• Service learning and sustainability education

      Wall, Tony; University of Chester (2019-09-30)
      In the context of higher education, service-learning has been adopted for various dimensions of sustainability education across disciplines including environmental studies (Helicke 2014), engineering (Seay et al 2016), entrepreneurship (Niehm et al 2015), nursing (Dalmida 2016), clinical studies (Petersen et al 2015), psychology (Bringle et al 2016), and political sciences (Benjamin-Alvarado, 2015). It has been described as a philosophy, pedagogy, and programme (Jacoby 2015), conceptualised as a form of experiential education based on ‘reciprocal learning’ (Sigmon, 1979) where the ‘head, hands and heart’ can become integrated (Sipos et al 2008). Here, both the learner offering service and the recipient of that service are considered equally important, and both are mutually changed or transformed in some way (a relationship signified by the use of a hyphen between service and learning, ibid). Such reciprocity, however, distinguishes service-learning from volunteering and community service (which typically tend to prioritise the recipient of the service learner’s efforts), as well as field and internship education (which typically tend to prioritise the learner) (Sigmon, 1994)...
    • Service-learning and academic activism: a review, prospects, and a time for revival

      Wall, Tony; Giles, Dwight; Stanton, Tim; University of Chester; University of Massachusetts; Stanford University (Emerald, 2018-08-23)
      Service-learning is an educational movement with roots in academic activism fuelled by commitments to accessibility, social mobility, social justice, community engagement, sustainable development, and learning. Reviewing the voices of the original US ‘pioneers’ and contemporary practitioners over the last 30 years, this chapter argues that (1) contemporary service learning has been ‘mainstreamed’ in various ways, and that (2) such a re-conceptualisation seems to have re-formatted educational commitments in line with contemporary economic-framings and circumstances of higher education. However, it also argues that beyond overt compliance and resistance, it is possible for practitioners and higher education more broadly to create responses and spaces where educational adaptation and transformation can emerge. To facilitate such responses, it is important to embrace the strong driving force of passion and emotion which can drive and sustain change agents in practice. This chapter aspires to revitalise and rejuvenate academic activism as a legitimate catalyst of educational transformation on a global platform.
    • Shaping the future : A study using scenario analysis

      Pownall, Ian; University of Chester (SAGE, 2019-12-31)
      Scenario analysis requires the integration of a diversity of concepts, views, data and practices for organisations. It is an analysis that draws upon current understanding of organizational and environmental contexts but also one that reflects creativity in the construction of future scenarios within which organisations could compete. This case study explores the application of scenario analysis using the ‘Field Anomaly Relaxation’ (FAR) technique by a group of regional stakeholders to understand and prioritize emergent futures in a UK seaside town. The discussion is focused on two phases of that research project; the series of stakeholder meetings to prioritize emergent futures and the factors shaping them; final analytical and interpretive phase that generated four distinctive scenarios which were used to frame ongoing strategic planning by local and regional organisations.
    • Shaping the tools: Study skills in theology

      Ackroyd, Ruth; Major, David; Chester College of Higher Education (Darton, Longman & Todd, 1999-09-01)
      This book discusses how to develop effective reading, effective writing, assessment, and critical skills to assist with theological study.
    • Sights and insights: Vocational outdoor students’ learning

      Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter; University of Central Lancashire; University of Chester (Outdoor Council of Australia, 2016-02-18)
      Outdoor leader and adventure sport education in the United Kingdom has been characterized by an over-emphasis on technical skills at the expense of equally important, but often marginalized intra- and inter-personal skills necessary for contemporary outdoor employment. This study examined the lived experience of vocational outdoor students in order, firstly, to identify what was learned about the workplace through using reflective practice and, secondly, what was learned about reflective practice through this experience. The study used a purposive sample of students (n=15) who were invited to maintain reflective journals during summer work experience, and this was followed up with semi-structured interviews. Manual Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) revealed that in the workplace setting students used reflective practice to understand and develop technical proficiency, support awareness of the value of theory, and acted as a platform to express emergent concepts of ‘professionalism’. Lessons about reflective practice emphasized its value in social settings, acknowledging different ways of reflection, and understanding and managing professional life beyond graduation.
    • Signs and wonders: Exploring the effects and impact of the Investors in People logo and symbols

