• Medium and large family businesses of North West England as learning organisations

      Harris, Phil; Lam, Wing; Page, Steve; Passikku Hannadige, Yimashi S. (University of Chester, 2020-10-30)
      This study is an exploration of the learning strategies of family businesses in the North West of England, within the framework of the theory of the Learning Organisation (LO). The main purpose of this study is to explore and evaluate the notion of the Learning Organisation and to investigate its prevalence and application to the Family Business sector within North West England. To date, a very limited amount of studies focused on the characteristics of the LO within the medium and large family business context. Therefore, this study contributes to knowledge by determining practical guidance for implementing LO characteristics that can be applied to family businesses. The study used a qualitative methodology, associated with the social constructivist and interpretivist paradigm. Six medium and large family businesses operating in North West England were chosen to facilitate the qualitative research. In the North West of England, medium and large family businesses have complex features which create high demand for owners and employees to adopt learning strategies discussed in the LO concept which makes it an ideal context to explore the prevalence and the application of LO characteristics. This research makes a number of contributions to knowledge. Firstly, through review and analysis of the currently available theoretical work from more than 40 LO theorists and practitioners spanning the last four decades. The development of this “theoretical frame of reference” and the terminology used for identifying and analysing of LO characteristics is not only seen as a vital fundamental step in the course of this thesis, but also as a major contribution to providing structure and improving the future academic study of LO. Second, findings from the study suggest that medium and large family businesses have shown the existence of some of the LO characteristics within the three main levels of the organisations. The notable findings of the research are that medium and large family businesses need to develop a learning culture with organisational learning to incorporate with the business strategy and provide a transformational leadership so as to achieve the possibility of becoming a LO. The findings identify that family businesses in the North West region have the potential to become Learning Organisations should they implement the proposed recommendations and changes to their currently family business models. Third, the thesis makes a methodological contribution by introducing a model of Learning Organisations which specifically relates to family businesses. Furthermore, this model aims to facilitate a learning culture that suggests family businesses adopt key characteristics of the LO for continuous improvement, collective learning, and enhancement of performance.
    • Mental toughness

      Strycharczyk, Doug; Clough, Peter; Wall, Tony; Perry, John; AQR Limited; University of Huddersfield; University of Chester; Mary Immaculate College (Springer, 2019-10-26)
      Since the turn of the 21st Century, Mental Toughness has been defined in a variety of ways (e.g. Clough, Earle & Sewell, 2002; Coulter, Mallett & Gucciardi, 2010; Fourie & Potgieter, 2001; Golby & Sheard, 2006; Gucciardi, Gordon & Dimmock, 2008; Jones, Hanton & Connaughton, 2007). Although they differ in many respects, the conceptualisation share a number of similarities. For example, self-belief is at the core of most definitions, motivation is central to most as is persistence in achieving and the ability to deal with setbacks. As such, Mental Toughness is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. Clough and Strycharczyk (2015: 33) suggest that: Mental Toughness is a narrow plastic personality trait which explains in large part how individuals respond differently to the same or similar stressors, pressures, opportunities and challenges… irrespective of prevailing circumstances.
    • Mental Toughness Development

      Wall, Tony; Strycharczyk, Doug; Clough, Peter; University of Chester; University of Huddersfield (Springer, 2019-11-29)
      Though there are different conceptions of mental toughness, there are a number of important commonalities, including: self-belief, attentional control, resilience, a success mindset, optimistic thinking, emotional awareness and regulation, ability to deal with perceived challenge, and contextual awareness and understanding (Crust and Clough 2011). As such, mental toughness has been conceptualised as a personality trait which describes the mindset that is engaged by people across extreme events as well as everyday events (Clough and Strycharczyk 2015; Stokes et al, 2018). It is closely related to qualities such as character, resilience, and grit, but whereas most personality models and measures assess the behavioural aspects of personality (how we act), mental toughness differs in that it assesses something more fundamental, that is, ‘how we think’, or why we act (and respond emotionally) to events (Clough and Strycharczyk, 2015).
    • Migration, money, markets and morality

