respectively for Never, Sometimes and Every time users of nutrition facts label (P < 0.001). Subgroup scores of HEI-2005 for total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, milk, oils, saturated fat, and calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar (SoFAAS) were significantly higher in regular nutrition facts label users (P < 0.05, for each). This study showed that young adults who regularly use nutrition facts label have a higher diet quality.
    • Stigma: Personality disorder and homicide in the U.K. red-top tabloid press, 2001-2012

      Lovell, Andy; McIntosh-Scott, Annette; Bowen, Matt (University of Chester, 2018-08-28)
      There is evidence of stigma towards people with personality disorder from within healthcare systems, but relatively little known about other aspects of stigmatisation. This study explored the image within the red-top tabloids of people with personality disorder who have committed homicide and how this may have contributed to the processes of stigmatisation. The analysis was underpinned by a symbolic interactionist perspective on individuals and society and was informed by the modified labelling model. The role the press plays in the processes of stigmatisation is elaborated through exploration of the theoretical models and empirical evidence. The data set for the thesis was articles published by the red-top tabloids between the years 2001 and 2012 (inclusively) that made reference to personality disorder. The data set was analysed using three methods: content analysis, corpus linguistics and frame analysis. The three methods were used in a mixed methods approach with a sequential design so that the results from one stage of the analysis fed into the next stage. The content analysis of the data set identified that of the 552 articles published about people with personality disorder, 42% met the criteria for being homicide themed. Analysis identified that there was a significant reduction in the proportion of homicide themed newspaper articles in the period 2007-2012 compared to 2001-2006 ((1, n=552) = 7.38, p < .05), however, the effect size was small (φ = .12). Corpus linguistics analysis was used on articles that were homicide themed and identified 22 words that were stigmatising in their use, and were used proportionally more frequently than a comparator data set. These words were categorised as either epithets (e.g. psycho, monster), qualities (e.g. evil) or contributing to the process of labelling (e.g. branded). Comparison between 2001-2006 and 2007-2012 identified a proportional increase in the use of stigmatising descriptors, but to a level that was not considered to be significant ((1, n=114110) = 1.53, p > .05). Frame analysis of the homicide data set identified a dominant news frame in the articles, referred to as lock them up and throw away the key. This news frame was structured on a model that the problem was a failure to protect us, the public, from the risk presented by them, dangerous people with personality disorder who commit homicide. The results of the study are discussed in relation to the model elaborated in the study of the role the red-top tabloids may play in the processes of stigmatisation. Implications for practice include using personality disorder in press guidance, and training for clinicians about attitudes towards people with personality disorder to include reviewing the impact of the press.
    • ‘Paradigm shift? Biomedical science and social work thinking’

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-07)
      This chapter examines the relationship between biomedical science and social work thinking. It looks at the similarities and differences between two unique but increasingly closely associated ‘helping professions’. As part of the discussion, the role of paradigm, power and ideological disparities and distinct traditions are stressed, as well as the impact of ongoing policy-led reforms which continue to bring each profession closer together.
    • Is living well with dementia a credible aspiration for spousal carers?

      Tolhurst, Edward; Carey, Malcolm; Weicht, Bernhard; Kingston, Paul; Stafford University; University of Chester; University of Innsbruck; UOC (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-21)
      In England there has been substantial policy development and an academic drive to promote the goal of ‘living well’ for people with dementia and their family members. This article critically evaluates the feasibility of this intention, with reference to the experience of those caring for people with the condition. Qualitative data are utilised from a study which explored how couples negotiate relationships and care. The focus of this paper is the perspectives of spousal carers and the challenges they encounter within their caring role. Views were obtained via semi-structured joint interviews where the carer participated alongside the person with dementia. The extent to which living well with dementia is a credible aspiration for carers is examined via three themes: identity subsumed under care responsibilities; the couple as an isolated family unit; and barriers to professional support. The findings highlight that experience of caring is highly complex and fraught with multiple practical, emotional and moral pressures. It is asserted that research into dementia and care relationships must avoid a zero sum situation, prompted by living well discourses, where attempts to bolster the position of people with dementia compound the marginalisation and stigmatisation of informal carers.
    • Person-centred healthcare research: A personal influence

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Foundation of Nursing Studies, 2018-05-16)
      Personal commentary on text: McCormack, B., van Dulmen, S., Eide, H., Skovdahl, K., Eide, T. (Ed.) (2017). Person-centred healthcare research. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Defining the problem and sourcing the solution: a reflection on some of the organizational, professional and emotional complexities of accessing post-adoption support.

