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Evaluating the Use of Vitamin D Supplementation to Improve Glycaemic Outcome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Systematic Review of EvidenceMabhala, Mzwandile A.; Babanumi, Adetoyosi; Olagunju, Anthony; Akata, Eloho; Yohannes, Asmait; Universty of Chester; Mount Sinai Hospital, Ambulatory Surgery Centre (Scientific Research Publishing, 2017-09-22)Background: The evidence indicates that vitamin D [25(OH)D] improves glycaemic outcomes in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. The outcome measures used to determine the accuracy of this hypothesis are: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis which included all previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies that assessed the effects of vitamin D on glucose metabolism. We carried out an extensive electronic database search of published and unpublished RCTs, evaluating the association between vitamin D and glycaemic outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE, BioMed Central, Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILIACS) between the years 2005 and 2016. The full texts of relevant studies were retrieved and a snowballing technique was used to discover further studies missed from the initial database search. This was done by hand-searching for references within the retrieved articles. Results: A total of 17 studies were included in the review. The pooled effect of 15 studies that measured HbA1c showed an insignificant effect of vitamin D on HbA1c (Mean difference (MD) = −0.06 mmol/l; 95% CI = −0.26 to 0.14; I2 = 76%). A pooled analysis of seven studies that measured the effect of vitamin D on blood glucose also found no significant effect of vitamin D on T2DM (MD = −0.03 mmol/l; 95% CI = −0.69 to 0.63; I2 = 76%). Three studies that analysed the effect of vitamin D on insulin sensitivity also observed no significant effect (MD = −1.51 mmol/l; 95% CI = −3.61 to 0.60; I2 = 67%). Conclusion: In conclusion, although vitamin D has been extensively studied in relation to some glycaemic outcomes and some indications that increased plasma vitamin D concentrations might be linked to prevention of T2DM, firm universal conclusions about its benefits cannot be drawn. Further studies with better designed trials and larger sample sizes are needed to draw firmer conclusions
Predictors of mortality and survival in type 1 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in the Wirral PeninsulaAkata, Eloho (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-05)Background: The prevalence of T1D is rising, despite improvements in the management of this condition. It presents a risk of premature and excess mortality, which impacts survival and life expectancy. Aim: The study aim was to assess mortality, identify predicting risk factors for mortality and survival in T1D in the Wirral. A systematic review was done to establish present current evidence of all-cause and cause-specific mortality amongst T1D patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study design, 1786 patients diagnosed with T1D extracted from the Wirral Diabetes Register (WDR). The follow-up period was between 1st of January, 2000 to 31st December, 2012. The primary outcome measured was all-cause mortality. Results: 1458 participants with T1D meet the inclusion criteria, after a follow-up period of 12 years, 113(7.75%) deaths were recorded. While the incidence rate was steady over the study period, the prevalence rate continued to increase over the study period. Significant predictors of mortality in this cohort were age of diagnosis, duration of diabetes, HbA1c,systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and triglyceride levels. The predicting risk gender, age at diagnosis, duration of T1D, BMI, serum creatinine levels, SBP, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TC\HDL, and LDL\HDL showed a linear increase in mortality risk. IMD and DBP followed a U-shaped relationship with relative and absolute mortality, while HbA1c levels reveal a sinusoidal pattern with the highest risk of mortality at the levels ≤ 5.9% (41 mmol/mol). The risk of mortality for the predicting risk factors for this study ranged between 5% and 9%. Maximal risk of mortality of 9% was recorded in the predicting risks of smoking, BMI, SBP, and DBP. The risk of mortality of 8% was recorded for IMD, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, TG, LDL\HDL ratio, and TSH. The risk of mortality of 7% was recorded for the predicting variables of HbA1c, HDL, LDL, and TC\HDL ratio. The minimum risk of mortality of 5% was recorded for the predictor variable of the duration of diabetes. The significant predictors of mortality were the age at diagnosis, duration of diagnosis, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c. The burden of mortality rest disproportionately with females who had higher relative risk of mortality of 4 times that of their male counterparts, however, the burden of premature mortality as recorded by the years of potential life lost was slightly higher in males (1797[53.6%]) as compare to females (1553[46.4%]). Of the 113 deaths recorded for the cohort that indicated a proportion of 7.75% of the total T1D patients, records for only 37 participants were retrieved. The principal cause of death in this cohort was malignancy-related 8 deaths (21.6%), this was followed by cardiovascular disease and sepsis, each having 6 deaths (16.2%) respectively. Cerebrovascular disease accounted for 5 deaths (13.5%). Death from diabetes complications (hypoglycaemia) was recorded in 1 patient (2.7%). There were marked reductions in life expectancy for this cohort. Life expectancy at 40 years for females was to an average age mortality of 66.2 years as compared to males 78.3 years. There has been improved survival for T1D in this cohort, 77.185 years [95% CI: 75.191 – 79.179] in males and 76.011 years [95% CI: 73.169 – 78.000] in females. The systematic review highlighted increased mortality in those with T1D as compared to the general population, females showed greater risk of vascular complications as compared to the males with T1D. 35 studies were included. Results showed all-cause mortality RR 3.73 (95% CI 3.19, 4.36) compared to general population, with gender specific mortality RR 1.17 (95% CI 1.06, 1.29). For cause specific mortality risk (overall and gender specific): cardiovascular v disease RR 3.48 (95% CI 3.14, 3.86) and RR 1.41 (95% CI 0.92, 2.17); renal disease RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.89, 1.26) and RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.38, 1.04); neoplasms RR 1.03 (95% CI 0.92, 1.16) and RR 1.18 (95% CI 0.75, 1.86); cerebrovascular disease according to gender RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.66, 1.48), and accidents and suicides according to gender RR 2.30 (95% CI 1.31, 4.06). Conclusion In conclusion, the study highlighted significant mortality risk in females as compared to their male counterparts; there has been progress in the survival of patients with T1D. However, life expectancy remains reduced as compared to those without the condition. Prevalence of T1D continues to increase, and the complex interplay of the predictor variables support the need for an individualised approach to care.