• Machiavelli at 550 — Reflections on his contribution to management, marketing, and public affairs

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester
      With the U.K. Elections upon us and manoeuvring for the U.S. Presidential Elections in November 2020 already started, it is time to reflect on power. It is always good to call upon Machiavelli to help make sense of the issues and people in the political arena. It is 550 years since Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence in 1469 of a very old Tuscan family. The young Machiavelli had a vigorous humanist education, was taught Latin by good teachers, and had access to the best of classical history and ideas. Little is known about the rest of his life until at the surprisingly young age of 29 in 1498, he was recognised by the Signory for his administrative talents and was elected to the responsible post of Chancellor of the Second Chancery. He is also given duties in the Council of the Ten of Liberty and Peace (formerly Ten of War), which dealt with Florentine foreign affairs.
    • Madoff’s Ponzi Investment Fraud: A Social Capital Analysis

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald, 2017-05-08)
      Purpose: The social network analysis of criminal networks at both the ego and socio-centric level is well established. This purpose of this study is to expand this literature with a social capital analysis of a criminal network. The focus of the analysis will be the recent egregious investment fraud of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities (BLMIS). Design/methodology/approach: This research involves a case study of the BLMIS financial fraud. The article uses a social capital theoretical lens, with archival sources taken from the court records of Madoff v. NY to include victim impact statements and the defendant’s Plea Allocution. Findings: Financial crime literature can be expanded with a social capital analysis which facilitates a socio-economic analysis of ego-centric criminal networks. Research limitations/implications: Each financial crime is of its time; however, there are recurring socio-economic network characteristics that could be applied to develop an understanding of criminal networks. Practical implications: Any understanding of financial crime, including contemporary instances of criminal innovation, such as cyber-crime, can be enhanced with a social capital analysis of criminal networks. Originality/value: A social capital analysis of financial crime draws attention to “human factors” in criminal networks that are integral to this form of crime.
    • Make Your Learning Count: Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)

      Perrin, David; Helyer, Ruth; University of Chester; Teesside University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-05-01)
      In this chapter readers will learn: ► What the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is; ► How to use the Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) process to make a claim for academic credit; ► How to include any certificated and experiential learning in an APL claim; ► How to scope out strengths and expertise as ‘Areas of Learning’ you can claim for; ► How to make and submit an APL claim with appropriate supporting evidence.
    • Making employer and university partnerships work: Accredited employer-led learning

      Dhillon, Bop; Edmonds, Therese; Felce, Alison; Minton, Ann; Wall, Tony; EBTA Service ; E H Booth & Co Ltd ; University of Wolverhampton ; University of Derby ; University of Chester (Libri Publishing, 2011-11-01)
    • Making Great Minds Think Alike: Emerging market multinational firms’ leadership effects on targets’ employee psychological safety after cross-border mergers and acquisitions

      Rao-Nicholson, Rekha; Khan, Zaheer; Stokes, Peter; University of the West of England; University of Sheffield; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-10-09)
      Abstract This paper examines the impact of leadership on targets’ employee psychological safety (EPS), characterized by employees’ expectation of job and remuneration stability, during the cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by emerging market multinational companies (EMNEs). The M&As by Indian and Chinese companies forms the empirical context of this study and the case survey method is used to examine the effect of leadership on EPS. The results show that the EMNEs’ leadership visibility during the M&A process has no impact on the EPS, whereas, the trust in the EMNEs’ leadership has positive effect on the EPS. The deal status has a moderating effect on the leadership visibility and positively affects the EPS. This research finds evidence of target country differences in terms of the effect of EMNEs’ leadership on EPS and limited evidence of such effect for acquirer nationality differences. Keywords: employee psychological safety, leadership, Emerging market multinational firms, M&As, India, China 
    • Making your learning count: How APL can enhance your profile

      Evans, Adrian; Perrin, David; Helyer, Ruth; Hooker, Elaine; Teeside University : University of Chester : Teeside University : Teeside University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010-07-16)
      This book chapter discusses what APL (accreditation of prior learning) is, how it works, and how to make a claim for APL.
    • Management