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-16)
      In the United Kingdom as elsewhere, children across the age range are now being adopted from care. Some of these children, by no means all, are expressing additional physical, emotional, behavioural and educational needs. In consequence, the government has introduced legislation and attendant policies aimed at providing adoptive families with support. In 2013 in the northwest of England, a specialist post-adoption support service was established, and an illuminative evaluation of its organization and provision was conducted. A key theme emerging from the qualitative data concerned the difficulties parents had encountered in accessing appropriate support prior to the creation of the service. These difficulties have been interpreted as: uncertainty in defining the problems encountered and knowing which agencies and professionals to approach; ambivalence about seeking help; professionals’ uncertainty in knowing how to respond; and the scarcity of resources. This paper illustrates these difficulties, then draws attention to some of the ways in which they are being addressed.
    • Finding the Forgotten: Motivating Military Veterans to Register with a Primary Healthcare Practice

      Finnegan, Alan; Jackson, Robin; Simpson, Robin; University of Chester; NHS Bury Clinical Commissioning Group; Ministry of Defence Deanery (Oxford University Press, 2018-05-09)
      Introduction: In the UK, primary healthcare practices choose from a series of Read codes to detail certain characteristics onto a patient's medical documentation. One of these codes is for military veterans indicating a history relating to military service. However, veterans are poor at seeking help, with research indicating that this code is only applied in 7.9% of cases. Clinical staff have a clear role in motivating veterans to declare their ex-Forces status or register with a primary healthcare center. The aim of this study was to motivate veterans to notify primary healthcare staff of their armed forces status or register with a general practitioner, and to improve primary healthcare staff's understanding of veterans' health and social care issues. Materials and Methods: Data were provided by four primary healthcare centers' containing 40,470 patients in Lancashire, England during 2017. Pre- and post-patient medical record Read Code searches were conducted either side of a 6-wk intervention period centered on an advertising campaign. The data identified those veterans with the military specific Read code attached to their medical record and their age, gender, marital status and mental health disorders. Further information was gathered from interviews with eight members of staff, some of whom had completed an e-learning veteran healthcare academic module. The study was approved by the University of Chester's Research Ethics Committee. Results: The pre-intervention search indicated that 8.7% (N = 180) of veterans were registered and had the correct military specific code applied to their medical record. Post-intervention, this figure increased by nearly 200% to N = 537. Mental health disorders were present in 28% (N = 152) of cases, including 15% (N = 78) with depression. Interviews revealed the primary healthcare staff's interpretation of the factors that motivated patients to declare their ex-Forces status and the key areas for development. Conclusion: The primary healthcare staff took ownership and responsibility for this initiative. They were creative in introducing new ways of engaging with the local armed forces community. Many veterans' and staff were unaware of veterans' entitlement to priority medical services, or the wider provisions available to them. It is probable that veterans declaring their military status within primary healthcare, or registering with a general practitioner for the first time is likely to increase. Another review will be undertaken after 12 mo, which will provide a better indication of success. There remains however an ongoing need to reach out to those veterans who never access a primary healthcare practice. This paper adds to the limited international empirical evidence undertaken to explore help-seeking behavior in an armed forces community. The positive outcomes of increased awareness and staff commitment provide a template for improvement across the UK, and will potentially stimulate similar initiatives with international colleagues.
    • The impact of severe haemophilia and the presence of target joints on health-related quality-of-life

