• Creatively expanding research from work-based learning

      Scott, Deborah; University of Chester
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of creativity in work-based research and practice to yield deeper understanding of practice situations. Unexpected insights can lead one (or a team) to identify new approaches, tackling workplace issues differently, leading to unexpected outcomes of long-term impact. Design/methodology/approach – This paper draws on work conducted for a doctoral thesis, investigating the impact of work-based learning for recent masters graduates of a work-based learning programme. Fiction was incorporated into analysis of the data, creating play scripts to represent key aspects of the researcher’s perceptions and interpretations for each participant. Findings – Research participants experienced personal, professional and organisational impact, although there was considerable variability between individuals. Additionally, societal impact was wished for and/or effected. The approach to representation of analysis, which involved fictionalising participants’ experiences, created a strong Thirdspace liminality. This appeared to deepen awareness and understanding. Research limitations/implications – Such approaches can transform the researcher’s perspective, prompting insights which lead to further adventure and development in work-based research and practice. Practical implications – Managers and employees taking creative approaches in the workplace can prompt wide-ranging development and, with professional judgement, be constructive. Social implications – Managers and employees taking creative approaches in the workplace can prompt wide-ranging development and, with professional judgement, be constructive. Originality/value – The creation of play scripts, representing an interpretation of participants’ stories about their work-based learning experience, is an innovative feature of this work.
    • Critical discourse analysis and the questioning of dominant, hegemonic discourses of sustainable tourism in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

      Lyon, Andrew; Hunter-Jones, Philippa; University of Chester; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2019-01-14)
      The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how critical discourse analysis (CDA), an under-utilised methodological approach, can be used to critically question the dominant, hegemonic discourses surrounding sustainable development and sustainable tourism development. The Waterberg Biosphere Reserve in South Africa provides the study context. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide the framework for review, sustainable development an integral part of this framework. This research study examines three SDGs in particular: discourses surrounding SDG 4 (quality education), SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth) and SDG 15 (life on land). Interviews (n=35) were conducted, in South Africa, with multiple stakeholder groups. CDA techniques were applied to data analysis to examine the sustainable development/sustainable tourism discourses attached to the SDGs under review. Neoliberal discourses linked to the economy, the environment, and a sustaining of the tourism industry through top-down planning and unequal power distributions emerged. Conclusions reflect both upon the opportunities utilising a tool such as CDA presents, along with the limitations to take account of in applying it. CDA applications which explore SDGs by listening to the voices of the poor are suggested as one avenue for further research.
    • Crowdfunding industry—History, development, policies, and potential issues

      Zhao, Ying; Harris, Phil; Lam, Wing; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-14)
      Crowdfunding has gained a great deal of attention from policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the history and development of the industry and discusses different types of crowdfunding and their public policies. It is identified that the operation of peer‐to‐peer lending and equity‐ based crowdfunding is regulated by the Financial Authority; the reward‐based crowdfunding (RBC) and donation‐based crowdfunding (DBC) is yet to be regulated, neither in the United Kingdom or United States. The lack of rules and regulations in the latter two models highlights the burning issues such as potential fraud and mal- practice. Therefore, we suggest that it is timely to consider regulating the two types of crowdfunding possibly by governance mechanism with reporting requirements to keep track of the fund and to provide timely information. Additionally, it is advisable that practitioners to work on an agreed framework to establish industry standard, so potential investors can compare and assess the quality of projects easily. Finally, the management of crowdfunding platforms especially the RBC and DBC platforms should be improved. The ease of launching campaigns has made it difficult for both initiators and investors to succeed in the crowdfunding process. Further research to develop some form of assessment framework would be useful to both parties.
    • Culture, the missing link in value creation and governance in knowledge-intensive institutions?

