• Ageing Simulation in Health and Social Care Education: A mixed methods systematic review

      Eost-Telling, Charlotte; Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Emmerson, Louise; University of Chester
      Abstract Aim: To identify, evaluate and summarise evidence from qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies conducted utilising age-suits or other age simulation equipment, with health and social care students. Design: Convergent segregated mixed method review design as outlined by the Johanna Briggs Institute Data Sources: CINAHL (+ with Full Text), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SocINDEX, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Emerald Insight, Proquest nursing, Science Direct, Wiley Online and BioMed Central (January 2000 – January 2020) Review methods: Convergent segregated synthesis was used to synthesise evidence from the studies, and the MERSQI checklist used to appraise quality. Results: A total of 23 studies were reviewed: one randomised control, two post-test only randomised control, three quasi-experimental, 15 one-group pre / post studies and two qualitative studies. Of the seventeen studies carrying out inferential statistics on attitude scores post intervention, 11 reported an improvement, three indicated no significant change and three reported worsening scores. Key themes included use of appropriate scales, type of equipment utilised, location and length of interactions, debriefing, and contextualisation of interventions in broader teaching. Conclusion: The impact of ageing simulation interventions on health and social care student’s attitudes to older people was predominantly positive. However, further high-quality research is warranted to understand the optimal use of such interventions within the context of healthcare for a growing ageing population. Impact: It is important health and social care staff have appropriate knowledge and training to enable them to provide high quality care to older people, and challenge potential ageism in the system. This review adds to the body of work around the use of simulation and experiential learning to educate health and social care students regarding ageing and ageism. It also offers recommendations for using ageing simulations effectively to inform attitudes of prospective professionals who will influence future health and social care. Keywords: Simulation, Ageing, Age-suit, Nursing, Health and social care, Education, Attitudes, Empathy, Experiential learning, Systematic review
    • An evaluation of cognitive stimulation therapy sessions for people with dementia and a concomitant support group for their carers

      Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Alford, Simon; Taylor, Louise; Tolhurst, Edward; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (SAGE, 2016-01-18)
      This research aimed to ascertain the impact of a pragmatic Cognitive Stimulation Therapy course of ten sessions on the cognitive function of people living with dementia and whether attending a concomitant carers support group was beneficial to carers. A mixed method quasi-experimental approach was adopted, data was collected pre and post intervention. The quantitative arm utilised three validated questionnaires rated by the carers. Qualitative data was collected via semi-structured interviews with carers regarding their perceptions of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and the carers support group Quantitative data analysis found no statistically significant differences within or between groups. The qualitative data demonstrated that carers perceived Cognitive Stimulation Therapy had some benefits for the people living with dementia, especially social benefits. Carers also perceived that attending the carers support group was beneficial for them in terms of gaining a better understanding of dementia, developing coping skills and having peer support. The study was limited in scale and further research with a larger sample, using direct measures of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy with people living with dementia and supplementary research exploring which characteristic of carers support groups are effective would be worthwhile.
    • Exploring Preceptorship Programmes: Implications for Future Design

      Taylor, Louise; Ellerton, Annie; Eost-Telling, Charlotte; University of Chester (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2018-11-15)
      • Aims and objectives: To review and analyse current preceptorship programmes within NHS trusts in the North West of England. To evaluate the pedagogic rigour of the programme and suggest recommendations to inform the future design of preceptorship programmes. • Background: Enhancing the retention of newly qualified staff is of particular importance given that the journey from a new registrant to a competent healthcare professional poses a number of challenges, for both the individual staff member and organisations. • Design: A mixed methods evaluative approach was employed, using online questionnaires and content analysis of preceptorship documentation. • Methods: Forty-one NHS trusts across the North West region employing newly qualified nurses were invited to participate in the completion of an online questionnaire. In addition, preceptorship programme documentation was requested for inclusion in the content analysis. This study utilised the SQUIRE (Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence) guidelines. • Results: The response rate for the questionnaire was 56.1% (n=23). Eighteen trusts (43.9%) forwarded their programme documentation. Findings highlighted the wide variation in preceptorship programmes across the geographical footprint. • Conclusions: There were instances of outstanding preceptorship and preceptorship programmes where there was a clear link between the strategic vision, i.e., trust policy, and its delivery, i.e. preceptorship offering. There was no one framework that would universally meet the needs of all trusts, yet there are key components which should be included in all preceptorship programmes. Therefore, we would encourage innovation and creativity in preceptorship programmes, cognisant of local context. Relevance to clinical practice: The significant shortage of nursing staff in England is an ongoing issue. Recruitment and retention are key to ameliorating the shortfall, and formal support mechanisms like preceptorship, can improve the retention of newly qualified staff. Understanding current preceptorship programmes is an important first step in establishing the fundamental building blocks of successful preceptorship programmes and enabling the sharing of exemplary good practice across organisations.
    • Exploring Public Perceptions and Understanding of Dementia: Analysing Narratives from the Mass Observation Project