      O’Hara, Jamie; Walsh, Shaun; Camp, Charlotte; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carroll, Liz; Hoxer, Christina; Wilkinson, Lars; University of Chester; HCD Economics; University College London; The Haemophilia Society; Novo Nordisk (BioMed Central, 2018-05-02)
      Background: Joint damage remains a major complication associated with haemophilia and is widely accepted as one of the most debilitating symptoms for persons with severe haemophilia. The aim of this study is to describe how complications of haemophilia such as target joints influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Data on hemophilia patients without inhibitors were drawn from the ‘Cost of Haemophilia across Europe – a Socioeconomic Survey’ (CHESS) study, a cost-of-illness assessment in severe haemophilia A and B across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK). Physicians provided clinical and sociodemographic information for 1285 adult patients, 551 of whom completed corresponding questionnaires, including EQ-5D. A generalised linear model was developed to investigate the relationship between EQ-5D index score and target joint status (defined in the CHESS study as areas of chronic synovitis), adjusted for patient covariates including socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities. Results: Five hundred and fifteen patients (42% of the sample) provided an EQ-5D response; a total of 692 target joints were recorded across the sample. Mean EQ-5D index score for patients with no target joints was 0.875 (standard deviation [SD] 0.179); for patients with one or more target joints, mean index score was 0.731 (SD 0.285). Compared to having no target joints, having one or more target joints was associated with lower index scores (average marginal effect (AME) -0.120; SD 0.0262; p < 0.000). Conclusions: This study found that the presence of chronic synovitis has a significant negative impact on HRQOL for adults with severe haemophilia. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of target joints should be an important consideration for clinicians and patients when managing haemophilia.
    • Association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms with blood lipids and their interaction with dietary factors

      Shatwan, Israa M.; Winther, Kristian H.; Ellahi, Basma; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Givens, Ian; Rayman, Margaret P.; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; University of Reading; King Abdulaziz University; University Hospital Denmark; University of Chester; University Hospital of Wales; University of Bristol; University of Surrey (BioMed Central, 2018-04-30)
      Background: Several candidate genes have been identified in relation to lipid metabolism, and among these, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms are major sources of genetically determined variation in lipid concentrations. This study investigated the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at LPL, seven tagging SNPs at the APOE gene, and a common APOE haplotype (two SNPs) with blood lipids, and examined the interaction of these SNPs with dietary factors. Methods: The population studied for this investigation included 660 individuals from the Prevention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium (PRECISE) study who supplied baseline data. The findings of the PRECISE study were further replicated using 1238 individuals from the Caerphilly Prospective cohort (CaPS). Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in PRECISE and a validated semi-quantitative FFQ in the CaPS. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction term in the linear regression model adjusted for age, body mass index, sex and country. Results: There was no association between dietary factors and blood lipids after Bonferroni correction and adjustment for confounding factors in either cohort. In the PRECISE study, after correction for multiple testing, there was a statistically significant association of the APOE haplotype (rs7412 and rs429358; E2, E3, and E4) and APOE tagSNP rs445925 with total cholesterol (P = 4 × 10− 4 and P = 0.003, respectively). Carriers of the E2 allele had lower total cholesterol concentration (5.54 ± 0.97 mmol/L) than those with the E3 (5.98 ± 1.05 mmol/L) (P = 0.001) and E4 (6.09 ± 1.06 mmol/L) (P = 2 × 10− 4) alleles. The association of APOE haplotype (E2, E3, and E4) and APOE SNP rs445925 with total cholesterol (P = 2 × 10− 6 and P = 3 × 10− 4, respectively) was further replicated in the CaPS. Additionally, significant association was found between APOE haplotype and APOE SNP rs445925 with low density lipoprotein cholesterol in CaPS (P = 4 × 10− 4 and P = 0.001, respectively). After Bonferroni correction, none of the cohorts showed a statistically significant SNP-diet interaction on lipid outcomes. Conclusion: In summary, our findings from the two cohorts confirm that genetic variations at the APOE locus influence plasma total cholesterol concentrations, however, the gene-diet interactions on lipids require further investigation in larger cohorts.
    • Nurse Education and the Military Veteran

      Finnegan, Alan; Currie, Jane; Ryan, Teresa; Steen, Mary; University of Chester; University of Sidney; Northwest Florida State College; University of South Australia (Australian Nursing & Midwifery Federation, 2018-04-23)
      No occupation is more dangerous than serving in a nation’s armed forces, where service-personnel may face atrocious conditions and events. Some experience mental health problems including Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression and anxiety. The spouse and children are exposed to frequent moves, and endure long periods separated from a partner or parent. Nurses are well placed to make a substantial difference in the care of veterans and their families, although many Veterans believe healthcare professionals “cannot understand” their experiences (Finnegan et al, 2017). To change this narrative, the UK has introduced a new under-graduate educational initiative. An initial single site pilot study was undertaken at the University of Chester, England in 2017. The aim was to produce educational sessions that provided student nurses with an insight into the Armed Forces Community (AFC) of serving personnel, veterans and their families, and construct an understanding of the biopsychosocial needs aligned to their care, health and wellbeing. The intent was to stimulate critical thinking to focus on the individual and family needs by encouraging a problem solving approach.
    • Do health consultations for people with learning disabilities meet expectations? A narrative literature review