      Millar, Carla C. J. M.; Peters, Kai; Millar, Hartley P. (Wiley, 2018-02-09)
    • Curriculum design for the post-industrial society: The facilitation of individually negotiated higher education in work based learning shell frameworks in the United Kingdom

      Talbot, Jon; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2017-02-01)
      During the past twenty years there has been increasing demand for more flexible forms of higher education, especially for adult learners. Adults have strong preferences for vocational learning, tailored to their professional context. Universities, organised along lines designed to meet the needs of an industrial society have been largely unable to adapt to the consequences of increased role specialisation in the post-industrial labour market. This chapter reviews developments in accredited universities in the United Kingdom where the development of ‘shell frameworks’, based upon the requirements of learners rather than subject discipline, has enabled some adults to fulfil their learning requirements and gain formally accredited qualifications. In the absence of research in this area a detailed case study familiar to the author is presented and an agenda for further research outlined.
    • Dark Open Innovation in a Criminal Organizational Context: the Case of Madoff’s Ponzi Fraud

      Manning, Paul; Stokes, Peter; Visser, Max; Rowland, Caroline A.; Tarba, Shlomo Y.; University of Chester; De Montfort University; Radboud University; University of Central Lancashire; University of Birmingham (Emerald, 2018-06-11)
      his paper investigates the processes of open innovation in the context of a fraudulent organization and, using the infamous Bernie L. Madoff Investment Securities (BLMIS) fraud case, introduces and elaborates upon the concept of dark open innovation. The paper’s conceptual framework is drawn from social capital theory, which is grounded on the socio-economics of Bourdieu, Coleman and Putnam and is employed in order to make sense of the processes that occur within dark open innovation. Given the self-evident access issues, this paper is necessarily based on archival and secondary sources taken from the court records of Madoff v New York—including victim impact statements, the defendant’s Plea Allocution, and academic and journalistic commentaries—which enable the identification of the processes involved in dark open innovation. Significantly, this paper also represents an important inter-disciplinary collaboration between academic scholars variously informed by business and history subject domains. Although almost invariably cast as a positive process, innovation can also be evidenced as a negative or dark force. This is particularly relevant in open innovation contexts, which often call for the creation of extended trust and close relationships. This paper outlines a case of dark open innovation. A key implication of this study is that organizational innovation is not automatically synonymous with human flourishing or progress. This paper challenges the automatic assumption of innovation being positive and introduces the notion of dark open innovation. Although this is accomplished by means of an in-depth single case, the findings have the potential to resonate in a wide spectrum of situations. Innovation is a concept that applies across a range of organization and management domains. Criminals also innovate; thus, the paper provides valuable insights into the organizational innovation processes especially involved in relation to dark open innovation contexts. It is important to develop and fully understand the possible wider meanings of innovation and also to recognise that innovation—particularly dark open innovation—does not always create progress. The Caveat Emptor warning is still relevant. The paper introduces the novel notion of dark open innovation.
    • The dark side of social capital: Lessons from the Madoff case

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Book chapter exploring the dark-side of the social capital concept.
    • Decision-making in practice: The use of cognitive heuristics by senior managers

      Warhurst, Russell; Proctor, Tony; Rowland, Caroline; Scanlon, Tom; Crowder, Mark (University of Chester, 2013-06)
      This thesis uses a grounded theory methodology to reveal the processes by which cognitive heuristics are used by senior managers to make decisions in a large UK local authority. The thesis is based on primary data, organisational documentation and an extensive and critical review of the pertinent literature. Primary data was generated over four years and involved detailed observation of 156 senior managers making a total of 513 decisions, together with formal interviews and informal discussions with these managers. The organisation under study provided an ideal context for this research since it offered a rich insight into management decision-making practices in diverse contexts such as social work and highways, and with varying degrees of urgency ranging from procurement decisions lasting several months to instant decisions concerning child protection. Furthermore, UK local government has been subject to drastic change in recent years, such as the introduction of private sector management practices and increased competition. This has been exacerbated by an austerity programme which means that local authorities, in common with much of the world, have to do a lot more with a lot less. The turbulent context of local government is, in Yin’s (2009) terms, an ‘exemplifying’ case study, and hence the issues raised in this study resonate far beyond the scope of this thesis. This thesis makes a number of significant contributions to knowledge. Firstly, original flow charts are developed that allow the underlying processes of heuristic decision-making to be identified, and these reveal that, whereas the academic literature treats heuristics as discrete entities, there is actually considerable interplay between them. Further, a new definition of the moral heuristic is developed, which allows researchers to view this heuristic at a higher, more conceptual level than has hitherto been possible. The thesis also extends the work of Daniel Kahneman and demonstrates that the role of the unconscious in decision-making is more complex than previously thought. For instance, intuitive heuristics can be used consciously and choice-based heuristics can be used unconsciously. It is also argued that the underlying processes of ‘classical’ theory are better explained by the degree of consciousness involved when making a decision, and not by the commonly accepted normative/behavioural distinction made by Herbert Simon and others. As such, this thesis represents an important contribution to the decision-making literature.
    • Delivering distance education for modern government: The F4Gov programme