      Smith, Simon M.; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Emerald, 2015-05-06)
      Purpose – This paper aims to examine and assess the reputational impact of the logo and symbols of the UK Standard Investors in People (IiP). The extant literature highlights differing opinions in terms of the likely benefits that IiP generates following achievement of the Standard. This paper focuses specifically on the perceptions of reputational claims made regarding existing employees, potential employees and customers. Design/methodology/approach – The debate is explored through 38 interviews using the perceptions of managers and frontline employees within six IiP-accredited firms and one non-accredited firm. Findings – The study indicates that the logo and symbols of the Standard have minimal meaning and significance for the interviewees and their outlook on potential employees and customers. There were some indications, however, that the wider reputational implications of carrying the logo may have some potentially beneficial effects. Originality/value – The paper concludes that the overarching findings present a potentially serious issue for IiP, and that there is a need to understand further the impact and value of the logo and symbols.
    • ‘Smart cities’ – Dynamic sustainability issues and challenges for 'old world' economies: A case from the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Moore, Neil; Mathews, Martin V. C.; Smith, Simon M.; Lichy, Jessica; Scott, Peter; Ward, Tony; et al. (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2015-10-01)
      The rapid and dynamic rate of urbanization, particularly in emerging world economies, has resulted in a need to find sustainable ways of dealing with the excessive strains and pressures that come to bear on existing infrastructures and relationships. Increasingly during the twenty-first century policy makers have turned to technological solutions to deal with this challenge and the dynamics inherent within it. This move towards the utilization of technology to underpin infrastructure has led to the emergence of the term ‘Smart City’. Smart cities incorporate technology based solutions in their planning development and operation. This paper explores the organizational issues and challenges facing a post-industrial agglomeration in the North West of England as it attempted to become a ‘Smart City’. In particular the paper identifies and discusses the factors that posed significant challenges for the dynamic relationships residents, policymakers and public and private sector organizations and as a result aims to use these micro-level issues to inform the macro-debate and context of wider Smart City discussions. In order to achieve this, the paper develops a range of recommendations that are designed to inform Smart City design, planning and implementation strategies.
    • Social Capital: A review from an ethics perspective

      Ayios, Angela; Jeurissen, Ronald; Manning, Paul; Spence, Laura J.; Ayios, A. Brunel University; Jeurissen, R. Nyenrode University; Mannin, P. Liverpool UNiverisrity; Spence, L. R., Royal Holloway, University of London. (Wiley & Sons, 2014-01-30)
      Abstract Social capital has as its key element the value of social relationships to generate positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society. Some authors have noted that social capital nevertheless has a dark side. There is a moral element to such a conceptualisation, yet there is scarce discussion of ethical elements within the social capital literature. In this paper ethical theory is applied to four traditions or approaches to economic social capital: neo-capitalism; network/reputation; neo-Tocquevellian; and development. Each is considered in detail and subject to ethical analysis by the application of utilitarianism, Kantianism, justice and rights, and ethic of care. Accordingly the assumption that social capital is either value-neutral or a force for good is critiqued and a framework for understanding social capital from an ethics perspective presented.
    • Soft Power and International Political Marketing

      Sun, Henry; harris, Phil; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-06-28)
      Joseph Nye defines soft power as the ability of “getting others to want the outcomes that you want” through persuasion and attraction of one’s ideas or the ability to set the political agenda to shape the preferences of others. Nye further argues that in the international arena, besides the military and economic power, there is a third dimension which is characterized as indirect power, cooptive power, and intangible power in contrary to direct power, coercive power, and tangible power. Nye states, “The ability to establish references tends to be associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology and institutions. This dimension can be thought of as soft power, in contrast to the hard command power usually associated with tangible resources like military and economic strength.” Henry Sun defines international political marketing as following: International Political Marketing seeks to establish, maintain and enhance long-term relations among nation-states, political actors and organizations, so that the objectives of stakeholders involved are met. This is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises through cross-border and cross-culture marketing strategy and management
    • Spirituality and wellbeing in the workplace

      Foster, Scott; Wall, Tony; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (2019-09-26)
      The late 20th century and the early 21st centuries have seen a growing interest in spirituality in general and its role in the workplace (Petchsawanga and Duchon, 2012; Bell and Burack, 2001; Sedikides, 2010; Wagner-Marsh and Conley, 1999). However, despite this growing interest in spirituality and its place within the organisation, the concept remains undertheorized, and there is no generally accepted definition. The literature is primarily dominated by speculative discussion, fragmentation, dearth and incomprehensibility and a marked lack of empirical data, especially quantitative research (Khaled et al. 2012). Corner (2008: 377) goes on to note that, much of this work is in fact useful and thought-provoking but “…needs to be extended with experience or empirical data to prevent theories being remote from the phenomenon they intend to describe.” Often, the words spirituality, ethics and religion tend to overlap, so there is a need to clarify the concepts (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2010). In a broad sense, ethics normally differentiates between right and wrong, religion is concerned with beliefs, prayers, and related formalised practices, whilst spirituality tends to refer to an individual’s determination to experience a deeper meaning to life through the way in which they live and work. (Snyder and Lopez, 2008).
    • Staging and managing match events in the English professional football industry: an SME learning perspective

      Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; Scott, Peter; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2016-06-01)
      Abstract: The English professional football industry has attracted considerable academic interest in relation to the tragedies that occurred during the 20th century. However, the bulk of this work has focused on historical, social and economic factors rather than match processes. Consequently, an in-depth view of contemporary football match event management processes does not exist. This paper aims to address this by examining small and medium enterprises (SME) and event literatures in order to surface the SME mentality evident in the majority of clubs. A Football Match Event Lifecycle Model is developed and then used to provide an insight into contemporary football event management issues and processes and demonstrate how clubs can generate, transfer and use knowledge to learn from the mistakes of the past. The paper adopts an interpretivist methodological approach and utilises qualitative primary data from semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation.
    • Stereotypical Notions of the Entrepreneur: An Analysis from a Perspective of Gender

      Hancock, Connie; University of Chester, University of Barcelona (Routledge, 2014-02-10)
      The principal objective of this paper is an analysis of the stereotypical figure of the entrepreneur in the Spanish context, from a perspective of gender. We provide evidence that the characteristics largely associated with an entrepreneurial individual are stereo-typically male or androgynous, with a notable absence of female typologies. Our findings suggest that this relationship has an influence on the continued predominance of male entrepreneurial activity. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on female entrepreneurship from an understudied perspective; gender stereotyping, demonstrating that socially constructed gender stereotyping persists in contemporary Spanish culture.
    • Story skills for managers: Nurturing motivation with teams

      Wall, Tony; Rossetti, Lisa; University of Chester (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013-08-28)
      Scientists tell us our brains are wired to live through stories. Stories are not just a natural way to communicate; they are used to boost engagement and well-being. This books offers managers practical tools and guidance on: >How stories keep your finger on the pulse of what’s going on >How to design stories to target motivational needs >How to tell high impact stories for optimal effect >How to breed stories in an upward spiral of positive cultural effect.
    • Storytelling for sustainable development

      Wall, Tony; Rossetti, Lisa; Hopkins, Sandra; University of Chester; Positive Lives; Lapidus International (Springer, 2019-05-28)
      The use of stories in higher education crosses a number of sustainable development dimensions, including the relationships between humans and the environment, but also for healing and well-being purposes. Although ‘story’ is often used synonymously with the terms ‘narrative’ or ‘narrative inquiry’, others view the notion of ‘story’ as having a special structure and utility (as will be discussed below) (e.g. Gabriel, 2000; Denning, 2011). Moon (2010: i) explains that stories are omnipresent in daily life, and can include “narrative, case study, life history, myth, anecdote, legend, scenario, illustration or example, storytelling and/or critical incident” and can be “‘told’ in many ways – spoken, written, filmed, mimed, acted, presented as cartoons and/or as new media formats”. In relation to sustainable development, Okri (1996) describes the role of the story as being vital to maintaining collective health: "A people are as healthy and confident as the stories they tell themselves. Sick storytellers can make nations sick. Without stories we would go mad”. Similarly, Gersie (1992) argues that storytelling inherently considers our current concerns about the Earth and the future, as it formats our “understanding [of] the many ways in which we value and devalue our beautiful green and blue planet… [the] practical insight into approaches to our most persistent environmental difficulties.” (Gersie, 1992: 1). As such, storytelling in the context of sustainable development is recognised as having a deeply educational function, “passing on accumulated knowledge and traditions of culture” (Stevenson, 2002: 187) in ways which allow for a greater ‘stickiness’ because “stories allow a person to feel, and see, the information, as well as factually understand it … you ‘hear’ the information factually, visually and emotionally” (Neuhauser 1993: 4).
    • Stress management training and education