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-04-06)
      Aim: To explore the benefits and disadvantages of annual health checks for people with learning disabilities, including: • What are the rationales and outcome measures for health checks? • How well do health checks meet the needs of people with learning disabilities? • What areas does research in this topic need to focus on in the future? Background Health consultations are an interpersonal activity that influence health outcomes and attitudes towards self and health professionals for people with learning disabilities. Annual health checks have been introduced to improve health inequalities for people with learning disabilities Method A narrative literature review of health care for people with learning disabilities was undertaken to evaluate health care for this population, and specifically the outcomes from annual health checks. Findings: While annual health checks have made some improvements in terms of health outcomes, attendance for appointments is still low, provision is variable and experiences of health checks for people with learning disabilities are under-researched. Conclusions: Service-user-led research into their health experiences is needed. Research into the attitudes and experiences of health professionals in relation to people with learning disabilities is needed. Health care inequalities are only being partially addressed – improvement is needed in terms of service user experience and engagement.
    • Taking Control: The Psychosocial Benefits of Reablement

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      This chapter discusses the psychosocial theories that underpin the philosophy and practice of reablement services. Prior to a long-term condition an older person will have fulfilled a role (indeed several) and will have taken an active part in community life (Coulter, Roberts and Dixon 2013). When a person is incapacitated by impairment, disability and pain the natural consequence is that they become a ‘user’ of health and/or social care services. This change is often dramatic and involves some distress, often associated with the level of importance an individual places on the activities they are no longer able to carry out. In addition, inpatient care can reduce mobility (Merreywether and Chapman 2013), as well as creating dependence on others for personal care and daily activities (see Chapter 4). Alternatively, and with reablement, a person can regain a sense of control over their lives, which includes psychological, social and physical recovery. There is a need for the person to be engaged in a meaningful process which genuinely advances independent living. However, loss of confidence, feelings of helplessness and an altered self-concept create barriers to regaining control. Societal expectations of recovery (including those of acute health services) can make long-term illness and disability discreditable experiences, inhibiting social engagement and increasing feelings of helplessness. Together with the person, the attitude of reablement workers (anyone who works with a service user in a reablement capacity) is thus a critical factor in social inclusion (In Control 2015) and reablement. Concordance, the respectful partnership between service user and service provider in planning and achieving essential aspects of the reablement process, is a fundamental requirement of reablement. It involves valuing the person and acknowledging the human relationship, promoting self-esteem, a sense of control and confidence to try, without worrying about failure. Immanuel Kant, the eighteenth-century philosopher, identified the importance of treating people as ends in themselves, rather than as means to an end (McCormack and McCance 2010), with important implications for the rights of human beings, irrespective of their earning potential, cognitive abilities, appearance, morality or other attributes of difference. Kant also identified the importance of autonomy, and behaving in ways that protected it, in order to promote respect for the self and for other human beings (Gregor 1997). His view of autonomy was that the individual should be free to make a moral choice, rather than come under the influence of more powerful others, and it is from this that the principle of informed consent in modern health and social care is derived (Lysaught 2004). So, in order to respect the service user, we need to support them to make fully informed choices about their reablement plan and then enable them to pursue those choices, even if we would make different ones. Respect for self and others is strongly echoed in the humanistic values of unconditional positive regard, congruence (or authenticity) and empathy, to promote personal growth or self-actualisation. Unconditional positive regard means valuing the person as an end in themselves, regardless of their status or personal characteristics. Congruence means that a person’s view of themselves as they are (self-image) and the way they would like to be (ideal self) are very similar, so the person feels happy with who they are. Empathy means understanding the world from the other person’s view in order to relate to their emotional feelings and needs. Self-actualisation, or personal growth, is the process of leading a life in which the person feels happy within themselves but looks forward to the next challenge or opportunity for self-development. These values are fundamental to the person-centred therapy of Carl Rogers (1961) and are used to promote the development of cognitive and emotional adjustment. Thus, the person sees themselves as worthy of respect and is able to plan a future that involves growth and development. Differing terms are used for the role of the service user in working with health professionals: adherence, compliance and concordance. Compliance suggests unwilling or unthinking obedience, but not taking medicines or following advice, which affects health outcomes and costs, can be a mechanism by which the service user is blamed for any failure to recover (Bissell, May and Noyce 2004), sometimes earning them the label of being ‘non-compliant’. Adherence means the active choice to follow the advice or prescription of a health professional, and is the term generally used in relation to pharmacological interventions, while concordance is agreement upon a plan of action or care management which incorporates the knowledge and views of the person and the professional (Horne et al. 2005). Outmoded emphasis on the importance of compliance with health and social care professionals, which creates a barrier to open communication, undermines the value of the individual and reinforces their view of themselves as helpless, leading to dependence and disability. These psychoemotional dimensions of disability that oppress people are described by Thomas (2004, p. 38) as ‘being made to feel of lesser value, worthless, unattractive, or disgusting’ and can affect both their self-concept and their understanding of their relationships with others. Consequently, it is essential for all health and social care professionals and support workers who work in reablement to understand these ideas and to value and respect the humanity of the service users with whom they interact. This chapter will provide an explanation and synthesis of key theoretical concepts that underpin a psychosocial understanding of the issues associated with disability, ageing and long-term conditions. Initially, it will explore the idea of the self, and how the psychology of the self influences human thoughts, feelings and behaviours within, and as a result of, the reablement interaction. This will be followed by a broad discussion of ageing theories such as disengagement, active ageing and gerotranscendence as well as elements of positive psychology. Understanding stigma will enable understanding of personal values in order to develop non-stigmatising attitudes and behaviour. Centrally, the need to facilitate the personal motivation and self-efficacy of service users, while enabling them to feel secure and confident, will illustrate the complexity of working with individuals within the context of reablement. Chapter objectives By the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Determine what self-concept is and how it affects the success of reablement and is in turn affected by it • Recognise learned helplessness and how it is reinforced by a loss of control • Outline the ways in which stigma acts as a barrier to reablement • Appraise psychosocial theories of ageing and their implications for reablement • Describe person-centred therapeutic relationships as the foundation of reablement practice
    • Reablement services in health and social care

