• Are we any closer to sustainable development? Listening to active stakeholder discourses of tourism development in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa.

      Lyon, Andrew; Hunter-Jones, Philippa; Warnaby, Gary; University of Chester; University of Liverpool; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2017-02-24)
      ‘Biosphere reserve’ is a United Nations (UN) designation stipulating that a region should attempt to follow the principles of sustainable development (SD). This paper adopts a stakeholder analysis framework to analyse the discourses of those tourism stakeholders who can actively affect SD in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve (WBR), South Africa. Adopting an inductive qualitative methodology generated multiple research themes which were subsequently analysed using critical discourse analysis (CDA) techniques. These themes indicate that seeking SD in biosphere reserves is problematical when there are distinct ideological differences between active stakeholder groups and power relations are unequal. Adopting CDA allows us to make some sense of why this is the case as the technique appreciates not only how tourism development occurs, but also why it occurs in a particular way. This paper adds to the literature on stakeholder analysis in tourism specifically and also has wider implications for SD more generally.
    • Do new first year students seek optimal distinctiveness in a new learning environment?

      Pownall, Ian; Kennedy, Victoria; Acquaye, David; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      The learning experience of the first year student joining Higher Education Institutions (HEI) can be examined from a number of perspectives and we focus upon the development of identity within that new learning environment. A conceptual framework is presented to argue that the tension between distinctiveness and social identification of the learner with the environment, contributes to how the learner engages in that environment through their processing style. A supporting empirical analysis explores this argument for a small sample of new first year students in two UK HEIs studying business modules. We determine that students exhibit cognitive dissonance through exercising a dominant processing style that is not primarily seeking to identify with that learning environment whilst also recognising the benefits of a more engaged processing style aligned with greater identification with their peer group. We propose therefore there is a need for the development of social identification capacity within new students.
    • Explaining the mixed outcomes from hosting major sporting events in promoting tourism

      Rojas-Mendez, Jose I.; Davies, Gary; Jamsawang, Jutatip; Sandoval Duque, José L.; Pipoli, Gina M.; Carleton University; University of Chester; University of Vienna; Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia; Universidad del Pacífico (Elsevier, 2019-04-15)
      We report on a study of the longitudinal effects of the 2014 World Cup on the host Brazil's overall image and for tourism intentions in three other countries (total sample = 207). Brazil's image declined significantly 2013–2014 on some but not all measures and improved amongst a significant minority. The mixed outcomes are explained by the moderating effects of respondent personality, their involvement in the event (rather than in the sport being hosted) and their perception of the news they had been exposed to. Those who held a relatively negative attitude towards Brazil before the event tended to be positively influenced by positive media, watching the closing ceremony and by searching for news about Brazil. Those relatively high in Openness to Experience were less likely to report a reduction in attitude. The net effect was an improvement in tourism intentions, mainly among those less likely to visit pre-event and a decline among most others.
    • Investor Regret, Share Performance and the role of Corporate Agreeableness

      Vohra, Shalini; Davies, Gary; Sheffield Hallam University and University of Chester
      Drawing on regret and reputation literatures, the authors demonstrate how positive corporate associations can mitigate the effects of share performance on investor regret. Three studies are presented, the first involved the observation of six investment club meetings. The second is a survey of investors exploring some of the findings of the first study, specifically the relationship between investor regret and corporate associations. The final study uses an experimental design to test whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) messaging can influence regret in the context of disappointing share performance by influencing corporate agreeableness. The main findings are that a range of corporate associations are important to investors, more so than actual share performance, in their decision-making. Specifically, the more agreeable (e.g. trustworthy, supportive) the company is perceived to be, the lower will be any regret felt over share performance. Finally, CSR information was found to affect regret via an influence on agreeableness.
    • Making Great Minds Think Alike: Emerging market multinational firms’ leadership effects on targets’ employee psychological safety after cross-border mergers and acquisitions

      Rao-Nicholson, Rekha; Khan, Zaheer; Stokes, Peter; University of the West of England; University of Sheffield; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-10-09)
      Abstract This paper examines the impact of leadership on targets’ employee psychological safety (EPS), characterized by employees’ expectation of job and remuneration stability, during the cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by emerging market multinational companies (EMNEs). The M&As by Indian and Chinese companies forms the empirical context of this study and the case survey method is used to examine the effect of leadership on EPS. The results show that the EMNEs’ leadership visibility during the M&A process has no impact on the EPS, whereas, the trust in the EMNEs’ leadership has positive effect on the EPS. The deal status has a moderating effect on the leadership visibility and positively affects the EPS. This research finds evidence of target country differences in terms of the effect of EMNEs’ leadership on EPS and limited evidence of such effect for acquirer nationality differences. Keywords: employee psychological safety, leadership, Emerging market multinational firms, M&As, India, China 
    • Structure of the public relations/communication department: Key findings from a global study

