• ‘Smart cities’ – Dynamic sustainability issues and challenges for 'old world' economies: A case from the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Moore, Neil; Mathews, Martin V. C.; Smith, Simon M.; Lichy, Jessica; Scott, Peter; Ward, Tony; et al. (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2015-10-01)
      The rapid and dynamic rate of urbanization, particularly in emerging world economies, has resulted in a need to find sustainable ways of dealing with the excessive strains and pressures that come to bear on existing infrastructures and relationships. Increasingly during the twenty-first century policy makers have turned to technological solutions to deal with this challenge and the dynamics inherent within it. This move towards the utilization of technology to underpin infrastructure has led to the emergence of the term ‘Smart City’. Smart cities incorporate technology based solutions in their planning development and operation. This paper explores the organizational issues and challenges facing a post-industrial agglomeration in the North West of England as it attempted to become a ‘Smart City’. In particular the paper identifies and discusses the factors that posed significant challenges for the dynamic relationships residents, policymakers and public and private sector organizations and as a result aims to use these micro-level issues to inform the macro-debate and context of wider Smart City discussions. In order to achieve this, the paper develops a range of recommendations that are designed to inform Smart City design, planning and implementation strategies.
    • The competing dynamics and relationships in corporate and local government agency constructions of place

      Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Stokes, Peter; Scott, Peter; University of Chester ; University of Birmingham ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2014-01-01)
      This paper explores the dynamics of how private sector business entities and local government bodies perceive and interact with the identity of the locality in which they operate. It identifies tensions and differences in, and consequences of, the dynamics and relationships between how private sector business entities view constructions of ‘place’ and how government and publicly-funded place-marketing organisations portray and promote localities. These issues are examined through the phenomenon, brand and slogan of ‘visit, live, invest’ which is gaining credence in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the world. The paper develops data using in-depth interviews and a smallscale survey set within an overall interpretivistic case study approach. The data and the case-study demonstrate that, despite the rebranding of the local government agencies as a placemarketing organisation committed to the new ‘live, visit, invest’ initiative and brand agenda, there is an ongoing ‘cultural hangover’ from previous place promotion policies. There are also serious impacts and consequences for relationships between the public and private sectors and with other stakeholders. The prevailing image of UKTown (real name anonymised) by business leaders is one that sees this town fundamentally as a historic, traditional and conservative town. This image has been the product of many years of older style promotion in this vein. While such an image may suggest pleasant aspects of the living environment, it has little to do with corporate image, values and concerns and many private sector business entities do not identity with it. In several instances it is even considered by certain business sectors to be ‘detrimental’ to the need for a dynamic business environment and the forms of relationships and activities these necessitate. The paper indicates a number of strategic moves that could be adopted in order to improve this predicament. Keywords: private business entities, local government agency, place identity, place marketing, branding, perception