      Talbot, Jon; University of Chester (2007-05-01)
      This article discusses the development and operation of an innovative, work based, distance delivered foundation degree developed by the University of Chester and the British Civil Service. Three areas for formal evaluation are identified - the implications of employer involvement in the design and management of the programme, the differential nature of the learning experience and factors underlying performance, and the impact of the programme in meeting employer goals.
    • Delivering distance education for modern government: The F4Gov programme at the University of Chester

      Talbot, Jon; University of Chester (2006-11-02)
      The Foundation for Govenment (F4Gov) programme developed for the British Civil Service is an innovative low-cost accredited programme of distance learning using a dedicated Virtual Learning Environment designed to improve individual and hence organisational performance. It is flexible in terms of design and delivery and enables individuals and organisations to devise learning which meets their needs. The emphasis upon theory and practice is designed to reflect practice as well as embed deeper learning associated with higher education. The content of the programme is designed to equip participants with the skills necessary to deliver modern government.
    • Delivering distance education for the Civil Service in the UK: The University of Chester’s Foundation for Government programme

      Talbot, Jon; University of Chester (Information Age Publishing, 2009-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses a distance delivered work based learning programme using a dedicated virtual learning environment for the British Civil Service called 'Foundation for Government'. There are currently about 350 students on the programme and at time of writing, the first learners are completing. The programme is designed to equip the broad mass of Civil Servants with the essential skills for modern government. While the programme has undoubtedly been successful, it has also raised a number of issues requiring further research. These are: the involvement of employers; technological versus educational imperatives; learner experience and progression and the assumption of knowledge transfer.
    • Delivering distance learning for modern government: The F4Gov programme at the University of Chester

      Talbot, Jon; University of Chester (2006-11-30)
      The Foundation for Government (F4Gov) programme developed for the Civil Service is an innovative low cost accredited programme of distance learning using a dedicated Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) designed to improved individual and hence organisational performance. It is flexible in terms of design and delivery and enables individuals and organisations to devise learning which meets their needs. The emphasis upon integrating theory and practice is designed to reflective practice as well as embed deeper learning associated with higher education. The content of the programme is designed to equip participants with the skills neccessary to deliver modern government. Progress with F4Gov is ongoing as new departments participate for the first time and additional HE providers are identified.
    • Demographic factors, personality and entrepreneurial inclination

      Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; Lam, Wing; Guangxi Normal University, University of Chester (Guangxi Social Science Association, 2018-06-08)
      This paper looks at the demographic factors of undergraduate and postgraduate students and explore their psychological characteristics in different aspects that related to entrepreneurial intention. 根据选取的335名在校大学生和研究生,探讨4种人口统计学因素[包括性别、年龄、家庭背景、学院 (经管类和非经管类)]及6种心理特征(包括控制点、成就需求、模糊容忍度、风险偏好、自信和创新的)对创 业意愿的影响。结果表明:成就需求、模糊容忍度、自信和创新在区分企业家和非企业家时具有重要意义,而控 制点和风险偏好没有表现出显著差异。除这6种心理特征外,研究结果还强调了家庭背景和学院在创业意愿预 测中起决定作用。这项研究对我国教育体制政策制定产生了巨大影响,同时弥补了中国样本的缺失
    • Determinants of Brand Loyalty: A Study of the Experience-Commitment- Loyalty Constructs