      Moss, Danny; Likely, Fraser; Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy; Ferrari, Maria; University of Chester; University of Ottawa; Purdue University; University of Sao Paulo (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      This paper reports on some of the core findings from a program of research focused on the structure of public relations/communication departments. It draws on a recent major global study that was sponsored by the former Research Foundation of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC). Analyzing the results from interviews with 26 Chief Communication Officers (CCOs) located in each of the five continents and from a survey sample of some 278 CCOs based in organizations headquartered across the globe, the study found quite notable variations in the type of departmental structures. No one dominant structural model emerged. In effect, each organization appeared to adopt a structural design to suit their individual circumstances, although there were nevertheless some reasonably common component functional elements within each department. CCOs identified those variables that they believed most influenced the design of the public relations department structure. While recognizing department structure is situation dependent, the evidence suggests that CCOs create hybrid structures unique to the circumstances. What was perhaps most surprising was that department structure did not appear to be strongly influenced by department size, other than in terms of the vertical structural design. In short, there do not appear to be any common formulas or prescribed solutions for how organizations should or do orchestrate the design of the public relations department structure, rather CCOs appear to be able to exercise a degree of latitude in determining what works best for them.
    • Talent management and the HR function in cross-cultural mergers and acquisitions: The role and impact of bi-cultural identity

      Liu, Yipeng; email: Y.Liu@Henley.ac.uk; Vrontis, Demetris; email: vrontis.d@unic.ac.cy; Visser, Max; email: m.visser@fm.ru.nl; Stokes, Peter; email: peterstokesmail@gmail.com; Smith, Simon; email: simon.smith@winchester.ac.uk; Moore, Neil; email: n.moore@chester.ac.uk; Thrassou, Alkis; email: thrassou.a@unic.ac.cy; Ashta, Ashok
      Abstract This paper examines bi-cultural talent in relation to human resource management (HRM) practices in cross-cultural merger and acquisitions (M&A). The intersection of HRM, bi-cultural talent management and cross-cultural M&A literature proposes a conceptual framework to capture the complexity of bi-cultural talent management and reveals the dominant macro-characterization of the extant HRM literature focussing on a more micro-orientated perspective. The paper develops a matrix by underlining spatial dimensions (spanning micro-aspects of the individual employee through to the macro-entity of firm and its location in the macro-national cultural context) and temporal dimensions (consisting of pre-merger, during merger and post-merger phases). This provides a template which examines the multi-level dynamics of bi-cultural talent management. The argument identifies ways in which extant cross-cultural lenses require deeper understanding of bi-cultural talent management in M&A settings. Future research directions and agendas are identified.
    • The integration of social responsibility and sustainability in practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Higher Education Institutions

      Leal Filho, Walter; Doni, Frederica; Vargas, Valeria R.; Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Emblen-Perry, Kay; Boddy, Jennifer; Avila, Lucas V.; Hamburg University (Germany) & Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Worcester; Griffith University (Australia); University of Santa Maria (Brazil) (Elsevier, 2019-02-14)
      The demands placed on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to deliver sustainability initiatives alongside their long-standing social responsibility commitments has been recognised in literature. However, how these interrelate in practice continues to be relatively unexplored. The extant literature suggests that the integration of the two connected agendas can be problematic due to a range of factors, including a general lack of awareness or even misconceptions of the respective agendas. This paper explores the attitudes and practices related to the integration of social responsibility and sustainability initiatives at HEIs. Theoretically, this study highlights the ongoing relative positioning and importance of economic factors – as it relates to differentiation rather than integration – over others such as social responsibility and sustainability. The main implication of this study is that provide useful insights into how HEIs can closer integrate two contemporary but potentially competing agendas.
    • The role of higher education institutions in sustainability initiatives at the local level

      Filho, Walter L.; Vargas, Valeria R.; Salvia, Amanda L.; Brandli, Luciana L.; Pallant, Eric; Klavins, Maris; Ray, Subhasis; Moggi, Sara; Maruna, Marija; Conticelli, Elisa; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-06-07)
      Universities are central players and important economic actors in many regions, and many of them are, in general, nationally and internationally active in respect of matters related to sustainable development. But there is a paucity of research which examines their contributions towards sustainability efforts at the local level, i.e. in the places they are situated. This paper addresses this need, by reporting on a qualitative study deploying a Matrix, which allows an analysis and reporting of regional sustainable development initiatives of a set of 22 universities in industrialised and developing countries. Recommendations to enhance their role are provided, including the importance of pursuing partnerships and joint initiatives, understanding the need of local communities, and making their know-how more widely available. The scientific value of this research is related to the understanding of how the interaction between universities and local communities happens and by shedding light to this topic, it supports universities to improve their own actions. Its implications are two-fold: it demonstrates the potential of universities as local players and outlines the range of activities they may engage with, and which may allow them to act as pillars to local sustainability initiatives.
    • Transforming research-learning performance with professional lifelong learners

      Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2014-02-21)
      In Europe, universities promote accredited professional development opportunities as a key strand of their lifelong learning commitment. Within this context, learning about research methods can be problematic to busy professionals, as it can appear dislocated from practice and unworthy of the energy and effort it takes to understand what might be perceved as a purely academic pursuit. The purpose of the study was to tackle this situation: to enhance the professional's experience and learning performance in research methods, in the context of work based learning Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Action research was used to develop a pedagogic approach to faciliate learning with busy professionals. The results suggest a significantly more positive experience for the learners, and a verified increase in performance (% grades) in assessed work. This paper gives an overview of the pedagogic approach and tools developed.