• Behavioural and neurochemical responses evoked by repeated exposure to an elevated open platform

      Storey, J.; Robertson, Deborah A. F.; Beattie, J. E.; Reid, I. C.; Mitchell, S.; Balfour, David J. K.; University of Chester (Robertson) (Elsevier, 2011-01-18)
      This article investigated the changes in 5-HT release and turnover in the hippocampus evoked by acute and repeated exposure to an inescapable stressor, an elevated open platform, and compared them to the changes evoked in the frontal cortex.
    • Drug action: The therapeutic effect

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Publishing, 2017-05-13)
      Abstract In this article in the series of ‘bite sized’ pharmacology, we will look at the concept of drug action- the therapeutic effect of the medications we give. It is important that prescribers are aware of factors that can affect drug action and the time to onset of and subsequent duration of the desired therapeutic effect. We will look at factors that affect these two important areas of drug action. Knowledge of these factors can assist the prescriber when deciding on doses and dose schedules to ensure that patients receive their medications at the correct dosing, by the correct route and in the right formulation to ensure optimum therapeutic effect. It also helps the prescriber understand why dose adjustments are made or some drugs are avoided in patients with hepatic or renal impairment.
    • Essentials of Medicines Management for Mental Health Nurses

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2016-08-01)
      Introduction Pharmacology and medicines management is something my student nurses tell me all the time, that is very important to them. They also tell me that the subject of psychopharmacology is daunting and often find the textbooks dedicated to it ‘overwhelming’, ‘difficult to understand’, ‘over our heads’, ‘not real life’ and ‘expensive’. I don’t know that I can say this book solves all of those issues, but I know that writing this book, with students (and nurses in general) in mind, has made me very aware of those issues when deciding how to lay out chapters and to display information. It also informed the choice of inclusion of case studies, clinical tips and applied scenarios. Nurses need to understand pharmacology and medicines management, yes, no question. But they also need to know how to apply this knowledge to the patients in their care. This book links theory to practice in every chapter and helps nurses transfer their learning from the page to the practice situation. Nurses often say they wish there was more pharmacology taught at undergraduate level, but as an educator I understand the pressures of a nursing programme and the importance of all the other subjects taught. However as a nurse and pharmacologist I see and understand their point. As educators we instil the importance of pharmacological knowledge and teach the basics of pharmacology to give students the ‘building blocks’ of knowledge. But each student and their experience in practice is very different, so knowing where to find and how to use information is still one of the best skills we can teach. Combine this with enthusiasm for a subject and a lifelong learner is born. Learning about medicines as a nurse is fundamental to a major component of the role they will play [medicines management] and the care they will deliver, so motivating students to learn about drugs in an easy, accessible and applicable format is essential. This book is written with that purpose in mind. There is a proverb which sums this up well for me ‘Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day; show him how to catch fish, and you feed him for a lifetime’. This book does not give you all the snapshots of pharmacological information for you to pick and eat for the day you want. It gives you basic knowledge, clinical understanding and the tools to find and apply information that will have you ‘fishing’ for pharmacological knowledge every day for the rest of your career.
    • Essentials of pharmacology for nurses

      Barber, Paul; Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Open University Press, 2012)
      This book is intended for undergraduate nursing students and covers the major drug groups with drug calculations.
    • Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in cultured smooth muscle cells from rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; Hughes, Gwen A.; Lyles, Geoffrey A.; University of Chester (Roberston) (Blackwell, 2004-09)
    • First Pass Metabolism

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd, 2017-06-08)
      In this article in the series of ‘bite sized’ pharmacology, we will look at the concept of first pass metabolism. All drugs given by the oral route undergo a degree of first pass metabolism either in the gut or the liver, with some drugs being destroyed before they reach the systemic circulation. This pharmacokinetic process affects the bioavailability of drugs administered by this route and is an important consideration for the prescriber. Knowledge of first pass metabolism can assist the prescriber when deciding on doses and dose schedules to ensure that patients receive their medications at the correct dosing, by the correct route for optimum therapeutic effect. It also helps the prescriber understand why dose adjustments are made for some drugs when switching the route of administration from oral and why some drugs cannot be given by the oral route.
    • Introduction to Pharmacodynamics

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd, 2017-04-16)
      In this second article in the series of ‘bite sized’ pharmacology we will start to look at the principles of pharmacodynamics. It is important that prescribers are aware of the actions their drugs have in the body after administration. They should know the SITE of action (where the drug works), the MODE of action (how the drug works) and the time to ONSET and DURATION of action (when the drug starts to work and how long for). This helps prescribers decide on drug choice, drug dose and the dose schedule as well as the length of time the drug needs to be prescribed for. This knowledge can also assist the prescriber in prediction and prevention (or minimising) of adverse drug reactions and to help educate their patients on possible side effects. In this article we will look at SITEs of action; receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and transport systems. We will also introduce the concepts of agonism and antagonism and their relationship to MODE of action.
    • Introduction to Pharmacokinetics

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd, 2017-03-16)
      Pharmacology is an area many nurse prescribers tell me that they worry about. This is whether they are prescribing students or qualified prescribers. They are very aware of the importance of pharmacological knowledge and its impact on safe prescribing. They typically want to know how much information they need to know and what depth and breadth that information should take. Another area they worry about is how many drugs they need to be familiar with? This series of pharmacology articles will explore some concepts in pharmacology to support the prescriber in developing that knowledge. This article begins by examining the basic concepts of pharmacokinetics to allow the reader to improve their understanding of drug handling within the body. It will explore the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to chart a drugs ‘route’ from administration to elimination.
    • Regulation of corticosteroid receptors in the rat brain: The role of serotonin and stress

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; Beattie, J. E.; Reid, I. C.; Balfour, David J. K.; University of Chester (Roberston) (Blackwell, 2005-04-12)