      Moss, Danny; University of Chester (Wiley, Blackwell, 2017-08-10)
      Chapter on the theme of " Management" in The International Encyclopedia of Strategic Communication
    • Management Learning, Performance and Reward; Theory and Practice Revisited

      Rowland, Caroline A.; Hall, Roger D.; University of Chester (Emerald Publishing, 2014-11)
      Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which organizational learning is recognised through performance management systems as contributing to organizational effectiveness and competitive advantage. Methodology: It reviews several pieces of research, employing a wide range of methods, including: content analysis of managers’ reflections; questionnaires completed by managers and mentors; a large scale survey involving ethnography, interviews and questionnaires and; analysis of documents from professional bodies and management delivery centres. Findings: Genuine integration of individual and organizational goals or transfer of learning from the individual to the organization is not evident. Few qualitative measures of organizational performance are employed. The impact of metrics such as IiP or EFQM on organizational effectiveness is nor discernible. Management Learning and Development is rarely measured even when it is encouraged by the organization. There is a clear divide between research, teaching and learning and, workplace practice. Performance management systems create perceptions of unreliability and inequity. Research implications: Espousing the value of learning and learning to learn, measuring them accurately and rewarding them with meaningful changes to working life can only improve organizational effectiveness. Research into the few organizations that have successfully embraced triple loop learning in their development of managers may offer a template for transformational learning to sustain competitive advantage. Originality: Management Development processes have been successful in developing individuals but less successful in achieving organizational development. This paper offers new insights into that gap and the omissions in the metrics by which performance is measured. Keywords: management learning, performance, reward, triple loop Article Classification: Viewpoint
    • The management of continuing professional development in General Further Education Colleges when intentionally aiming to improve Ofsted inspection from an ‘inadequate’ or ‘requires improvement’ grading to ‘good’.

      Flanda, Wilfrid, T (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2018-09)
      The area of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) is in the spotlight. This study considers the range of CPD opportunities that are implemented for teachers in General Further Education Colleges (GFECs) following an “inadequate” or “requires improvement” Ofsted inspection in order to achieve a future grading of “good”. The study draws on specific theoretical insights from the literature concerned with teacher professional development in the Further Education (FE) sector. In doing so, the study evaluates the spectrum of CPD models that were on offer within eleven GFECs that took part in the study by using a constant comparative approach. Using data generated from the eleven GFECs and also Kennedy’s (2014b) framework of CPD models as a lens for analysis, I identified five CPD models, which I then classified in relation to their top-down or developmental approach, and also the extent to which the activities identified underpinned professional autonomy and transformative practice. Using CPD as the point of analysis, the study investigates eleven GFECs, and whether the approach taken by the various colleges, prioritises individual or collective development. It then goes on to examine the contribution of resources, roles and responsibilities of individuals and teams within the particular context in which they operated. The findings generated from this study argue that continuous improvement is the result of a change in culture that is initiated by the Senior Leadership Team (SLT) and middle managers, and the success of this cultural change hinges on a series of mechanisms that support the achievement of “higher standards” in teaching and learning.
    • Manager as Coach: An Exploratory Study into the Experience of Managers Dealing with Team Challenge

      Wall, Tony; Smith, Helen A. (University of Chester, 2019-03-14)
      Effective teams demand sharing, good communication, openness and engagement to create cohesion and collaboration. The modern team environment requires a highly competent manager capable of dealing with diversity, widening demographics, compression of roles, merging of organisational hierarchies and resource scarcity. This dynamic interplay has contributed to the transition from the traditional bureaucratic style of management to a higher proficiency of inclusive leadership, encompassing coaching. Within this context, there is an assumption that the manager as coach will successfully tackle the complexity of team challenge using conventional coaching interventions with the manager as coach becoming vogue. Thirty semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using a critical incident for exploration. The data generated an appreciation of the origins of team challenge and how challenge can be recognised, identified and acted upon to avoid escalation and maintain functionality within the team. The findings offer a framework for managers, irrespective of coaching competency to deal with team challenge and specifically that arising from behaviour described as unproductive or dysfunctional within the complexity of multiple team variants. This research will further supplement existing team effectiveness models and highlight the need for the manager as coach to be alert to team behaviour, foster appreciation of team difference at all levels, be coach-minded and act speedily in addressing team challenge. Further insight is offered from the perspective of the practitioner with models for self-assessment and training in response to dealing with challenge.
    • Managerial effectiveness: An Indian experience