      Parkyn, Matthew; Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-09-10)
      Stress is understood in a variety of ways, including biological or physiological stress (in terms of the pressures placed on the material body), experiential (in the sense of how those demands are perceived and made sense of), and a combination of these. In particular, work-related stress is the response people have when presented with a work environment where job demands and pressures are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope with those demands. Therefore, stress training and education encompass the range of activities that are deployed by individuals, groups, and organisations to develop awareness, knowledge and skills about stress, stressors and how to manage these, with a view to manage the experience and impact of stress.
    • Structure of the public relations/communication department: Key findings from a global study

      Moss, Danny; Likely, Fraser; Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy; Ferrari, Maria; University of Chester; University of Ottawa; Purdue University; University of Sao Paulo (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      This paper reports on some of the core findings from a program of research focused on the structure of public relations/communication departments. It draws on a recent major global study that was sponsored by the former Research Foundation of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC). Analyzing the results from interviews with 26 Chief Communication Officers (CCOs) located in each of the five continents and from a survey sample of some 278 CCOs based in organizations headquartered across the globe, the study found quite notable variations in the type of departmental structures. No one dominant structural model emerged. In effect, each organization appeared to adopt a structural design to suit their individual circumstances, although there were nevertheless some reasonably common component functional elements within each department. CCOs identified those variables that they believed most influenced the design of the public relations department structure. While recognizing department structure is situation dependent, the evidence suggests that CCOs create hybrid structures unique to the circumstances. What was perhaps most surprising was that department structure did not appear to be strongly influenced by department size, other than in terms of the vertical structural design. In short, there do not appear to be any common formulas or prescribed solutions for how organizations should or do orchestrate the design of the public relations department structure, rather CCOs appear to be able to exercise a degree of latitude in determining what works best for them.
    • Sustainability 2030: a policy perspective from the University Vocational Awards Council

      Wall, Tony; Crawford-Lee, Mandy; University of Chester; University of Bolton (Emerald, 2018-08-13)
      Purpose: The policy and practice sphere of higher education, skills and work-based learning has become increasingly problematic in the last few years, and the extent to which sustainability and sustainable development are embedded in policy and practice spaces is a cause for concern. This paper posits a policy perspective from the University Vocational Awards Council (UVAC), the national representative organisation for universities committed to the vocational agenda and an independent voice in the sphere of higher education, skills and work-based learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a reflective policy and practice piece which draws on the latest policy moves by the UK government and associated organisations and engages the latest literature to examine the issues in policy and practice that need to be tackled. Findings: This paper argues for a greater integration of sustainable development into higher education, skills and work-based learning policy and practice, and specifically in relation to (1) creating inclusive workplaces, (2) promoting social mobility, (3) a balanced approach to productivity, health and wellbeing, and (4) embedding educational approaches and methods which promote inequality in workplaces. Originality/value: The paper is the only UK policy perspective explicitly dedicated to sustainability and sustainable development in the context of the sphere of higher education, skills and work-based learning. Although it is focused on UK policy context, it will be of interest to international readers wishing to learn about UK developments and the sustainable development challenges in relation to its apprenticeship, technical and vocational education system.
    • Sustainability in the professional accounting and finance curriculum: an exploration

      Mburayi, Langton; Wall, Tony; University of Chester (2018-08-13)
      Purpose: Whereas the integration of sustainability into business schools has received increasing attention in recent years, the debate continues to be generic rather than recognising the peculiarities of the more quantitative sub disciplines such as accounting and finance which may of course be intimately linked to professional standards. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the extent to which sustainability is integrated into accounting and finance curricula in business schools, how, and to understand some of the challenges of doing so. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the findings from a systematic form of literature review which draws on the previous literature about how sustainability is embedded into business school curricula and the challenges in doing so. A particular focus is placed on how the ways in which sustainability is integrated into accounting and finance curricula in business schools. Findings: The paper demonstrates that accounting and finance lags behind other management disciplines in embedding sustainability and that institutional commitment is oftentimes a strong imperative for effective integration of sustainability. Practical implications: This paper is a call to practitioners and researchers alike to explore new ways of integrating sustainability in the accounting and finance curricula, including working across boundaries to provide learning opportunities for future accountants, financial managers, and generalist managers. Originality/value: The paper offers an original analysis and synthesis of the literature in the context of the accounting and finance curricula in business schools, and proposed a conceptual framework to further develop sustainability education in the context of business schools.
    • Sustainable and responsible business: Focal cases, sectors and contexts

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Brooks, Simon; Caulfield, Paul; Wells, Jessica; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Swansea University ; Nottingham University (Emerald, 2013-09-13)
      This guest editorial for EuroMed Journal of Business discusses sustainable and .responsible business and management