• Comment: ‘Nurses should understand practice in relation to theory’

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Emap, 2017-11-06)
      An opinion piece on the importance of theory in nursing
    • Development of the Compendium of Intellectual Disability Nursing Interventions

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Mafuba, Kay; Kiernan, Joann; Chester, Rebecca; Kudita, Chiedza; University of Chester (2021-07-06)
      This is a presentation that was delivered at the IASSIDD Europe Congress 6-8 July 2021, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    • Do health consultations for people with learning disabilities meet expectations? A narrative literature review

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-04-06)
      Aim: To explore the benefits and disadvantages of annual health checks for people with learning disabilities, including: • What are the rationales and outcome measures for health checks? • How well do health checks meet the needs of people with learning disabilities? • What areas does research in this topic need to focus on in the future? Background Health consultations are an interpersonal activity that influence health outcomes and attitudes towards self and health professionals for people with learning disabilities. Annual health checks have been introduced to improve health inequalities for people with learning disabilities Method A narrative literature review of health care for people with learning disabilities was undertaken to evaluate health care for this population, and specifically the outcomes from annual health checks. Findings: While annual health checks have made some improvements in terms of health outcomes, attendance for appointments is still low, provision is variable and experiences of health checks for people with learning disabilities are under-researched. Conclusions: Service-user-led research into their health experiences is needed. Research into the attitudes and experiences of health professionals in relation to people with learning disabilities is needed. Health care inequalities are only being partially addressed – improvement is needed in terms of service user experience and engagement.
    • Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter highlights eight simple rules for writing in health and social care - write, plan your writing, proofread and edit your writing, look it up, reflect, record the care you give, prepare, and enjoy yourself.
    • Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      Writing is a creative process. It transforms your own view of the world and enables you to grow and develop. This is why it is so commonly used as an assessment method, as educationalists use it to help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care. help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care.
    • The health consultation experience for people with learning disabilities: A constructivist grounded theory study based on symbolic interactionism

      Chapman, Hazel M. (University of Chester, 2014-06-09)
      Aims. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the health consultation experience for people with learning disabilities, particularly in terms of their self-concept Background. Annual health checks have been introduced as a reasonable adjustment for health providers to make in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities, who experience significantly poorer health outcomes than the general population. Evaluation of the health consultation from the service user perspective can inform this service provision. Design. A constructivist grounded theory approach, based on symbolic interactionism, was used to explore the meaning of the health consultation experience for the person with learning disabilities, and its effects on their sense of self. Methods. Purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit 25 participants with learning disabilities through a GP practice, self-advocacy groups and a health facilitator. Nine individual interviews, three interviews with two participants, three focus groups (n=7, n=5 and n=3), and an audio-recorded health check consultation were carried out (with two participants interviewed twice and four attending two focus groups), as well as a member check used to assess the resonance of the findings. Data collection was undertaken in different primary care trusts across the north west of England. Data were subjected to constant comparative analysis, using a symbolic interactionist approach, to explore all aspects of the health consultation experience and its effects on the self. Findings. Current expectations, attitudes and feelings about health consultations were strongly influenced by previous experience. Participants negotiated their own reality within the consultation, which affected their self-concept and engagement with their health care. Respectful and secure health professional – service user relationships, developed over time, were central to an effective consultation. Perspectives on the consultation, and engagement within it, were co-constructed with a companion, who could help to promote the personhood of the service user with support from the health professional. Anxiety, embarrassment and felt stigma were identified as significant barriers to communication and engagement within the consultation. Conclusions. People with learning disabilities have similar health consultation needs and expectations to other people, but may have more difficulties in engaging with the process and building trusting relationships with the health professional, due to previous negative experiences, anticipated stigma and loss of self within health settings leading to a fear of disclosure. This, combined with difficulties in communication and cognitive processing, results in less satisfactory outcomes persisting over time. The effects of triadic consultations are generally positive, particularly where relatives or health facilitators are involved. However, continuity of companion as well as health professional is needed, and more service user engagement should be supported. Fundamental attitude change by health professionals, supported by specific educational initiatives to enhance their understanding of the service user perspective, is needed to reduce health inequalities. Participatory research by people with learning disabilities should inform future health care practice.
    • Introduction - "How to write well: for students of health and social care"

      Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      The aim of this book is to demystify academic writing for undergraduate students in health and social care education. You are probably required to submit several assignments throughout your programme of study, which may take different formats such as a written essay, a poster or a dissertation. The allocation of marks for your assignments will be primarily dependent upon two factors: content and academic writing. This book focuses on the many aspects that impact on the quality of academic writing and will help you to develop the essential skills required for your undergraduate level study and to achieve success. Academic writing is a skill that develops with practice and therefore the book takes you through a step-by-step guide of how to improve your academic writing, thereby enabling you to improve your own writing skills.
    • An investigation into intellectual disability nursing interventions and their impact

      Mafuba, Kay; Chapman, Hazel M.; Kiernan, Joann; Kupara, Dorothy; Chester, Rebecca; Kudita, Chiedza; City University, London; University of Chester; Edge Hill University; Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust
      Aims To identify nursing-led and / or nursing centred interventions that are in place to address the challenging and changing needs of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). To identify areas of good care delivery, innovative practices, and possible gaps in the provision of care for individuals with IDs. Research questions The research sought to answer the following questions; What nursing led / nursing centred interventions are in place to respond to the changing needs of people with ID in the UK? Are there examples of service redesign to meet future needs? How could ID nurses better contribute to these interventions? Where in the UK are these interventions taking place? What is the impact of these interventions? Impacts of ID nursing interventions We used Braun and Clarke (2006)’s framework to analyse the data and we identified 13 themes of these impacts; Having a voice. Increased independence and choice. Improved health and quality of life. Improved access to health and social care services. Improved standards, quality of care, and patient experience. Improved awareness of the needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Reduced health inequalities and risks. Making reasonable adjustments. Improved transitions. Improved family life. Improved healthcare outcomes. Increased community presence and inclusion. Improved mental health and reduced challenging behaviour. Conclusions ID nurses implement a wide range of emerging interventions working in multi-disciplinary teams. They practice in a wide range of settings in the UK and other countries. More work is needed in order to better understand the reasons for the limited involvement of ID nurses with pregnant women with IDs and in end-of-life care. The variation in understanding the interventions undertaken by ID nurses between countries need to be further investigated.
    • Maintaining a safe environment

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Whittam, Susan; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      INTRODUCTION Managing our own safety is thought to be a basic survival skill, which all individuals possess. We are not aware of managing our physiological homeostasis (for example, ensuring that our body cells are supplied with sufficient oxygen to produce the energy they need to function), and spend years learning to calculate and avoid risk from the external environment, The ability to control safety, including physiological homeostasis, and using physical ability and intellectual ability to manage risk, depends on a person’s stage in their lifespan development, their physical and mental wellbeing, their cognitive ability and the ability to control environmental factors such as housing, traffic, pollutants and even conflict. Throughout the world there are many differences in the types of hazards and risks that people are exposed to and just as many differences in the way that people manage their own safety. The inclusion of this AL in the Roper et al (1996, 2000) model is to draw your attention to the importance of being able to recognise the threats that exist to human survival and wellbeing and identify the impact that this may have upon any individual at any given time in their lives. In order to develop the knowledge that you need to apply it to your nursing practice, you will also need to read about the underlying physiology (how the body functions), pathophysiology (the disease process), psychology (thoughts, feelings and behaviours) and nursing practice in more depth. Several health psychology and psychology for nursing texts are referred to throughout this chapter, but physiology, pathophysiology and nursing practice are underpinned by core texts (Brooker & Nicol, 2011; Waugh & Grant, 2014). By understanding the processes involved in maintaining a safe internal and external environment for the person, you will learn to assess risk and plan care to maintain the safety of your patients. The model helps us to develop our understanding by focusing upon three key areas: • the human body's ability to protect itself and the biological mechanisms that it employs to carry this out • the ability that individuals have to make choices and take action to keep safe and free from danger • the identification and understanding of the dangers and hazards that exist in the surrounding environment (including the health care environment) and how they pose a threat to individual safety and wellbeing. These three areas will be discussed throughout this chapter within the framework of the model and will help to develop an understanding of the AL and enable nursing interventions to be as individualised and effective as possible. Often concern for our own health and safety only becomes heightened when we become ill, have an accident or hear about a tragedy or event that has had terrible human consequences. However, patient safety is essential for high quality health care, and a requirement in the United Kingdom Code for Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2015) is to make the care and safety of people our main concern. Therefore, in nursing, we need to be able to assess and prevent risk, whether it arises from the person’s own health needs, or from the care we give and the way in which we give it. By using the framework of the Roper et al (1996, 2000) model in the following way we can begin to examine and identify how complex and varied health and safety issues really are and also identify the interrelatedness that exists between the other ALs. This chapter will therefore focus on the following: 1 The model of living • maintaining a safe environment in health and illness across the lifespan • dependence and independence in the activity of maintaining a safe environment • factors influencing the activity of maintaining a safe environment. 2 The model for nursing • the nursing care of individuals with health problems that affect their ability to undertake the activity of maintaining a safe environment • understanding of the hazards in the health care setting and how to promote patient safety effectively
    • Nurses' experiences of communicating respect to patients: Influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known about the influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based UK registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and inter-personal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care. Conclusion: Findings stress the need for improved conceptualisations of respect in healthcare settings to formally recognise the complex attitudinal and socially constructed nature of respect and for appropriate professional training to improve its communication
    • Nursing theories 1: person-centred care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2017-11-06)
      Definition and description of person-centred care Implications of person-centred care for nursing practice
    • Nursing theories 2: Clinical supervision