      Ebrahimi, V.A.; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      Edited book with concluding remarks written by the editors.
    • Reablement and support workers

      Dibsdall, L; Clampin, A.; Chapman, Hazel M.; Ebrahimi, V.A.; University of Chester (Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      Chapter outline Support workers are key to the delivery of reablement services as they are the people who work on a day-to-day basis with service users. Support workers may join reablement teams without any experience in working in health and social care. More commonly, support workers move into reablement teams from therapy assistant roles or from working in a home care service. These support workers bring a wealth of experience to the role, but differences in both the process and the outcome of reablement and home care can offset the benefits of this experience. Reablement is a change in approach to care from being ‘task-led’ to a ‘doing with’, person-centred and outcomes-based approach. This holistic view of working with people who use these services has been largely welcomed by support workers who enjoy supporting them to do more for themselves. This chapter will consider some key skills and techniques used by support workers in reablement services, such as use of equipment, activity analysis and energy conservation. Support workers need appropriate training and education in reablement so that practice is meaningful, and the concept of reablement is clearly understood and articulated. This is fundamental to an inclusive approach to interacting with the service user, enabling them to grow in confidence and autonomy, and engage in the process of reablement. Suggested topics for inclusion in reablement training are included in this chapter and it is argued that occupational therapists (OT) are suitably experienced, and well placed, to provide this training. Before reading any further, you may want to recap on the concept discussed in Chapter 1 in the section ‘Defining occupation, activity and task (OAT) for reablement interventions’. Chapter objectives By the end of this chapter you should be able to: ➢➢ Outline the development of the reablement support worker role ➢➢ Compare and contrast ‘doing to’ and ‘doing with’ support worker approaches ➢➢ Explain the role of the support worker ➢➢ Evaluate equipment and reablement techniques support workers may use ➢➢ Describe the training requirements for being a support worker ➢➢ Consider the opportunities and challenges of being a support worker
    • Nursing theories 6: Social Class

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2018-03-19)
      The origins and relevance of class theory for nursing