• Development and psychometric testing of the online Adolescent Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool (ADNAT)

      Cooper, Helen; Spencer, Joy; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Titman, Andrew; Johnson, Mark; Wheeler, Sarah; Lwin, Rebekah; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Lancaster University ; Lancaster University ; Bolton University ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2013-09-03)
      Aim: To report on the development and psychometric testing of the Adolescent Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool. Background: The UK has the fifth largest paediatric diabetes population in the world, but one of the poorest levels of diabetes control, highlighting the need for intervention development. Design: Mixed methods following recommendations for questionnaire design and validation. Methods: A total of 171 young people (12–18 years) participated between 2008– 2011. Methods included item selection using secondary framework analysis, item review, pre-testing, piloting and online transfer. Statistical tests assessed reliability using item-total correlations, interitem consistency and test–retest reliability; and validity using blood glucose (HbA1c) levels and the Self-Management of type 1 Diabetes in Adolescence questionnaire. Results: The Adolescent Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool consists of 117 questions divided between six domains of educational and psychosocial support needs. It combines reflective questioning with needs assessment to raise self-awareness to support adolescent decision-making in relation to diabetes self-care. Thirty-six of the questions provide self-care and psychosocial health assessment scores. Face and content validity of the scoring items were all positively evaluated in terms of appropriateness and readability and tests for validity found significant correlations with Self-Management of type 1 Diabetes in Adolescence and weak correlation with HbA1c, which compared favourably with Self-Management of type 1 Diabetes in Adolescence, the only comparable (USA) tool. Item response analysis validated the use of simple additive scores. Conclusions: The Adolescent Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool combines reflective learning with needs assessment to support patient-centred clinical consultations.
    • Development and psychometric testing of the online Adolescent Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool (ADNAT)

      Cooper, Helen; Spencer, Joy; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Titman, Andrew; Johnson, Mark; Lwin, Rebekah; Wheeler, Sarah; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Lancaster University ; Lancaster University ; Bolton University ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (World Biomedical Frontiers, 2015-01-16)
      World Biomedical Frontiers provides a platform for the exchange of the latest research progress, including strategic and emerging research areas such as diabetes. Their aim is to accelerate understanding of human health and improvetreatment of a variety of human diseases. Our article, published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, was selected for their web based publication. It provides an abstract plus supplementary information on the research work associated with ADNAT.
    • Type 1 diabetes in young people: the impact of social environments on self-management issues from young people’s and parents’ perspectives.

      Spencer, Joy; Cooper, Helen; Milton, Beth; University of Chester; Liverpool University (SB Communications Group, 2014-02-08)
      In the UK, young people with type 1 diabetes generally have poor glycaemic control. Managing type 1 diabetes in young people is complex, and is underpinned by relationships with significant others in the social environments they inhabit. This qualitative study explores the social environments of young people with type 1 diabetes and their potential influence on glycaemic control. Twenty young people with type 1 diabetes and their parents (n=27) were interviewed about their experiences in the environments of the home, with friends (social), at school and in the diabetes clinic. It was found that the diabetes clinic was vital to the medical management of type 1 diabetes, and the family provided stable support for most young people with type 1 diabetes. However, there were barriers to self-management in school and social environments. It was concluded that each family had a unique story about the social factors in the environments they encountered that affected self-management of type 1 diabetes.