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-11-03)
      Editorial Over the last year, the pressure of economic migration and vast numbers of people on the move who have been destabilised by conflict, instability and deprivation has impacted dramatically upon Europe and particularly the European Union (EU). Pictures of drowned children washed up on beaches, boat swampings, human flotsam, dead bodies of those suffocated and rotting in trucks of those who died being smuggled into the EU from suffocation and heat exhaustion. These are not the pictures of a civilised society and show the gang masters, wretches and gangsters of society taking advantage of human desperation. A coherent policy on economic migrants and political asylum seekers for the multi-state union has shown that one policy fitting all has buckled, broke and does not work. One has to be focused on supporting the weak and the vulnerable and giving clear guidelines on the numbers and quality of migrants that are needed in an economy. This works well in Australia, Canada and New Zealand and should be adopted more widely across the EU. Conflict and instability in the Middle East is fuelling much of this migration and the search for safety by asylum seekers. The instability of Africa and the North Coast of Africa is not helping. Long-term answers and care for immediate needs must be the answer. Europe like America has benefitted from economic migration and the wonderful contributions that asylum seekers and the persecuted have made in the past. We must make policy for refugees and migrants a public affairs and policy priority. This is a general issue of the journal and shows the breadth of thinking across the discipline.
    • Modelling determinants of a cost accounting system: Mixed methodology and logistic regression

      Nagirikandalage, P; University of Chester
      Mixed methodology is becoming increasingly significant in several scientific research areas. Empirical management and cost accounting research attempt to integrate quantitative and qualitative methods and combine theories generally associated with incommensurable paradigms. Furthermore, mixed methods research could provide a more comprehensive understanding of cost accounting research by establishing a prevailing means of validation of research findings. However, this has also been criticised considerably in the social science aspects especially due to failings of presenting a vibrant philosophical foundation to produce valid knowledge statements and also in circumstances of a concept of triangulation is emerged as a mean of validation. As a methodological note on the analytical aspects, logistic regression model has been used in various studies of management and cost accounting research. However, there are criticisms over the presentations of the logistic model which has led to a misinterpretation of research findings. As per the usage of these methodologies in various contexts are concerned, scholars in management and cost accounting have argued that Sri Lanka seems to be more profound in methodology but the methodology should be determined by the research question and it is not given. Sri Lanka is perceived to be an empirical laboratory for management research as management practices in this country are different or distinctive. Hence, reporting on distinctiveness of practices will be very appealing to international audiences. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the mixed methodology has been adopted and how the logistic regression model was used to model the determinants for the demand for cost accounting systems in Sri Lanka as a developing country. A cost accounting system (CAS) has been used for decision support, financial planning and control as well. Empirical evidence has shown that different factors have influenced on demand for CAS but again has shown mixed results and there is a lack of evidence from the developing country or emerging economy context as well. Hence, this research study attempts at bridging the gap between the literatures by modelling the determinants for the demand for a CAS within an emerging economy such as Sri Lanka. Logistic regression model has identified that the market competition, size, desire and need of the management, quality of the report generation and changing dynamics as significant predictors for the demand for a CAS. Thematic analysis has been adopted to analyse the qualitative data gathered to achieve an in-depth understanding of CAS. This paper allows understanding how mixed methods research is conceptualised across these studies. The findings show a range of perceived strengths and weaknesses/ limitations identified and opportunities and risks attributed to this approach as well.
    • Moments like diamonds in space: savoring the ageing process through positive engagement with adventure sports

      Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter; Gammon, Sean; Beard, Colin; Inkster, Allison (Informa UK Limited, 2016-10-07)
    • Monkey business, Marco Polo, and managing global public affairs and trade

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Wiley, 2016-02-02)
      Editorial We are now in the year of the Monkey, a year of excitement and innovation. Monkey years are often dramatic and see large-scale political change, and if you believe these things, it is predicted that we may see much political change and the forging of new alliances. Given the instability, we are seeing in the Middle East and large parts of Africa. Suspect that this is not a predication but a good probability. It is also over 700 years since Marco Polo started traveling eastwards and commented on Chinese and Indian civilizations and observed and recorded the vast amount of trade that was evident in Asia and moved along the Silk Road. He remarked that a stable system of government made this all work for the benefit of each society and that war invariably led to human suffering and mass migration and destruction. Little has changed except that the size of the Asian economies has become larger and the impact of war and conflict more psychologically impactful because of modern media, but the devastation on human life as tragic as ever. This is a general issue and reflects the vibrancy and range of material and research in the public affairs area. Researchers and practitioners represent the EU, Europe, North America, and Asia. We still have gaps in our knowledge geographically, particularly in understanding public affairs in China, India, Japan, and Korea; there has only been limited work on. The first
    • Mothers undertaking part-time Doctoral study: Experiences, Perceptions and Implications