      Bamel, Umesh; Rangnekar, Santosh; Stokes, Peter; Rastogi, Renu; SVKM’s Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies ; Indian Institute of Technology ; University of Chester ; Indian Institute of Technology (Emerald, 2015-03-02)
      The study conducts an investigation into the interaction of three factors: ownership (public and private sector organizations), gender (male and female) and level of manager (senior, middle, junior) in relation to the concept of effectiveness in the Indian context. The study is based on a data set of primary responses from 200 Indian executives. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was employed to retrieve and validate the instrument. Finally, 2×2×3 factorial ANOVA (GLM) was performed. First, the study proposes a valid and reliable measure of managerial effectiveness. Secondly, the interaction pattern of predictor variables in relation to managerial effectiveness provides further insights. Through its empirical evidence the study offers insight into issues of managerial effectiveness and provides suggestions for managerial action. The study attempted to gather the views of executives regarding issues of productivity, adaptability and flexibility as constructs of managerial effectiveness. Lastly, comparative analysis of different categories of managers (based on gender, organizational position, and institutional ownership status) provide an understanding of these issues in the Indian context.
    • Managerial Skills and Small Business Start-ups in the Rural Food Sector

      Binsardi, B; Jackson, G; Nagirikandalage, P; Preece, D
      The research is intended as an initial study to address managerial skills of small business start-ups to minimise small-business failures. Primary data from 126 respondents have been collected, consisting of stakeholders in the rural food sector in North Wales. Primary data was analysed by using mixed-methods research. The findings will be employed to design an online syllabus and virtual learning environment (VLE) to support the small-business community in the rural food sector including start-ups in North Wales. This research has received funding through the Welsh Government Rural Communities –Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 (Cadwyn Clwyd), which is funded by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and the Welsh Government.
    • Managers Managing Stress at Work: Exploring the experiences of managers managing employee stress in the social housing sector

      Wall, Tony; Foster, Scott; Parkyn, Matthew (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-07)
      This research has explored how seventeen middle managers in the social housing sector manage employee stress and the reasons they take the approach they do. The research has been conducted in response to the increased prevalence of workplace stress. While workplace stress and mental well-being continues to rise up the political and business agenda; the most recent statistics from national and international organisations identify that the management of stress in the workplace needs to be improved. Workplace stress is a global issue for which the related direct and indirect costs are only beginning to be quantified, although the estimated cost of work-related depression in Europe is €617 billion per year. Furthermore, there is a trend towards devolving responsibility for managing workplace stress to individual managers. Despite their increasing responsibilities for managing stress at work, middle managers often lack the authority, skills and capacity to make the changes required to prevent workplace stress. Evidence suggests that middle managers are in a complex and challenging position between their superiors and more junior staff which can exposes them to role related stressors. The United Kingdom (UK) social housing sector is a particularly complex and vital one, comprising of a variety of private, public and charitable enterprises that build, manage and maintain housing stock. The complexities, political and financial challenges facing the sector expose middle managers and their staff to an increased risk of work-related stress. This study adopted a constructivist philosophy, relativist ontology and subjectivist epistemological position. Semi structured interviews were conducted with seventeen middle managers working in the social housing sector in an attempt to explore and better understand how they approach managing work-related stress experienced by the employees. The findings of this study are that, in contrast to what the extant literature recommends, participants adopt predominantly reactive approaches to managing employee stress and deploy mostly secondary and tertiary stress management interventions. The study also found that the participants tend to focus on managing stress caused by workload, relationships at work and home-work interface. Furthermore, this study contributes new insights into how middle managers are managing stress in practice such as, using their personal experiences of managing their own stress and by observing the behaviours and practices of other managers. This study also highlights a number of contemporary stressors in the context of the social housing sector. These contributions provide new practical insights into how middle managers might more effectively manage stress in the workplace. The need and focus of this research arose from the researcher’s practice as an occupational health and safety consultant working with social housing providers across the UK. His work involves advising housing providers and their middle managers on matters of employee stress and health. Often this advice is sought when the employee is already unwell and needs help to recover. This reactive approach to workplace stress is contrary to what UK health and safety (H&S) law requires and is known to be ineffective in tackling stress at work. The researcher’s professional experience in the housing sector and the trend in devolving responsibility for managing stress at work to middle managers, provided the initial spark for this research.
    • Managing Degree Apprenticeships through a Work-Based Learning Framework – Opportunities and Challenges