      Maheshwari, Vishwas; Lodorfos, George; Jacobsen, Siril; Univresity of Chester, Leeds Beckett University, Software Innovation Norway (Sciedu Press, 2014-11-16)
      Marketing strategies for brands have shifted its focus on relationships and value creation that directly links to brand loyalty, is the main focus of this paper and two key factors: brand experience and brand commitment, within automotive sector, are investigated to examine relative relationships. These factors have already been established to have a connection to brand loyalty. However, as brand commitment consists of both affective and continuance commitment, it is still somewhat unclear about which of these aspects of commitment has the greatest, or most important impact on brand loyalty. Moreover, the existing research and literature surrounding the brand experience construct is extensive. However, it is not entirely clear regarding this construct’s relationship to brand loyalty. While some authors claim that it affects brand loyalty directly, others have found that it is a dependent variable, which, alone does not have any immediate effect on brand loyalty. This study also investigates a connection between brand experience and brand loyalty as far as automotive sector is concerned, both with and without commitment as a mediator. As a result, continuance commitment was found to not have any considerable impact on the consumer’s loyalty towards a brand, it is assumed that factors such as price and other available alternatives dos not influence this desire to maintain said relationship.
    • Developing a pedagogical model for facilitating situated learning: A study

      Wall, Tony; Leonard, Dilys T.; University of Chester (European Association for Practitioner Research in Improving Learning, 2011-11)
      Learning through workplace activity and workplace projects, as part of a university level qualification, is an increasingly common approach for practitioners to study part-time higher education. In facilitating such ‘learning through work’ approaches, it is appropriate to adopt a learner centred pedagogy which is grounded in that workplace, and which creates ‘situated knowledge’ (Lave and Wenger, 1991). As described by Gibbons et al. (1994), this can create ‘mode 2’ knowledge which is situated, messy, problem-based and trans-disciplinary – rather than ‘mode 1’ knowledge which is academic/theoretical, sequential and organised by disciplinary boundaries. In assessing such ‘learning through work’ approaches, we have identified three recurring practical issues: learners focusing on describing rather than critical reflecting on their work for new insight, learners rejurgitating theory, and/or critically reflecting on practice without reference to mode 1 academic knowledge. As a result, the projects and assessments were considered to hold greater potential for change. This study draws on practice and data from the University of Chester’s Centre for Work Related Studies, one of the largest providers of negotiated, work based university-level learning, globally. In order to develop the facilitation of mode 2, situated knowledge, a pedagogical model was developed and refined over a period of two years – with learners across professional fields and disciplines, across different ‘learning through work’ subject foci including negotiated project learning, stress and stress management, communication skills, coaching practice and skills, academic skills, research skills, and so on. Using a cyclic first person action research methodological approach (see Whitehead and McNiff, 2006), the model was used in group workshop contexts and one-to-one facilitation contexts with professionals studying work based learning degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Individual feedback was sought after each interaction and learner feedback and grades for assessments were monitored. What are the findings and interpretations? The University’s distinctive pedagogical model (reported by Brodie and Irving, 2007) provided a starting point for the investigation. In trying to develop an effective and practical tool to explain and facilitate learning in mode 2 knowledge generation, another model emerged. Three distinctive aspects emerged based on Gibbons et al’s (1994) conception of mode 1 and mode 2 knowledge, in the shape of a triangle: 1. theoretical knowledge (mode 2 academic ideas, principles, theories), 2. critical reflection (questioning for new insight), and 3. the workplace (activity in it, as a location/space focus). During the development period, we have identified that learners place a high value on the model to structure own thinking and to help them articulate and structure the assessments. For them, it clearly distinguishes three important elements to pay attention to. Teaching staff have also found it easier and quicker to explain the mode of learning and assessments.
    • Developing effective pedagogies for lifelong learning: The Work Based and Integrative Studies program and its impact on the Forum Mobility project