      Stokes, Peter; Cronshaw, Suzanne (University of Chester, 2017-03)
      This thesis explores the lived experience of women with children, i.e. ‘mothers’ undertaking part-time doctoral study and considers the challenges and conflicts that arise from what Brown & Watson (2010) describe as ‘dual lives’, managing the doctoral student role with the roles of mother and worker. The research aimed to consider extant conceptualisations and understandings so that alternative discourses could emerge, viewing the part-time doctoral experience through the lens of mothers. This was undertaken through the analysis and application of conceptual frameworks that fuse Communities of Practice (Wenger 2008), Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan 1985), Self-Categorization Theory (Turner 1987) and Lived Experience (Manen 1990). The marginalized voices of ‘Mothers doing doctorates’ provide a new perspective on the ‘non-traditional’ PhD student experience, allowing a deeper understanding of the challenges facing this ‘community’ by identifying and analysing key themes of identity, motivation, feelings and beliefs within a framework of communities of practice. Identifying Wenger’s Communities of Practice as a framework for discussion, a model was developed in relation to the field data to understand the women’s experiences of part-time PhD study. This model focused on four key areas: learning as belonging, learning as becoming, learning as doing and learning as experience. Each area related to a major theme in the women’s experience, that of identity, motivation, the student experience and their own feelings and perceptions about themselves and the process. The findings determine the process of studying for a PhD provided the women with a means of identity expression that had previously been stifled through the adoption of the role of being a ‘mum’. Through part-time doctoral study, this sense of re-awakening both intellectually and personally provided women with a renewed sense of positivity and confidence, demonstrating a resistance against the dominant ideology that dictates women’s ‘natural’ place is in full-time motherhood (Hughes 2002). It provided them intellectual stimulus and allowed them a voice, that the mother role had smothered as it was not in-keeping with the in-group identities highlighted by the women as central to their public and private domain. The academic development of the women helped them to ii see themselves as ‘worthy’, strengthening their own identity as they developed a redefined sense of self. In securing data from thirty-five women, this research provides an original insight into the experiences of an obscured and marginalised group. The combination of narrative and autoethnographic methods has surfaced original data that highlights the experiences and impact of part-time PhD study on women with children. The contribution to current thinking around part-time PhDs is the critique of extant normative practice, this research illustrates and exemplifies how these existing processes marginalise mothers doing part-time doctorates and points to new approaches in practice.
    • NVQs and approaches to competence in the UK: Contexts, issues and prospects

      Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-10-04)
      Chapter 15. NVQs and approaches to competence in the UK: Contexts, issues and prospects. Peter Stokes, University of Chester, UK Abstract Competence frameworks are a long-standing part of the (United Kingdom) UK training and development environment (Chang et al. 2013; CIPD, 2007, 2013, 2014; Sparrow and Bognanno, 1994). In the British context, competence-based approaches and qualifications evoke strong reactions both in terms of supporters and detractors regarding their worth, viability and relevance. Nevertheless, they have been repeatedly employed by governments and employers’ bodies as a means of responding to skills gaps in business sectors and the national economy. The Chapter examines these tensions and surfaces the underlying paradigms and drivers contributing a novel insight into competence in the UK context. The Chapter identifies prevalent characteristics in the UK competence domain. It explains these features through the impact of hegemonic modernistic and positivistic paradigms built on British socio-political traditions of empiricism, pragmatism and the valuing of the experiential. These, in turn, dominate large areas of management, organization thinking and competence approaches operating in connection with processes of commodification, marketization and socio-political issues. This context is illustrated with an ethnographically-styled case study on the implementation of a competence framework in a British semi-skilled employee organizational setting. Overall, the Chapter, in identifying and contextualising the paradigms which operate at the heart of competence in the UK, reveals implications linked to individual meaning, social class and professional identity and, also, potential future trajectories of competence in an increasingly complex world.
    • On becoming in pedagogical performance artist

      Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Research in Management Learning and Education (RMLE), 2018-07-31)
      Contemporary forms of management education continue to reproduce the mechanistic, bureaucratic structures which shape and position all involved in the management learning context. This includes hidden (and not so hidden) co-ordinates of how we should relate to each other, the planet, and its co-inhabitants. Such co-ordinates continue to be imbued with dis-passion and de-tachment, with dramatic and traumatic consequences in relation to sustainable development: the need for radical leaps in holistic, affective engagement is therefore urgent. As Paul Shrivastava’s work on ‘pedagogies of passion’ has illustrated, the arts are central to this movement. But as we move towards such spaces, some crucial questions remain: Who is the artist? What does it mean for a management educator to become an artist? What does it mean for the metaphorical classroom to become the canvas or the stage? Might becoming a (management) pedagogical performance artist become a path to existential crises? This QIC aspires to explore these prompts to raise new questions, concerns and ideas.
    • "On Mission and Leadership", Book Review

      Manning, Paul; The University of Liverpool
      Book Review
    • Open Educational Resources for Higher Education: A global revolution

      Talbot, Jon (University of Chester, 2012-09-14)
      The paper summarises the development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and lists the main providers along with an analysis of their potential value for re-purposing
    • Organisational resilience of business schools: exploring the possibilities of adaptation

      Cregan, Karen; Wall, Tony; Evans, Vicky; Marshall, Julie; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Research in Management Learning and Education, 2019-07-31)
      Organisational resilience of business schools: exploring the possibilities of adaptation The organisational landscape of business schools in some countries is in a state of fragility, plagued by an ongoing relevance critique, increasing competition from non-traditional private providers, demographics which intensify the competition for typical undergraduate students, increasing pressure for greater economic and environmental responsibility, a need to respond to technological advances, and a different political posture to the financial support of universities (Stokes et al 2018). As such, within this morphing landscape, the organisational resilience of business schools has perhaps become more pertinent in modern times than in recent history. Indeed, the UK is said to be experiencing an unprecedented market shake out of business schools with at least three facing imminent closure. Within this practice setting, organisational resilience has been conceptualised as (1) the capacity of an organisation to 'bounce back' (to survive) after an adverse or traumatic event, (2) the capacity of an organisation to adapt to circumstances and events before they are experienced as adverse, as traumatic or as a crisis, and (3) the aggregated capacities of people to absorb crises and operationally adapt to new situations (Koronis and Ponis, 2018; Evans, Cregan, & Wall, 2019 forthcoming). With this in mind, the first part of this QIC therefore explores how we might re-organise university-based business schools in ways which develop the adaptive capacities which are seemingly pertinent to contemporary circumstances. At the same time, organisational re-configurations are likely to, whether intended or unintended, shape the pedagogic practices of business schools (Akrivou & Bradbury-Huang, 2015) as well as have the potential for wider consequential tensions in a neo-liberal marketplace which emphasises individualism (Wall and Jarvis 2015). For example, a business school that develops strong employer involvement in curricula design, delivery and assessment may have a wider network of positive ties to sustain itself during difficult times, but adopting team based assessment practices (which can inculcate the wider social impact awareness of students) can create student experience challenges. So the second part of this QIC is to explore how the changes which are created for organisational resilience might shape pedagogic practices, and in turn, the possible consequences of organising in such ways. References Akrivou, K., & Bradbury-Huang, H. (2015). Educating integrated catalysts: Transforming business schools toward ethics and sustainability. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 222-240. Evans, V., Cregan, K., & Wall, T. (2019 forthcoming) Organizational resilience, in Leal Filho, W. (ed) Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals – Good Health & Wellbeing, Springer, Cham Koronis, E., & Ponis, S. (2018). Better than before: the resilient organization in crisis mode. Journal of Business Strategy, 39(1), 32-42. Stokes, P., Smith, S., Wall, T., Moore, N., Rowland, C., Ward, T., & Cronshaw, S. (2018). Resilience and the (micro-)dynamics of organizational ambidexterity: Implications for strategic HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, , 1-36. doi:10.1080/09585192.2018.1474939 Wall, T. & Jarvis, M. (2015). Business schools as educational provocateurs of productivity via interrelated landscapes of practice. Leadership & Policy Series. The Chartered Association of Business Schools, London.
    • Organizational Dynamics and Adoption of Innovations: A Study within the Context of Software Firms in Sri Lanka

