• Comment: ‘Nurses should understand practice in relation to theory’

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Emap, 2017-11-06)
      An opinion piece on the importance of theory in nursing
    • Do health consultations for people with learning disabilities meet expectations? A narrative literature review

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-04-06)
      Aim: To explore the benefits and disadvantages of annual health checks for people with learning disabilities, including: • What are the rationales and outcome measures for health checks? • How well do health checks meet the needs of people with learning disabilities? • What areas does research in this topic need to focus on in the future? Background Health consultations are an interpersonal activity that influence health outcomes and attitudes towards self and health professionals for people with learning disabilities. Annual health checks have been introduced to improve health inequalities for people with learning disabilities Method A narrative literature review of health care for people with learning disabilities was undertaken to evaluate health care for this population, and specifically the outcomes from annual health checks. Findings: While annual health checks have made some improvements in terms of health outcomes, attendance for appointments is still low, provision is variable and experiences of health checks for people with learning disabilities are under-researched. Conclusions: Service-user-led research into their health experiences is needed. Research into the attitudes and experiences of health professionals in relation to people with learning disabilities is needed. Health care inequalities are only being partially addressed – improvement is needed in terms of service user experience and engagement.
    • Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter highlights eight simple rules for writing in health and social care - write, plan your writing, proofread and edit your writing, look it up, reflect, record the care you give, prepare, and enjoy yourself.
    • Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      Writing is a creative process. It transforms your own view of the world and enables you to grow and develop. This is why it is so commonly used as an assessment method, as educationalists use it to help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care. help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care.
    • The health consultation experience for people with learning disabilities: A constructivist grounded theory study based on symbolic interactionism

      Chapman, Hazel M. (University of Chester, 2014-06-09)
      Aims. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the health consultation experience for people with learning disabilities, particularly in terms of their self-concept Background. Annual health checks have been introduced as a reasonable adjustment for health providers to make in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities, who experience significantly poorer health outcomes than the general population. Evaluation of the health consultation from the service user perspective can inform this service provision. Design. A constructivist grounded theory approach, based on symbolic interactionism, was used to explore the meaning of the health consultation experience for the person with learning disabilities, and its effects on their sense of self. Methods. Purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit 25 participants with learning disabilities through a GP practice, self-advocacy groups and a health facilitator. Nine individual interviews, three interviews with two participants, three focus groups (n=7, n=5 and n=3), and an audio-recorded health check consultation were carried out (with two participants interviewed twice and four attending two focus groups), as well as a member check used to assess the resonance of the findings. Data collection was undertaken in different primary care trusts across the north west of England. Data were subjected to constant comparative analysis, using a symbolic interactionist approach, to explore all aspects of the health consultation experience and its effects on the self. Findings. Current expectations, attitudes and feelings about health consultations were strongly influenced by previous experience. Participants negotiated their own reality within the consultation, which affected their self-concept and engagement with their health care. Respectful and secure health professional – service user relationships, developed over time, were central to an effective consultation. Perspectives on the consultation, and engagement within it, were co-constructed with a companion, who could help to promote the personhood of the service user with support from the health professional. Anxiety, embarrassment and felt stigma were identified as significant barriers to communication and engagement within the consultation. Conclusions. People with learning disabilities have similar health consultation needs and expectations to other people, but may have more difficulties in engaging with the process and building trusting relationships with the health professional, due to previous negative experiences, anticipated stigma and loss of self within health settings leading to a fear of disclosure. This, combined with difficulties in communication and cognitive processing, results in less satisfactory outcomes persisting over time. The effects of triadic consultations are generally positive, particularly where relatives or health facilitators are involved. However, continuity of companion as well as health professional is needed, and more service user engagement should be supported. Fundamental attitude change by health professionals, supported by specific educational initiatives to enhance their understanding of the service user perspective, is needed to reduce health inequalities. Participatory research by people with learning disabilities should inform future health care practice.
    • Introduction - "How to write well: for students of health and social care"

      Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      The aim of this book is to demystify academic writing for undergraduate students in health and social care education. You are probably required to submit several assignments throughout your programme of study, which may take different formats such as a written essay, a poster or a dissertation. The allocation of marks for your assignments will be primarily dependent upon two factors: content and academic writing. This book focuses on the many aspects that impact on the quality of academic writing and will help you to develop the essential skills required for your undergraduate level study and to achieve success. Academic writing is a skill that develops with practice and therefore the book takes you through a step-by-step guide of how to improve your academic writing, thereby enabling you to improve your own writing skills.
    • Maintaining a safe environment

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Whittam, Susan; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      INTRODUCTION Managing our own safety is thought to be a basic survival skill, which all individuals possess. We are not aware of managing our physiological homeostasis (for example, ensuring that our body cells are supplied with sufficient oxygen to produce the energy they need to function), and spend years learning to calculate and avoid risk from the external environment, The ability to control safety, including physiological homeostasis, and using physical ability and intellectual ability to manage risk, depends on a person’s stage in their lifespan development, their physical and mental wellbeing, their cognitive ability and the ability to control environmental factors such as housing, traffic, pollutants and even conflict. Throughout the world there are many differences in the types of hazards and risks that people are exposed to and just as many differences in the way that people manage their own safety. The inclusion of this AL in the Roper et al (1996, 2000) model is to draw your attention to the importance of being able to recognise the threats that exist to human survival and wellbeing and identify the impact that this may have upon any individual at any given time in their lives. In order to develop the knowledge that you need to apply it to your nursing practice, you will also need to read about the underlying physiology (how the body functions), pathophysiology (the disease process), psychology (thoughts, feelings and behaviours) and nursing practice in more depth. Several health psychology and psychology for nursing texts are referred to throughout this chapter, but physiology, pathophysiology and nursing practice are underpinned by core texts (Brooker & Nicol, 2011; Waugh & Grant, 2014). By understanding the processes involved in maintaining a safe internal and external environment for the person, you will learn to assess risk and plan care to maintain the safety of your patients. The model helps us to develop our understanding by focusing upon three key areas: • the human body's ability to protect itself and the biological mechanisms that it employs to carry this out • the ability that individuals have to make choices and take action to keep safe and free from danger • the identification and understanding of the dangers and hazards that exist in the surrounding environment (including the health care environment) and how they pose a threat to individual safety and wellbeing. These three areas will be discussed throughout this chapter within the framework of the model and will help to develop an understanding of the AL and enable nursing interventions to be as individualised and effective as possible. Often concern for our own health and safety only becomes heightened when we become ill, have an accident or hear about a tragedy or event that has had terrible human consequences. However, patient safety is essential for high quality health care, and a requirement in the United Kingdom Code for Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2015) is to make the care and safety of people our main concern. Therefore, in nursing, we need to be able to assess and prevent risk, whether it arises from the person’s own health needs, or from the care we give and the way in which we give it. By using the framework of the Roper et al (1996, 2000) model in the following way we can begin to examine and identify how complex and varied health and safety issues really are and also identify the interrelatedness that exists between the other ALs. This chapter will therefore focus on the following: 1 The model of living • maintaining a safe environment in health and illness across the lifespan • dependence and independence in the activity of maintaining a safe environment • factors influencing the activity of maintaining a safe environment. 2 The model for nursing • the nursing care of individuals with health problems that affect their ability to undertake the activity of maintaining a safe environment • understanding of the hazards in the health care setting and how to promote patient safety effectively
    • Nurses' experiences of communicating respect to patients: Influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known about the influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based UK registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and inter-personal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care. Conclusion: Findings stress the need for improved conceptualisations of respect in healthcare settings to formally recognise the complex attitudinal and socially constructed nature of respect and for appropriate professional training to improve its communication
    • Nursing theories 1: person-centred care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2017-11-06)
      Definition and description of person-centred care Implications of person-centred care for nursing practice
    • Nursing theories 2: Clinical supervision

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2017-11-27)
      Definition of clinical supervision Benefits of clinical supervision for patients and staff
    • Nursing theories 3: Nursing Models

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Emap, 2018-01-08)
      Origins and value of nursing models
    • Nursing theories 4: Adherence, compliance and concordance

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Emap, 2018-01-15)
      Explains adherence, compliance and concordance for nursing practice
    • Nursing theories 5: Gender theory