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2017-11-27)
      Definition of clinical supervision Benefits of clinical supervision for patients and staff
    • Nursing theories 3: Nursing Models

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Emap, 2018-01-08)
      Origins and value of nursing models
    • Nursing theories 4: Adherence, compliance and concordance

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Emap, 2018-01-15)
      Explains adherence, compliance and concordance for nursing practice
    • Nursing theories 5: Gender theory

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2018-02-26)
      Origins of feminist and gender theory and their relevance to nursing practice
    • Nursing theories 6: Social Class

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (EMAP, 2018-03-19)
      The origins and relevance of class theory for nursing
    • Patient experience of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): A systematic review

      Whyler, Jonathon; Bradley, Kirsty; Chapman, Hazel M.; Shaw, Elizabeth; Shetty, Amrith; Health Education England North West; Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester
      In the United Kingdom, electroconvulsive therapy (can be administered according to NICE guidelines for depression, catatonia or severe/prolonged mania (2003 NICE, 2009). ECT was first used in the United Kingdom in 1939 Kalinowsky 1939 and its application and practice has been developed and modernised since. There is a considerable body of research into the efficacy of ECT, and the Royal College of Psychiatrists report that in 2018/2019 68 of patients were much or very much improved following ECT (RCPsych, 2020). It is known however that both public perception and media portrayal of ECT is generally negative (Griffiths and O’Neill Kerr, 2019). Discussion This review highlights patient experiences of ECT through the identification of seven themes The findings suggest that patient experience of ECT includes themes of fear, consent, decision making and autonomy. Patients were found to experience fear and anxiety in regards to the procedure, and studies described patients being poorly informed about ECT. Issues around the consent process were highlighted including those in which patients did not feel they had a choice with regards to treatment ECT was associated with memory loss and cognitive impairment which were captured in patient experience following treatment. In many studies however, ECT was also found to be a tolerable and effective treatment with an improvement in symptoms and patient satisfaction reported The experience of ECT was affected by knowledge and information provision and high standards of service provision, including supportive nursing.
    • Person-centred healthcare research: A personal influence

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Foundation of Nursing Studies, 2018-05-16)
      Personal commentary on text: McCormack, B., van Dulmen, S., Eide, H., Skovdahl, K., Eide, T. (Ed.) (2017). Person-centred healthcare research. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Preparing to write

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter explores the psychology of writing, how to reduce stress and anxiety, why writing is important for learning and why you want to write well. The chapter also addresses getting started and finishing well.