      Udagedara, Susantha; Allman, Kurt; University of Salford; University of Keele (Routledge, 2019-11-11)
      This paper examines the effect of organizational dynamics on innovation focus using the residual dominant and emergent theoretical framework (RDE) and the empirical evidence of four case studies. The findings revealed that different types of innovation coexist, but one type becomes dominant over other types at a certain time as the innovation focus is changed in line with the strategic priorities of firms. We found that innovation focus takes the form of product, process, and organizational innovation pattern over time when the firms move from an entrepreneurial organization to a more formal business corporation. More importantly, the RDE framework provides an appropriate lens for practitioners, in identifying the enablers and barriers of innovation.
    • Organizational Initiatives for Spiritual Wellbeing in the Workplace

      Foster, Scott; Wall, Tony; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-10-01)
      Spirituality can be understood in a pluralistic way, with varying conceptualisations through history and in different cultural contexts, and have included conceptions which place it synonymously with the practice of religious rituals as well as practices which enable people to experience a higher life purpose separate from a religious belief. However, within the context of work, its discussion has come to focus on re-orienting or re-balancing the experience of organisational life in developed countries in The West towards a more sustained and meaningful life in a context of workforce diversity and a greater sense of connectedness to others (Wall et al 2019). Against this backdrop, in the last decade, there has been a steady rise in interest regarding spiritual wellbeing and an increase inthe correlation between the expression of one’s spirituality and cases that are regarded as discrimination (Krahnke and Hoffman, 2002; Loo, 2017). Spiritualty has quickly become topical within the workplace and within business literature, partly due to the increase in technology such as the internet and social media (Long and Mills, 2010; Krishnakumer and Neck, 2002; Pawar, 2016; Bhatia and Arora, 2017). Whilst organisations are attempting to understand the complexity of spirituality, there are warnings in the literature that workplace spirituality is a prominent reality in the current business environment and it should not be dismissed (Deshpande, 2012; Alas and Mousa, 2016; Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2014). Therefore, workplace spirituality can be defined as a “contextualised phenomenon that examines questions of how spirituality relates to one’s work organisation and can be conceptualised as a lived experience and expression of ones spirituality in the context or work and workplace”. (Sheep, 2006:358)
    • Organizational Resilience and Sustainable Development

      Evans, Vicky; Cregan, Karen; Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-03-08)
      Organisational resilience has been conceptualised in a variety of ways. Koronis and Ponis (2018) have articulated this as three distinct concepts: (1) the capacity of an organisation to 'bounce back' (to survive) after an adverse or traumatic event, (2) the capacity of an organisation to adapt to circumstances and events before they are experienced as adverse, as traumatic or a crisis, and (3) the aggregated capacities of people to absorb crises and operationally adapt to new situations. As yet, there is no consistently used terminology or conceptual foundations. Nevertheless, four key drivers of organisational resilience are highlighted in the literature – preparedness, responsiveness, adaptability and learning – which can be used as a starting point to identify associated interventions which may develop those drivers (Koronis and Ponis, 2018). Maturity models of organisational resilience suggest how these drivers develop progressively, interacting and reinforcing one another to the fullest extent in organisations which manage resilience holistically, achieving an “anti-fragile” stage of maturity where an organisation improves, prospers, and/or thrives in conditions of volatility, change or disruption in the wider environment (e.g. Leflar and Siegal, 2013; Ruiz and Martin et al, 2018).
    • Organizations and organizing in a French context

      Stokes, Peter; Davoine, Eric; Oiry, Ewan; University of Chester ; University of Fribourg ; Univeristy of Poitiers (Emerald Publishing, 2014-12-22)
      This special issues consists of seven papers which present French organization from different styles and perspectives.
    • Organizations and organizing in an Indian context

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Balasubrahmanyam, Suram; Singh, Sanjay K.; University of Chester (Emerald, 2013)
      This special issue aims to deepen theoretical and empirical understanding of Indian organizations and Indian markets and comment on the unique challenges confronting organizations in emerging economies. In placing the focus on organizations and organizing in an Indian context, this special issue explores the proposition that these phenomena are qualitatively different from their manifestations in other parts of the world.
    • Pedagogies for resilience in business schools: Exploring strategies and tactics