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2018-02-26)
      Origins of feminist and gender theory and their relevance to nursing practice
    • Nursing theories 6: Social Class

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2018-03-19)
      The origins and relevance of class theory for nursing
    • Person-centred healthcare research: A personal influence

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Foundation of Nursing Studies, 2018-05-16)
      Personal commentary on text: McCormack, B., van Dulmen, S., Eide, H., Skovdahl, K., Eide, T. (Ed.) (2017). Person-centred healthcare research. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Preparing to write

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter explores the psychology of writing, how to reduce stress and anxiety, why writing is important for learning and why you want to write well. The chapter also addresses getting started and finishing well.
    • Preparing to write

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter explores the following topics: • The psychology of writing • How to reduce stress and anxiety • Why writing is important for learning • Why do you want to write well? • A space of one’s own • Getting started and finishing well • Reading for writing – and other learning resources • Using feedback and accessing support This chapter begins by looking at how your thoughts and feelings about writing, especially writing for assessment, can affect your behaviour. Through understanding what makes you write or prevents you from writing, you can gain control over your writing behaviours, the behaviours that are key to your ultimate performance. This chapter shows the small, simple steps you can take in order to achieve your writing potential. By exploring how to break down the barriers to writing, such as stress and anxiety, this chapter shows how writing can eventually become just another activity, and even an enjoyable habit. We discuss the reasons why writing is important for helping you to learn, and help you to explore your own reasons for wanting to write. This will help you to keep writing, even when you are finding it challenging. The environment you work in is important for developing good writing habits and enabling you to write well, so the chapter discusses how you can create your own writing den and find your favourite writing haunts. Practical tips, such as where to find your ideas from, how to start writing, how to finish your writing session, and how to plan writing for assessment are included. Suggestions on using different sources of information and inspiration for your writing, how to use feedback to improve your writing, and how to get the most from university student support services are given. Writing is an important part of your life when you are studying in health and social care. This chapter helps you to put it into perspective alongside the rest of your life, so that you can approach the act of writing without fear, and develop your writing skills to achieve your full potential in your chosen field within health and social care.
    • Reablement and support workers

      Dibsdall, L; Clampin, A.; Chapman, Hazel M.; Ebrahimi, V.A.; University of Chester (Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      Chapter outline Support workers are key to the delivery of reablement services as they are the people who work on a day-to-day basis with service users. Support workers may join reablement teams without any experience in working in health and social care. More commonly, support workers move into reablement teams from therapy assistant roles or from working in a home care service. These support workers bring a wealth of experience to the role, but differences in both the process and the outcome of reablement and home care can offset the benefits of this experience. Reablement is a change in approach to care from being ‘task-led’ to a ‘doing with’, person-centred and outcomes-based approach. This holistic view of working with people who use these services has been largely welcomed by support workers who enjoy supporting them to do more for themselves. This chapter will consider some key skills and techniques used by support workers in reablement services, such as use of equipment, activity analysis and energy conservation. Support workers need appropriate training and education in reablement so that practice is meaningful, and the concept of reablement is clearly understood and articulated. This is fundamental to an inclusive approach to interacting with the service user, enabling them to grow in confidence and autonomy, and engage in the process of reablement. Suggested topics for inclusion in reablement training are included in this chapter and it is argued that occupational therapists (OT) are suitably experienced, and well placed, to provide this training. Before reading any further, you may want to recap on the concept discussed in Chapter 1 in the section ‘Defining occupation, activity and task (OAT) for reablement interventions’. Chapter objectives By the end of this chapter you should be able to: ➢➢ Outline the development of the reablement support worker role ➢➢ Compare and contrast ‘doing to’ and ‘doing with’ support worker approaches ➢➢ Explain the role of the support worker ➢➢ Evaluate equipment and reablement techniques support workers may use ➢➢ Describe the training requirements for being a support worker ➢➢ Consider the opportunities and challenges of being a support worker
    • Reablement services in health and social care

      Ebrahimi, V.A.; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      Edited book with concluding remarks written by the editors.
    • Registered nurses’ experiences of communicating respect to patients: influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known on influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based United Kingdom registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and interpersonal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care.