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Training and development: challenges of strategy and managing performance in Jordanian bankingStructured Abstract: Purpose: This paper explores the relationship between organisational strategy, performance management and training and development in the context of the Jordanian banking sector. Design and methodology: Models of strategic human resource management developed in the West are considered for their relevance in Jordan. A mixed methods approach is adopted employing interviews with senior managers and training and development managers, employee questionnaires and documentary analysis. It examines all banks in Jordan including foreign and Islamic banks. Findings: Findings indicate that training and development is not driven by human resource strategy and that it is reactive rather than proactive. Training and development does improve skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours but there is little evidence that it increases commitment and satisfaction nor that it contributes to strategic aims in any significant way. The linkages between strategy and training and development are not explicit and strategies are not interpreted through performance management systems. Consequently there is a lack of integration in organisational HR systems and the measurable contribution of training and development to competitive advantage is minimal Practical implications: The paper offers suggestions as to how greater integration between strategy, performance management and training and development might be achieved in the Jordanian context. Originality: This paper is the first detailed empirical study of training and development in Jordan to include considerations of transferability of western models to an Arab culture.