      Rowe, Lisa; Wall, Tony; Cregan, Karen; Evans, Vicky; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Research in Management Learning and Education (RMLE), 2019-07)
      The capacity to bounce back after challenge or disruption and positive adapt to new circumstances has recently become more pronounced because of market volatilities, technological advances at work, as well as the ubiquitous and relentless use of social media (UNESCO 2017; Stokes et al 2018). Indeed, such changes have highlighted the strategic importance – and concern for the lack of – the resilience capacities of business school graduates at all levels (Robertson et al 2015; King et al 2015). Within this context, evidence indicates how the capacities for managerial resilience can be developed through various pedagogical aspects including strategies and tactics for promoting personal flexibility, purposefulness, self-confidence, and social networks (Cooper et al 2013). However, such capacities are curbed and contained by wider forces such as the broader organisational structure and culture of the business school itself and of the graduate employer, both of which limit potential flexibility (Akrivou & Bradbury-Huang, 2015; Robertson et al, 2015; Cregan et al 2019). To add further complexity, recent research has also highlighted the contextualised nature of resilience, whereby its meaning and manifestation vary across occupational settings (Kossek & Perrigino, 2016). Within this context, therefore, a critical challenge for contemporary business school education is to develop pedagogical interventions which might generate resources for resilience which are not only relevant to be able to express and mobilise resilience in a diverse range of occupational settings, but which are also sensitive to wider influences which shape resilience (e.g. employer organisational structures). Such a challenge needs to reflect the deeply pragmatic question of how to develop or integrate a pedagogical response in a context whereby (1) that response is culturally located in a business school organisational structure and culture which might limit capacity development, and (2) the curricula may already be heavily prescribed due to accreditation requirements or is already multi-layered from other agendas such as employability, responsibility, or sustainability (Wall et al, 2017; Cregan et al, 2019). Therefore this QIC aims to explore the strategies and tactics of how to inculcate the resilience capacities of business school learners where the expression of that capacity itself may manifest differently across occupational settings and which is organisationally bound in its development. References Akrivou, K., & Bradbury-Huang, H. (2015). Educating integrated catalysts: Transforming business schools toward ethics and sustainability. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 222-240. Cooper, C. L., Flint-Taylor, J., and Pearn, M. (2013). Building resilience for success: A resource for managers and organizations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Cregan, K., Rowe, L., & Wall, T. (2019 forthcoming) Resilience education and training, in Leal Filho, W. (ed) Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals – Good Health & Wellbeing. Springer, Cham. King, D. D., Newman, A., & Luthans, F. (2015). Not if, but when we need resilience in the workplace: Workplace resilience. Journal of Organizational Behavior, n/a. Kossek, E. E., and Perrigino, M. B. (2016). Resilience: A review using a grounded integrated occupational approach. The Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), 729-797. Robertson, I. T., Cooper, C. L., Sarkar, M., and Curran, T. (2015). Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(3), 533–562. Stokes, P., Smith, S., Wall, T., Moore, N., Rowland, C., Ward, T., & Cronshaw, S. (2018). Resilience and the (micro-)dynamics of organizational ambidexterity: Implications for strategic HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-36. UNESCO (2017). Six ways to ensure higher education leaves no one behind, Policy Paper 30. Available at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002478/247862E.pdf (Accessed 20th Nov, 2018). Wall, T., Russell, J., Moore, N. (2017) Positive emotion in workplace impact: the case of a work-based learning project utilising appreciative inquiry. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 9 (2): 129-146.
    • Perceived unfairness in appraisal: Engagement and sustainable organizational performance

      Rowland, Caroline A.; Hall, Roger D.; University of Chester; Hall Consultancy, Manchester (EuroMed Journal of Business, 2013-09-13)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of appraisal systems to sustainable organizational effectiveness. It argues that competitive advantage is increasingly reliant on discretionary effort. As the emphasis of appraisal has shifted from a developmental to a performance focus, perceived unfairness in both procedures and outcomes threatens to undermine commitment and, therefore, sustainable performance. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on a range of theoretical frameworks, current practices and experiences are examined and future trends considered. Empirical research includes a ten-year study of practising managers and ethnography, questionnaires and interviews in two large organizations. Findings – Appraisal frequently creates actual and perceived injustice in terms of both procedures and rewards. It also generates tensions between managing performance and encouraging engagement. Research limitations/implications – This study indicates that further research in other sectors will contribute to the development of greater understanding of sustainable strategic approaches to HRM. Practical implications – Emphasis on performance in appraisal devalues developmental aspects and sometimes affects employee well-being. Separation of the two through mentorship schemes may help to address the paradox, whereby the performance management element of appraisal undermines rather than enhances organizational effectiveness. Originality/value – The conventional wisdom of the appraisal culture is challenged. We argue it is essential to expand the discourse between performance, justice and ethical value systems if sustainable competitive advantage and well-being are to be achieved.