      Olsen, Veronica; Taylor, Louise; Whiteley, Kirsty; Ellerton, Annie; Kingston, Paul; Bailey, Jan; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-07-10)
      Over 850,000 people living in the United Kingdom have been diagnosed with dementia, yet knowledge about this condition amongst the general population remains relatively poor. Many studies have evaluated the level of public knowledge and understanding about dementia from a research and professional service perspective, however none have considered this condition from the perspective of the wider public. In this preliminary overview, we analyse and describe high level narratives collected from 143 respondents to a dementia Directive commissioned to the Mass Observation Project. These narratives present a perspective on the public knowledge and understanding about dementia not previously considered, where respondents have written openly about their own experiences, and reflected on their perception of the wider public’s knowledge and understanding about dementia. This unique perspective importantly enhances our knowledge about the public’s understanding and awareness of dementia, and informs the main areas of public concern found in the analysis: care responsibilities, impact on relationships, and fears about developing dementia.
    • Older adults and “scams”: Evidence from the Mass Observation Archive

      Bailey, Jan; Taylor, Louise; Kingston, Paul; Watts, Geoffrey E; University of Chester
      Purpose The issue of financial abuse is highlighted the Care Act (2014). One category of financial abuse is consumer fraud or “scams”. Evidence suggests that scams are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, yet how scams impact older adults remains under-researched. This paper reports the data from 80 older adults’ written response to a Mass Observation Archive Directive, commissioned in autumn 2015, focusing on scams. Study design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach was utilised with data captured via written responses to a set of questions. There was no limit on the length of written accounts and respondents remained anonymous. Data were analysed thematically, resulting in 4 key themes. Findings The data indicated scams impact individuals in terms of health and wellbeing, irrespective of whether they have experienced financial loss, and trigger implementation of strategies intended to avoid being defrauded. There was also evidence of scam related stigma with individuals who are defrauded being subject to derision and censure. Originality/value This paper adopts an original approach to collecting rich, candid data about an under-researched topic. The authors highlight that anti-scam interventions should equip individuals to identify and avoid scams without inciting fear or anxiety; proposing this may be facilitated by drawing on health and safety risk assessment protocol when designing anti-scam interventions. Social implications Individuals who have been victimised by fraudsters may need access to practical and emotional support. This requires the design of appropriate interventions and the stigma associated with being scammed to be addressed.

      Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Eost-Telling, Charlotte; Bailey, and Jan (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-08)
      Abstract This paper considers narratives of 143 respondents (“Observers”) to a Mass Observation Project Directive exploring individuals’ perceptions of dementia. Perceptions of dementia held by “Observers” with experience of dementia and those without differed sharply. “Observers” with experience of dementia offered insight into living with and caring for a person with dementia, and the impact this had on their lives and personal relationships. Whereas, “Observers” with no direct experience of dementia focused more on common disease symptoms such as memory loss and reflected idealised views of care. “Observers” often feared being diagnosed with dementia themselves. This suggests education to facilitate care planning and ameliorate fears held by the public is required.

      Taylor, Louise; Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Eost-Telling, Charlotte (2019-11-08)
      AbstractThis presentation reflects on self-written narratives from respondents to a mass observation directive, focusing on the experiences of growing older. Narrative methods are theoretically and methodologically diverse, and are helpful in social research to understand events or happenings in human lives. This data presents accounts from a heterogeneous sample in the form of self-penned responses. These experience-centred narratives bring stories of personal understanding into being by means of the first person description of past, present, future or imaginary experiences. This presentation will focus on the findings with reference to physical and mental impacts, both real and anticipated. We will also explore themes arising from the data including gender differences, age-cohort effects and stigma. The data can be used to inform Health and Social Care education and practice, particularly in co-producing appropriate person-centred services with older people.

      Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Eost-Telling, Charlotte (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-08)
      Abstract This presentation will offer new and alternate insights into ‘scams’ and the health effects of fraud on older people. It reports data captured from a Mass Observation Project “Directive” focusing on scams and their impact on individuals. Eighty “Observers’” aged 50 and over responded to the “Directive”. Responses indicate that falling victim to a scam may have negative impacts on individuals’ mental wellbeing, self-esteem and relationships with others. Data analysis also identified that fear of victimisation can also affect individuals, resulting in worry, anxiety and maladaptive coping strategies. Offering a sociology of health perspective, we will focus is on these health impacts of scams and the legitimisation of the issue as a socio-political problem. We will also highlight additional important areas for consideration, such as the absence of a common understanding of the concept and nomenclature of ‘scam’, and the ‘vagaries of scams’ by presenting a typology of scams.

      Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Bailey, Jan; Eost-Telling, Charlotte (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-08)
      Abstract The Mass Observation Project, established in 1937, documents the lives of ordinary people living in the UK, and explores a wide range of social issues. The Project distributes a set of written questions (“Directives”) to a panel of 500 members of the British public (“Observers”) three times each year; “Observers” respond in writing. From the initial commissioning of a “Directive” to data becoming available for analysis takes between four to six months. This approach offers researchers an opportunity to capture in-depth qualitative data from individuals with a range of demographic backgrounds who live across the UK. As there are no word limits on “Observers’” responses and they remain anonymous, a “Directive” often yields rich, high-quality data. Additionally, compared with alternative methods of collecting large volumes of qualitative data from a heterogeneous population, commissioning a “Directive” is cost-effective in terms of time and resource.