      Talbot, Jon; Meakin, Robert; Jones, Gary; University of Chester, University of Chester, Forum Mobility Centres (NOVA Publishers, 2016-02-01)
      The chapter reviews the way the Work Based and Integrative Studies programme has transformed the forum mobility Centres into a learning organisation
    • Developing new work based learning pathways for housing practitioners whilst participating peripherally and legitimately: The situated learning of work based learning tutors

      Talbot, Jon; Leonard, Dilys T.; University of Chester (2009-04-30)
      This paper discusses the experiences of two work based learning tutors at the University of Chester in the context of developing work based learning for housing practitioners.
    • Digital Marketing and Young Consumers

      Maheshwari, Vishwas; Sinnott, Karl; Morris, Bethan; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Routledge, 2017-11-22)
      The digitalisation of media fuelled by remarkable technological advancement has changed the landscape of the business environment and the variety of functions within it since the initial development of the Internet. This includes key business operations of marketing and its relative activities such as advertising, direct and personal selling, relationship building, branding and brand development for enhancing communication to serve existing and increasing potential segments in a set market. Moreover, significant development of digital media has led to the establishment of the term digital marketing where traditional models and frameworks of marketing could be applied in a more enhanced manner using a variety of digital platforms, drastically improving the promptness and effectiveness of marketing efforts. This includes use of innovative webpages, social media marketing through prominent platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat and digital channels such as YouTube and mobile marketing applications. The use of digital marketing mediums have been increasingly popular within all demographic segments, especially for the purpose of information searching, fact-finding and establishing trustworthiness before committing to a particular product or a brand.
    • Do new first year students seek optimal distinctiveness in a new learning environment?

      Pownall, Ian; Kennedy, Victoria; Acquaye, David; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      The learning experience of the first year student joining Higher Education Institutions (HEI) can be examined from a number of perspectives and we focus upon the development of identity within that new learning environment. A conceptual framework is presented to argue that the tension between distinctiveness and social identification of the learner with the environment, contributes to how the learner engages in that environment through their processing style. A supporting empirical analysis explores this argument for a small sample of new first year students in two UK HEIs studying business modules. We determine that students exhibit cognitive dissonance through exercising a dominant processing style that is not primarily seeking to identify with that learning environment whilst also recognising the benefits of a more engaged processing style aligned with greater identification with their peer group. We propose therefore there is a need for the development of social identification capacity within new students.
    • Drama and theatre for health and well-being

      Wall, Tony; Fries, Julia; Rowe, Nick; Malone, Niamh; Österlind, Eva; University of Chester; Stockholm University; York St John University; Liverpool Hope University; Stockholm University (Springer, 2019-10-01)
      The rock art of indigenous communities from 20,000 years ago have been interpreted as early indications of how humans have connected performance, in a broad sense, with the health and well-being of their communities (Fleischer and Grehan, 2016). Now, at a global level, there is increasing recognition that drama and theatre can facilitate a variety of health and wellbeing outcomes for an extensive range of groups, not pre-determined by affluence or socioeconomic status (APPG, 2017). In a broad sense, drama and theatre are a constellation of arts based practices, processes, and spaces, which intentionally work with more or less fictive characters, roles, relationships, and plots, in order to generate a wide range of experiences or outcomes (Wall, Österlind and Fries, 2018, forthcoming). Indeed, theatre and drama have been described as “the most integrative of all the arts: they include singing, dancing, painting, sculpture, storytelling, music, puppetry, poetry and the art of acting” (British Medical Association, 2011, p 10), which can help people to understand and then change how they relate to and then live out their own world.