      Rowe, Lisa; University of Chester
      The Higher Education Institute (HEI) employer interface has attracted much attention in recent years, particularly in light of current dissatisfaction with graduate work-readiness. Concurrently, pressure upon new entrants to the workplace is accelerating through an unprecedented pace of change in technology, requiring currency of employability skills and resilience for individuals to adapt, thrive and perform effectively in an increasingly unpredictable global environment. In 2014 a new form of apprenticeship was proposed in England to simultaneously address these skills shortages whilst offering a genuine alternative to undergraduate degree programmes. Hailed as “the greatest opportunity ever seen for anyone concerned with skills and employment” (Jeffrey 2016, p.1) early HEI adopters have already successfully collaborated with employers to launch business management degree apprenticeships with initial cohorts nearing completion of their first year. The chapter proposed here is therefore highly significant for two reasons. The first is to inform HEI practice and pedagogic development, particularly in terms of work-based learning degree apprenticeship design and delivery within the new political apprenticeship reforms, which are attracting renewed interest across the globe. This is one of the first evaluations to be published upon this type of programme, affording a unique opportunity to explore how pedagogic approaches to building graduate employability can be improved. Secondly it considers the effectiveness of the emerging generation of work-based business degree apprentices in terms of performance, retention and engagement as a result of well-developed employability skills. This degree apprenticeship challenges academically led, full time provision with a 20% off the job learning model. An explicit employer led focus cumulates in a separate synoptic end point assessment, altering the fundamentally traditional approach to embedding employability skills into something far more tacit in nature, through negotiated projects, reflective learning and employer mentoring. In order to examine the effectiveness of this new pedagogic approach, the chapter focuses upon the design and development of a business management degree apprenticeship. It explores current literature concerning work-based learning pedagogy and reflective practice, the role of the employer as a mentor and the development of employability skills. It incorporates an exploratory case study based upon one of the earliest cohorts in England, collectively identifying a complex range of themes and issues for each stakeholder in designing and developing degree apprenticeships. The chapter concludes with recommendations for HEIs who wish to take advantage of this new and fast changing political agenda through their own development of similar, highly innovative and lucrative initiatives.
    • Managing talent across advanced and emerging economies: HR issues and challenges in a Sino-German strategic collaboration

      Stokes, Peter; Liu, Yipeng; Smith, Simon M.; Leidner, Sarah; Moore, Neil; Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester, University of Birmingham; University of Southampton; (Taylor and Francis, 2015-10-19)
      The HR practices involved in global talent management continue to advance and evolve. A majority of talent management commentary is from multinational corporation (MNC) perspectives. However, the less commented small-to-medium sized enterprise (SME) also confronts challenges grounded in economic (i.e. resources, finance), organisational (i.e. size, scope and structure) and consequent behavioral rationales (i.e. mindsets and stances). This paper establishes and examines a number of propositions which consider how these factors impact on an advanced economy SME’s talent management in emerging economy collaborations. An interpretive qualitative methodology is employed using interviews conducted within two cases – SME and an MNC comparator case. The SME case is used as the driving force of the paper and its theoretical focus and findings. The MNC is used to develop issues as a comparator case. The findings show SME economic and organisational drivers producing behavioral dynamics in relation to mimesis of planned actions yet informal serendipitous responses in reality; a predilection for the proximate and familiar; design configurations of short-term expatriate visits and inpatriates; cumulating in on-going inpatriate acculturisation and re-acculturation oscillation. Consequently, the implication is that the SME needs a HR practices encompassing resignation to the situation, flexibility and resilience in order to survive and progress.
    • Managing team performance: Saying and paying

      Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester (Emerald, 2013-03-08)
      Purpose – In a turbulent economic climate, characterised by pressures to improve productivity and reduce costs, performance management has a more central role in helping to ensure competitive advantage. A focus on teamwork has become an almost universal feature of performance management in modern organizations. It is essential that messages concerning teamwork and rewards are clear and seen to be fair if they are to bring about commitment to discretionary effort, which is increasingly a key feature in gaining competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to focus on whether employee perceptions of the fairness of performance management systems have an impact on the effectiveness of team performance and discretionary effort. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses the concepts of equity and motivation to explore the outcomes, procedures and implementation of teamwork in contemporary organizations. It draws on a range of theoretical frameworks from both philosophy and social science, examines current practices and experiences and considers future trends. Empirical research includes a ten-year study of practising managers and also ethnography, questionnaires and interviews in two large manufacturing and service organizations. Findings – Investigations show that the espoused theory of organizations concerning the need for teamwork is often at odds with their theory in use. This frequently creates both actual and perceived injustice in organizations and a tension between managing performance and encouraging engagement, which is dependent on perceptions of fairness. Practical implications – The paper shows that organizations are sending out mixed messages that are causing tensions which may affect productivity. Originality/value – This research opens a debate that seeks to assess the contribution of teamwork to the achievement of an organization’s goals and how this may be applied in the practice of performance management.
    • Marketing and entrepreneurship: An integrated view from the entrepreneur's perspective

      Lam, Wing; Harker, Michael J.; University of Chester; Strathclyde University (SAGE, 2013-08-28)
      This article explores the role and significance of marketing in the entrepreneurial process.Utilising an 11-year longitudinal study, supported by a context-rich interpretive approach, the interrelationship between marketing and entrepreneurship at different stages of the business life cycle are examined. Under an effectuation and enactment framework, entrepreneurship is neither ends-driven nor means-driven, but a consequence of the interplay between actors and social context through ongoing enactment. As the ‘joint core actors of the business’, entrepreneurs actively interact with their customers in shaping the marketing activities of the business to meet their ends.
    • Marketing communications: A brand narrative approach

      Dahlen, Micael; Lange, Fredrik; Smith, Terry; Stockholm School of Economics ; Stockholm School of Economics ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2009-12-08)
      This book discusses branding within a marketing communications framework. It discusses key trends such as brand narrative approach and media neutral / multi-media appraches to branding.
    • Markets, Festivals and Shows: Sustainable Approaches to Gastronomic Tourism Through Collaboration

      Hindley, Ann; Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      This chapter reveals how and why gastronomy has been used as a tourist attraction by markets, festivals and shows in Cheshire (England). It demonstrates how gastronomy can be used to increase visitor footfall and provide an economic stimulus in rural and urban areas. It considers how gastronomy can also be used to provide the solution to or raise the profile of social and environmental factors. The Nantwich Food Festival is used as the main case study, supported by examples from the Foodies Festival Tatton Park, The Royal Cheshire County Show and the Rode Hall Farmers’ Market. The aim is to understand how varying needs within the local and wider community were identified and then met through farming-related events, which expanded or metamorphosed into their present form with gastronomy used as a pull-factor. Contemporary trends towards healthy eating, sustainable consumption, experiences and collaboration are acknowledged. UK consumers are increasingly seeking local, organic, non-GM, free-range, free-from and quality assured produce that is ethically produced, safe and traceable. ‘Foodies’ and culinary tourists continue to be drawn to unique and authentic food experiences, while gastronomic tourism events increasingly boost visitor numbers through the regular appearance of reality TV and celebrity chefs.
    • Measurement of customer satisfaction and performance measurement within a local government framework

      Wood, Sheena; Webb, Paul; Page, Steve; University of Chester (2007-07)
      The aim of the paper is to establish a performance measurement framework for addressing and improving customer satisfaction levels within a public sector service. The paper describes the methods utilised in order to achieve these objectives by reviewing relevant literature associated with organisational performance and customer satisfaction. This informs and provide the framework for the research. A useful framework model was produced that facilitates the application of customer satisfaction measurement and enables performance in this respect to be monitored.